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Technical Paper

Development of Next-Generation NOx Reduction System for Diesel Exhaust Emission

Diesel particulate and NOx reduction system (DPNR) is an effective technology for the diesel after-treatment system, which can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) simultaneously. The DPNR has been developed under the Toyota D-CAT (Diesel Clean Advanced Technology) concept. Further improvement of the DPNR is hoped for cleaner air in the future. This paper reviews the results of our study to improve the NOx purification performance on the DPNR. The NOx reduction performance of the catalysts deteriorates due to thermal deterioration and sulfur poisoning. In order to improve the thermal resistance of the catalysts, the suppression of precious metal sintering in the catalyst has been studied. As a result, higher catalytic activity after aging especially under lower temperature conditions was obtained. On the other hands, improvement of desulfurization performance is one of the key technologies in order to keep the high NOx reduction capability of the catalyst.
Journal Article

Reaction Mechanism Analysis of Di-Air-Contributions of Hydrocarbons and Intermediates

The details of Di-Air, a new NOx reduction system using continuous short pulse injections of hydrocarbons (HC) in front of a NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst, have already been reported. This paper describes further studies into the deNOx mechanism, mainly from the standpoint of the contribution of HC and intermediates. In the process of a preliminary survey regarding HC oxidation behavior at the moment of injection, it was found that HC have unique advantages as a reductant. The addition of HC lead to the reduction or metallization of platinum group metals (PGM) while keeping the overall gas atmosphere in a lean state due to adsorbed HC. This causes local O₂ inhibition and generates reductive intermediate species such as R-NCO. Therefore, the specific benefits of HC were analyzed from the viewpoints of 1) the impact on the PGM state, 2) the characterization of intermediate species, and 3) Di-Air performance compared to other reductants.