Development of V-6 3.5-liter Engine Adopting New Direct Injection System
A new V-6 3.5-liter gasoline engine (2GR-FSE) uses a newly developed stoichiometric direct injection system with two fuel injectors in each cylinder (D-4S: Direct injection 4-stroke gasoline engine system Superior version). One is a direct injection injector generating a dual-fan-shaped spray with wide dispersion, while the other is a port injector. With this system, the engine achieves a power level among the highest for production engines of this displacement and a fuel economy rating of 24mpg on the EPA cycle. Emissions are among the lowest level for this class of sedans, meeting Ultra Low Emission Vehicle standards (ULEV-II). The dual-fan-shaped spray was adopted to improve full-load performance. The new spray promotes a homogeneous mixture without any devices to generate intense in-cylinder air-motion at lower engine speeds.