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Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Iridium Plug

In the field of automotive gasoline engines, new products aiming at greater fuel economy and cleaner exhaust gases are under development with the aim of preventing environmental destruction. Severe ignition environments such as lean combustion, stronger charge motion, and large quantities of EGR require ever greater combustion stability. In an effort to meet these requirements, an iridium plug has been developed that achieves high ignitability and long service life through reduction of its diameter, using a highly wear-resistant iridium alloy as the center electrode.(1)(2) Recently, direct injection engines have attracted attention. In stratified combustion, a feature of the direct injection engine, the introduction of rich air-fuel mixtures in the vicinity of the plug ignition region tends to cause carbon fouling. This necessitates plug carbon fouling resistance.
Technical Paper

Development of Toyota's New “Super CVT”

Toyota has developed a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) named “Super CVT”. The Super CVT has a wide ratio coverage and adopts a newly developed integrated control system with a direct injection gasoline engine (D-4) equipped with electronically controlled throttle. The combined package has achieved good fuel economy and a high overall level of performance. This paper shows the major features and performance of the Super CVT.
Technical Paper

Thin wall and lightweight cylinder block production technology

The automobile industry currently faces many challenges which may greatly impact on its foundry operations. One of these challenges, consumers'' demand for greater fuel efficiency, can be met by reducing the weight of castings used in automobiles, and minimizing engineering tolerances. In answer to this particular demand, engine foundries have begun to either produce cylinder blocks or other castings with aluminum rather than cast iron. However, if a reduction in weight (thin wall and near-net shaping) can be realized with cast iron, there would be numerous merits from the perspective of cost and compactness and there would be much more flexibility in automotive parts design.
Technical Paper

Development of Toyota 1ZZ-FE Engine

The 1ZZ-FE engine is a newly developed in-line 4-cylinder, 1.8-liter, DOHC 4-valve engine mounted in the new Corolla. Abounding in new technologies including the laser-clad valve seat, high-pressure die-cast aluminum cylinder block, and the small-pitch chain drive DOHC, coupled with the fundamentally reviewed basic specifications, the new engine is compact and lightweight, offering high performance and good fuel economy. Anticipating even more stringent emission regulations in the future, in addition to the revision of the engine body, the layout of the exhaust system has been improved to enhance warm-up performance of the converter.
Technical Paper

Study of Anti-Corrosive Property of Engine Coolant for Aluminum Cylinder Heads

Recently, use of aluminum engine parts has increased for fuel economy and power improvements. Aluminum cylinder heads, for example, are currently used in most engines. But, only low performance engine coolants are available for prevention of heat-transfer corrosion of aluminum cylinder heads. The authors have studied a laboratory test method that is able to accurately evaluate the performance of engine coolants for prevention of aluminum cylinder head corrosion. And we have developed the new test method by changing the test specimen temperature higher and the engine coolant temperature lower than the ASTM D4340 test. The new test has been confirmed engine bench test. We evaluated further the performance of many engine coolants of the world for prevention of aluminum cylinder head corrosion using the new test. We have known that there were a lot of poor performance engine coolants in the world.
Technical Paper

Effects of Lubricant Composition on Fuel Efficiency in Modern Engines

A bench engine test for evaluating the fuel efficiency of automotive crankcase oils using modern engines was developed. The fuel consumption was primarily proportional to the viscosity of the oils down to 5 mm2/s at operating temperatures, indicating that the use of low-viscosity oil was effective in improving fuel efficiency. This may be because the oil film would be formed easily, since sliding parts, such as valve train systems, in modern engines are finely finished. Organo molybdenum dithiocarbamates were effective in improving fuel efficiency at high temperature. A 2.7% improvement in fuel efficiency relative to conventional SAE 10W-30 oils was achieved by the combination of low-viscosity SAE 5W-20 oils and organo molybdenum dithiocarbamates under constant operating conditions with engine speed 1,500 rpm and torque 37.2 N•m.
Technical Paper

Torque Converter Clutch Slip Control System

The torque converter clutch slip control system adopted in the Toyota A541E automatic transaxle engages the torque converter clutch by applying a steady slip speed to prevent the torque fluctuation of the engine to be transmitted to the drivetrain while enhancing the transmission efficiency of the torque converter. The feedback controller of the slip speed adopts the H∞ (H-Infinity) control theory which offers a high level of robust stability, and is the first of its kind in a mass produced component. As a result, a highly accurate and reliable system has been realized, contributing to large-scale fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Three-Way Catalyst for Automotive Lean-Burn Engines

A new 3-way catalyst with NOx conversion performance for lean-burn engines has been developed. The catalyst oxidizes NOx and stores the resulting nitrate, which is then reduced by HC and CO during engine operation around the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. Both the composition of the storage component and the particle sizes of the noble metal were optimized. In addition, a special air fuel mixture control has been developed to make the best of the NOx storage-reduction function. The present catalyst showed 90% conversion efficiency and improved fuel economy by 4% in the Japanese 10-15 mode test cycle. The efficiency remained at 60% or more after durability test.
Technical Paper

A Newly Developed Intelligent Variable Valve Timing System - Continuously Controlled Cam Phasing as Applied to a New 3 Liter Inline 6 Engine

To meet the requirements for higher horsepower and torque as well as lower fuel consumption and emissions, we have developed a new “Intelligent Variable Valve Timing (VV-i)” system. It gives continuously variable intake cam phasing by up to 60 degrees crank angle (CA) . This system not only increases WOT output by optimizing intake valve closing timing but also reduces fuel consumption and NOx/ HC emissions under part load by increasing intake and exhaust valve overlap on 4 stroke Spark Ignited engines. VVT-i has been applied to optimize a new 3-liter inline 6 engine for higher torque and at the same time better fuel economy with continuous and wide-range cam phasing.
Technical Paper

Development of Titanium Nitride Coated Shim for a Direct Acting OHC Engine

In order to meet requirements for lower fuel consumption, we have developed a technique for significantly decreasing valve train friction for a direct acting OHC engine. Droplets of pure titanium generated by the titanium nitride coating process of the shims improves the surface roughness of the cams, which eliminates the need to polish the cams. In an engine with these shims, the surface roughness of the cams is considerably improved within a few minutes of initial operation by the polishing action of the droplets. Valve train friction is greatly reduced by improving the surface roughness of the cams and shims, which results in better fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Effect of Mirror-Finished Combustion Chamber on Heat Loss

The use of ceramic insulation to reduce engine heat loss and thus improve fuel economy was examined but found to be detrimental rather than advantageous. This paper analyzes the reasons and presents an alternative approach, namely minimizing the heat transfer area. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of surface smoothness on BSFC, output torque, heat release rate and piston temperature. It was found that with a mirror-finished combustion chamber, heat loss is decreased and consequently engine output is raised, while fuel consumption is lowered. The percentage reduction in heat loss was ascertained by numerically simulating combustion and was confirmed by FEM analysis of piston thermal distribution.
Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery of Passenger Car Using a Combination of Rankine Bottoming Cycle and Evaporative Engine Cooling System

Rankine bottoming system, which operates on waste heat of engine cooling, has been developped to improve the fuel economy of a passenger car. Evaporative engine cooling system is utilized to obtain high thermal efficiency and simplicity of the Rankine bottoming system. The bottoming system uses HCFC123 as a working fluid, and scroll expander as a power conversion unit. The results indicate that energy recovery, which depends on the ambient temperature, is almost 3 percent of engine output power at ambient temperature of 25°C.
Technical Paper

Efficiency of Constant Velocity Universal Joints

Efficiency of Driveshafts have not been analyzed in great detail in the past due to their relatively high efficiency. However, it is possible to obtain about a 0.1 percent increase in fuel economy by decreasing driveshaft torque losses by about 20 percent, owing to the combination mode fuel calculation. In order to improve fuel economy it is necessary to increase the efficiency of the constant velocity universal joint (C.V.J.) used for driveshafts. Additionally, propeller shafts with improved heat characteristics are required. It is for these reasons that this project is conducted. In this paper, the motion of two typical joint used for front-engine, front-drive passenger cars is analyzed geometrically and efficiency formulas are derived. One of the joints is a Rzeppa joint, used on the wheel side of the driveshaft and the other is a tripot joint, used on the differential side. These formulas are then verified by experiment.
Technical Paper

A Technology of Weight Reduction for the Aluminum Cast Wheel

In the field of automobile disk wheels, demands for aluminum wheels have been increasing for the reason of ride comfort and better appearance. And over 90 percent of luxurious passenger cars are equipped with aluminum wheels. This trend is spurred also by the demand for higher fuel efficiency for the cause of environmental protection, which calls for weight reduction of automobiles. This paper reports our research on manufacturing light-weight, high-quality aluminum cast wheels; covering the entire process from basic design to casting, and placing emphasis on the following three points. 1) Determination of optimum wheel configuration through computer simulation 2) Selection of optimum material composition 3) Optimization of the thin plate casting conditions Combination of the above technologies developed for the purpose of weight reduction resulted in the weight reduction of approximately 20% over the conventional aluminum wheels.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Performance of the Highly Efficient Fuel Economy Oils Using Chassis Dynamometer Test

Fuel economy is one of the most important performance features for modern engine oils. For some time now, fuel efficient engine oils (called Energy Conserving II or EC-II) have been available in the marketplace. However, the performance of EC-II oils is only 2.7% Equivalent Fuel Economy Improvement (EFEI) as measured by the ASTM Sequence VI Engine Test. To meet future industry needs, more fuel efficient engine oils are desirable. In order to achieve this, a study of highly fuel efficient engine oils was initiated. An initial target of 3.9% EFEI was selected and several candidate oils were evaluated, some of which exceeded this target. The oils were evaluated using a chassis dynamometer using the U. S. EPA mode. The test results may be summarized: 5W-30 Prototype Oil containing MoDTC showed between 1.6 and 2.6% better fuel economy than conventional 5W-30 and 10W-30 EC-II oils. There was an optimum viscosity for maximum fuel economy using the EPA testing mode.
Technical Paper

New Four Valves Per Cylinder Basic Engine for Passenger Car

Through the experience in developing several 4-valve sporty engines, we have had an idea that 4-valve technology regarded as one of sporty engines may be applied to a standard engine of a passenger car. Making use of the superior characteristics of 4-valve technology, combustion chamber design and valve train system were completely refined for a standard engine. Higher torque in low to middle speed range and good fuel economy, important features in practical use, were pursued as the prior target of development. As a passenger car engine, comfortable sound in passenger compartment is an important feature as well as high performance and good fuel economy. With these concepts, we have developed the 3S-FE, 2-liter, 4-valve engine which has achieved 5.1& torque, 18.6% horse power and 9.7% Fuel consumption (highway mode) gains compared with the original 2S-E, 2-liter, 2-valve engine.
Technical Paper

Development of Super Olefin Bumper for Automobiles

The EMT (Elastomer Modified Thermoplastics) currently used in passenger car bumper fascia are limited in retaining low CLTE (Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion) and impact resistance, although they are highly rigid, which allows a reduction in weight, and also have high flowability during injection molding. We have developed a new bumper material called “Super Olefin Polymer” using a unique theory based upon a reversal of the current concept. The current polymer design concept of the EMT material is to compound and disperse the EPR (Ethylene Propylene Rubber) into the resin matrix such as polypropylene. We reversed the domain and the matrix, and treated the resin phase as the filler and the elastomer phase as the matrix.
Technical Paper

Spark Plug Fouling: Behavior and Countermeasure

The higher compression ratio engines, two-stroke engines and flexible fuel vehicles currently under development tend to face the problems of spark plug fouling owing to the necessity of using cold type spark plugs. This paper analyzes the sparking of fouled spark plugs and investigates the characteristics required of an ignition system in order to avoid fouling problems. The results clearly establish that to maintain a strong spark even when the plug is fouled, a high voltage should be instantaneously applied to the spark plug. A series-gap on the high-tension side was confirmed to be an effective means of achieving this and a new plug cap provided with a series-gap has resolved fouling problems such as failure to start. Lately, fuel economy and long-term energy conservation have become critically important. For automobiles, higher compression ratio engines, two-stroke engines and flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) are being developed.
Technical Paper

Development of the Second Generation Methanol Lean Burn System

The second generation methanol lean burn system has been developed. The power unit is a new, 4 valve 1.6L in-line four with compact combustion chambers. Lean misfire limit was extended by using a swirl control valve in the intake port which improves combustion under partial load. Lean mixture control is made by using a signal from lean mixture sensor provided in the exhaust manifold. An EGR system has been newly adopted to reduce NOx emissions and a under-floor type catalyst is also used to reduce formaldehyde emission in the cold transient mode in addition to the manifold type catalyst. Permissible excess air ratio range (PEXARR) was defined and used to indicate the potential for reducing vehicle NOx emissions in engine dynamometer tests to optimize compression ratio, valve timing and swirl ratio and to evaluate the effect of the EGR.
Technical Paper

The Development of a New V6 3.5L Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

For the launch of the redesigned Lexus LS, a new 3.5 L V6 twin turbo engine has been developed aiming at unparalleled performance on four axes, “driving pleasure”, “power-performance”, “quietness” and “fuel economy”. To achieve outstanding power-performance and high thermal efficiency, the specifications have been optimized for high speed combustion. The maximum torque of 600 Nm, power of 310 kW (yielding specific power of 90 kW/L), and the maximum thermal efficiency of 37% have been achieved using several new technologies including a high efficiency turbocharger. A prototype vehicle equipped with this engine and Direct-Shift 10AT achieved a 0-60 mph acceleration time of 4.6 sec, with extremely good CAFE combined fuel economy of 23 mpg and power-performance aligned with V8 turbocharged offerings from competing OEM’s.