Refine Your Search




Search Results

Technical Paper

Development of “Virtual and Real Simulator” for Engine

We developed a progressive system, “virtual and real simulator (V&R-S)” for engine. To innovate the process of engine development, the test system creates dynamic load of drivetrain, wheel, body and road with the virtual vehicle model. We set the phenomena such as drivetrain vibration for reproducing object of this system. The load is transmitted to the engine crankshaft end as torque with the connecting shaft made of fiberglass. The mainly developed technologies are the dynamometer with rotational inertia as low as engine, correction method of transmitted torque error of connecting shaft by H-infinity control. Thanks to these, we achieved the capability of optimization for most of dynamic characteristics (emission, fuel consumption, drivability) on engine test bench. And we now be able to limit real vehicle test to the final tuning. As a result, we have realized new engine evaluation and optimization process.
Technical Paper

Influence of New Engine Oil Additives on the Properties of Fluoroelastomers

Fluoroelastmers are well known for their resistance to heat and fluids, and have become major material for crankcase oil seals. On the other hand, new additive formulations are developed for engine lubricants used for fuel economic gasoline engines. In this paper, the effects of those additives on properties of fluoroelastmers are investigated. The results of the immersion tests of both test plaques and oil seal products indicate that dithiocarbamates, friction modifier, have hardening effects on fluoroelastmers. The fluoroelastmer deterioration mechanism is determined by analysis of elastmer samples after immersion in oil.
Technical Paper

Material Consolidation for Automotive Interior and Exterior Parts through Development of a High Performance Material

Through a polymer design and precise morphology control, The Super Olefin Polymer, TSOP-1 and TSOP-5 were developed for the material consolidation of interior and exterior parts, respectively. Due to a good balance of TSOP performance, several conventional materials were consolidated into one material for each application. Accordingly, considerable amounts of weight reduction and cost savings have been obtained. In addition to the excellent recyclability of TSOP, the coated bumpers collected from the market were re-utilized through paint decomposition technology. The first dashboard construction, molded partially with foam-padded skin, was also realized. The current amount of TSOP used in a vehicle is about 30% of the total amount of plastic materials. Through the usage of TSOP, 70% of the material consolidation has been achieved.
Technical Paper

Study of Mileage-Related Formaldehyde Emission from Methanol Fueled Vehicles

In order to determine the main factors causing the mileage-related increase in formaldehyde emission from methanol-fueled vehicles, mileage was accumulated on three types of vehicle, each of which had a different air-fuel calibration system. From exhaust emission data obtained during and after the mileage accumulation, it was found that lean burn operation resulted in by far the highest formaldehyde emission increase. An investigation into the reason for the rise in engine-out formaldehyde emission revealed that deposits in the combustion chamber emanating from the lubricating oil promotes formaldehyde formation. Furthermore it was learnt that an increase in engine-out NOx emissions promotes partial oxidation of unburned methanol in the catalyst, leading to a significant increase in catalyst-out formaldehyde emission.
Technical Paper

Development of TOYOTA Reflex Burn (TRB) System in DI Diesel

In order to optimize air-fuel mixture formation in a small DI diesel engine, studies were conducted into the effects of combustion chamber shape and fuel spray impingement. Based on the findings of these studies, the shape of the combustion chamber was modified to induce complex air motion with high turbulence and fuel injection was carefully controlled to achieve optimum impingement intensity. As a result, the mixture formation process was greatly improved with a consequent gain in terms of engine performance. To clarify the reasons for this improvement in combustion, a three-dimensional calculation of the in-cylinder air motion was made. The behaviour of the spray and flame was observed using an endoscope. The new combustion system, named TOYOTA Reflex Burn system (TRB) thus developed has been adopted in production engines since August 1988.
Technical Paper

Toyota Newly Developed 2VZ-FE Type Engine

Newly developed 2VZ-FE engine for CAMRY is a 2.5-liter water cooled and V-type 6-cylinder engine exported from TOYOTA for the first time. This engine has the TOYOTA original 4-valve DOHC system. That is, exhaust camshafts driven by intake camshafts using scissors gears. By its compact configuration with the gear driven camshafts, this V-type 6-cylinder engine is mounted on a front-wheel-drive vehicle which originally had an in-line 4-cylinder engine. By increasing IVZ-FE engine displacement (for domestic), compact pentroof-type combustion chambers, optimum air-fuel ratio and ignition timing by TCCS (TOYOTA Computer Controlled System) and other technologies, a high performance 153HP/5600rpm and a large torque 155ft·lbs/4400rpm have been achieved with a low fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Flow in the Induction System of an Internal Combustion Engine -Multi-Dimensional Calculation Using a New Method of Lines

Multi-dimensional code has been developed to simulate the effect of geometry on mass flow rate and flow pattern in the induction system of an internal combustion engine. The unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates are solved by a new method of lines. In the method of lines, the governing equations are spatially discretized by a finite difference approximation and the resulting system of ordinary differential equations is integrated. As a time integration scheme, we newly propose to use the rational Runge-Kutta scheme in order to efficiently simulate the flows in the induction system. The domain-decomposition technique is introduced so that body-fitted structured grid can be easily generated for such complex geometry as a real intake port shape. The present code is applied to 2 and 3 dimensional steady flows in intake port/cylinder assembly with a valve.
Technical Paper

Development of Computer Aided Engineering for Piston Design

Computer Aided Engineering system for automotive piston design was developed which can predict total piston performance in a short time at the planning stage of piston design. Many previous studies attempted to calculate piston performance accurately with experimental data and their main purpose was not to create a tool for piston design. The purpose of this CAE system is to provide a tool for a designer to predict total piston performance easily and rapidly without experimental data. This system has following two characteristics. Firstly, new finite element methods were developed which can predict temperature distribution without experimental data, thermal skirt expansion for a strutted piston and skirt-to-bore contact pressure under engine operating conditions. The predicted result are accurate enough to predict piston performance at the planning stage of piston design.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline Quality on Throttle Response of Engines During Warm-Up

An investigation of throttle response of engines during warm-up was conducted using various gasolines. Test data were obtained from an engine on a test bench at intermediate temperature around 20∼ 30 °C. By using the engine test bench data, correlation coefficients between engine response time and gasoline characteristics were calculated. The result shows that the middle range of distillation temperature is an important factor in gasoline characteristics for warm-up driveability of fuel injected engines. It also shows that 50% distillation temperature can be used as one indication of warm-up driveability. This indication is effective only for hydrocarbon type gasolines. In the case of MTBE blended gasoline, the distillation temperature becomes low when MTBE is blended to gasoline, but throttle response was not improved. It is also found that the effect of gasoline distillation on throttle response is enhanced by intake valve deposits.
Technical Paper

Study of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Exhaust System

An investigation was conducted into pressure pulsation in the exhaust port, which greatly affects volumetric efficiency and engine performance. From experiments using a single blow-down generator, it was established that the amplitude of the pressure pulsation increases as the manifold branch is lengthened and that large negative pressure synchronized with the timing of valve overlap can be obtained if a proper branch length is used. The performance of a 2ℓ test engine was optimized by varying the length of both the manifold branches and front pipe forks. It was found that whereas front pipe fork length affects engine performance over only a narrow range of engine speed, optimizing manifold branch length results in a considerable improvement over a wide engine speed range. In the course of optimizing the exhaust pipe manifold length of this two-degree-of-freedom exhaust system, abnormal exhaust noises were emitted at specific engine speeds during deceleration.
Technical Paper

A New V-8 Engine for the LEXUS LS 400

A new 4.0 liter V8 engine, 1UZ-FE, has been developed for the luxury sedan, LEXUS LS400. The engine has 4 camshafts and 32 valves, and weighs only 195 kg (430 lbs) having many light alloy components and carefully designed configurations. The appropriate engine displacement and high technology adopted throughout from design to manufacturing process enable the LS400 to run powerfully with excellent fuel economy and a pleasant sounds. It develops 250HP at 5600 rpm and 260ft-lbs of torque at 4400 rpm, and its fuel economy figure, well exceeds the EPA's tax charge level of 22.5mpg. These figures have been achieved through the newest technologies applied to every part of the design, such as: Well studied intake and exhaust systems, centrally located spark plug in the TOYOTA original four-valve combustion chamber, which has a narrow valve including angle, and low friction components like aluminum alloy valve lifters and well balanced moving parts.
Technical Paper

Toyota’s New Driveline for FR Passenger Vehicles

The renewed platform of the upcoming flagship front-engine, rear-wheel drive (FR) vehicles demands high levels of driving performance, fuel efficiency and noise-vibration performance. The newly developed driveline system must balance these conflicting performance attributes by adopting new technologies. This article focuses on several technologies that were needed in order to meet the demand for noise-vibration performance and fuel efficiency. For noise-vibration performance, this article will focus on propeller shaft low frequency noise (booming noise). This noise level is determined by the propeller shaft’s excitation force and the sensitivity of differential mounting system. In regards to the propeller shaft’s excitation force, the contribution of the axial excitation force was clarified. This excitation force was decreased by adopting a double offset joint (DOJ) as the propeller shaft’s second joint and low stiffness rubber couplings as the first and third joints.
Technical Paper

Development of New Electronic Control System for a Diesel Engine

An unique diesel engine electronic control system has been developed, which contains two distinctive features. Firstly, the delivery type fuel injection pump has an electro-magnetic valve to control the quantity of fuel injected. This valve is then acutuated to ensure that the timing of the high pressure fuel flow out stops the fuel injection. In the previous diesel electronic control system, the fuel quantity control was effected via the position control of a mechanical spill ring. Since timing control is more suitable than position control for handling by a microcomputer, the electro-magnetic valve is able to control the quantity of fuel injected more precisely, whilst consisting of a simpler structure. Secondly, an optical combustion timing sensor is able to detect initial combustion timing by sensing the light of the combustion flame in the combustion chamber. Using the signal from the sensor, the microcomputer then exerts a compensating control over the fuel injection timing.
Technical Paper

Multipoint Spark Ignition for Lean Combustion

Effects of multipoint spark ignition on combustion duration, fuel consumption and lean misfire limit are discussed in this paper. A plate, which consists of 12 spark gaps in each cylinder, and a new CD ignition system have been developed for accomplishing the multipoint spark ignition. This plate was installed between cylinder block and head in a 4 cylinder engine. Compared with a single gap, the results of 12 gaps showed a reduced combustion duration by about 50%, a 5% decrease in fuel consumption and an extended lean misfire limit by about 3 air-fuel ratio numbers. Furthermore, the multipoint spark ignition on both sides of the combustion chamber was more effective than only on one side. With this system, HC emission can be reduced as well. The results of this study showed that, compared to those obtained with swirl, this multipoint spark ignition was more effective on improving fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Flow and Temperature Distribution in an Experimental Engine: LES Studies and Thermographic Imaging

Temperature stratification plays an important role in HCCI combustion. The onsets of auto-ignition and combustion duration are sensitive to the temperature field in the engine cylinder. Numerical simulations of HCCI engine combustion are affected by the use of wall boundary conditions, especially the temperature condition at the cylinder and piston walls. This paper reports on numerical studies and experiments of the temperature field in an optical experimental engine in motored run conditions aiming at improved understanding of the evolution of temperature stratification in the cylinder. The simulations were based on Large-Eddy-Simulation approach which resolves the unsteady energetic large eddy and large scale swirl and tumble structures. Two dimensional temperature experiments were carried out using laser induced phosphorescence with thermographic phosphors seeded to the gas in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Interior Noise and Vibration Reduction Method Using Transfer Function of Body Structure

To reduce interior noise effectively in the vehicle body structure development process, noise and vibration engineers have to first identify the portions of the body that have high sensitivity. Second, the necessary vibration characteristics of each portion must be determined, and third, the appropriate body structure for achieving the target performance of the vehicle must be realized within a short development timeframe. This paper proposes a new method based on the substructure synthesis method which is effective up to 200Hz. This method primarily utilizes equations expressing the relationship between driving point inertance change at arbitrary body portions and the corresponding sound pressure level (SPL) variation at the occupant's ear positions under external force. A modified system equation was derived from the body transfer functions and equation of motion by adding a virtual dynamic stiffness expression into the dynamic stiffness matrix of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Improvement of DI Diesel Engine System by Utilizing GTL Fuels Characteristics

Gas To Liquid (GTL) fuels synthesized from natural gas are known as clean fuels. Therefore, GTL fuels have been expected to be a promising option that can reduce the NOx and PM emissions from diesel engines and contribute to the energy security. In this study, in order to clarify the emission reduction potentials, the improvement of DI diesel engine and aftertreatment systems were investigated by utilizing GTL fuels characteristics. To achieve a further reduction of both NOx and PM emissions, the combustion chamber, injection pattern and EGR calibration were modified. From the results of tests, the engine out NOx emissions were reduced to the Euro 6 regulation level and in parallel the expected deteriorations of HC emission and fuel consumption were suppressed because of the characteristics of high cetane number and zero poly-aromatics hydrocarbons. Additionally, an aftertreatment system was optimized to GTL fuel in order to improve NOx conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

High-Pressure Hydrogen-Absorbing Alloy Tank for Fuel Cell Vehicles

Multi-cylinder hydrogen-absorbing alloy tanks for fuel cell vehicles have 10 to 40 metallic cylinders that are bundled and filled with hydrogen-absorbing alloy. In this system, the cylinders themselves act as a heat exchanger and the working pressure is lowered to 10 to 20 MPa compared with high-pressure MH tanks. Moreover, both heat conduction and mass reduction can be achieved by reducing the wall thickness of the cylinders. A model verification experiment was conducted using a one-quarter-scale prototype of a full size tank, and a conduction simulation model verified in the experiment was used to predict the performance of the full size tank. Results showed that it is possible to fill the tank with hydrogen to 80% of its capacity in a five-minute filling time, although issues related to heat conductivity performance require improvement. Accordingly, it may be possible to adopt this tank as part of a system if the storage amount of the hydrogen-absorbing alloy can be increased.
Technical Paper

Development of New 1.8-Liter Engine for Hybrid Vehicles

In recent years, attention has been focused on a hybrid vehicle capable of substantial reductions in CO2 exhaust emissions. This paper describes the newly developed 1.8-liter 2ZR-FXE gasoline engine for use with a hybrid system for compact vehicles, which effectively combines higher driving performance with higher fuel efficiency. This engine was based on the 1.8-liter 2ZR-FE engine with outstanding performance and fuel efficiency. This engine has achieved high thermal efficiency by using the high-expansion ratio cycle “Atkinson cycle”, as with the previous 1NZ-FXE engine. Additionally, a new cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system and electric water pump were adopted to further improve fuel efficiency. A high efficiency cooler was used to cool the EGR gas, which enabled the introduction of the EGR gas at high load conditions, and exhaust gas temperature was reduced.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Breath Alcohol Detector without Mouthpiece to Prevent Drunk Driving

Breath alcohol interlock systems are used in Europe and the U.S. for drunk driving offenders, and a certain effect has been revealed in the prevention of drunk driving. Nevertheless, problems remain to be solved with commercialized detectors, i.e., a person taking the breath alcohol test must strongly expire to the alcohol detector through a mouthpiece for every test, more over the determination of the breath alcohol concentration requires more than 5 seconds. The goal of this research is to develop a device that functions suitable and unobtrusive enough as the interlock system. For this purpose, a new alcohol detector, which does not require a long and hard blowing to the detector through a mouthpiece, has been investigated. In this paper, as a tool available on board, a contact free alcohol detector for the prevention of drunk driving has been developed.