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Technical Paper

Development of V-6 3.5-liter Engine Adopting New Direct Injection System

A new V-6 3.5-liter gasoline engine (2GR-FSE) uses a newly developed stoichiometric direct injection system with two fuel injectors in each cylinder (D-4S: Direct injection 4-stroke gasoline engine system Superior version). One is a direct injection injector generating a dual-fan-shaped spray with wide dispersion, while the other is a port injector. With this system, the engine achieves a power level among the highest for production engines of this displacement and a fuel economy rating of 24mpg on the EPA cycle. Emissions are among the lowest level for this class of sedans, meeting Ultra Low Emission Vehicle standards (ULEV-II). The dual-fan-shaped spray was adopted to improve full-load performance. The new spray promotes a homogeneous mixture without any devices to generate intense in-cylinder air-motion at lower engine speeds.
Journal Article

Cooling Loss Reduction of Highly Dispersed Spray Combustion with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flow in Diesel Engine

In diesel engines with a straight intake port and a lipless cavity to restrict in-cylinder flow, an injector with numerous small-diameter orifices with a narrow angle can be used to create a highly homogeneous air-fuel mixture that, during PCCI combustion, dramatically reduces the NOX and soot without the addition of expensive new devices. To further improve this new combustion concept, this research focused on cooling losses, which are generally thought to account for 16 to 35% of the total energy of the fuel, and approaches to reducing fuel consumption were explored. First, to clarify the proportions of convective heat transfer and radiation in the cooling losses, a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) was used to measure the local heat flux and radiation to the combustion chamber wall. The results showed that though larger amounts of injected fuel increased the proportion of heat losses from radiation, the primary factor in cooling losses is convective heat transfer.