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Technical Paper

Study on the Potential Benefits of Plug-in Hybrid Systems

2008-04-14
2008-01-0456
There is ever increasing interest in the issues of fossil fuel depletion, global warming, due to increased atmospheric CO2, and air pollution, all of which are due in some extent to transportation, including automobiles. Hybrid Vehicles (HVs), whose performance and usage are equivalent to existing conventional vehicles, attract lots of attention and have started to come into wider use. Meanwhile, EVs have been considered by many as the best solution for the issues mentioned above. But the technical difficulty of battery energy density is an obstruction to successful implementation. Currently the Plug-in HV (PHEV), which combines the advantages of HV and EV, is being considered as one promising solution. PHEVs can be categorized into two types, according to operating modes. The first uses battery stored energy initially, only stating the internal combustion engine when the battery is depleted. This we call the All Electric Range (AER) system.
Technical Paper

Flow and Temperature Distribution in an Experimental Engine: LES Studies and Thermographic Imaging

2010-10-25
2010-01-2237
Temperature stratification plays an important role in HCCI combustion. The onsets of auto-ignition and combustion duration are sensitive to the temperature field in the engine cylinder. Numerical simulations of HCCI engine combustion are affected by the use of wall boundary conditions, especially the temperature condition at the cylinder and piston walls. This paper reports on numerical studies and experiments of the temperature field in an optical experimental engine in motored run conditions aiming at improved understanding of the evolution of temperature stratification in the cylinder. The simulations were based on Large-Eddy-Simulation approach which resolves the unsteady energetic large eddy and large scale swirl and tumble structures. Two dimensional temperature experiments were carried out using laser induced phosphorescence with thermographic phosphors seeded to the gas in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed Toyota Plug-in Hybrid System and its Vehicle Performance under Real Life Operation

2011-06-09
2011-37-0033
Toyota has been introducing several hybrid vehicles (HV) since 1997 as a countermeasure to the concerns raised by automobile, like CO2 reduction, energy security, and pollutant emission reduction in urban areas. Plug in hybrid Vehicle (PHV) uses electric energy from grid rather than fuel for most short trips and therefore presents a next step forward towards an even more effective solution for these concerns. For longer trips, the PHV works as a conventional hybrid vehicle, providing all the benefits of Toyota full hybrid technology, such as low fuel consumption, user-friendliness and long cruising range. This paper describes a newly developed plug-in hybrid system and its vehicle performance. This system uses a Li-ion battery with high energy density and has an EV-range within usual trip length without sacrificing cabin space.
Technical Paper

New Drivetrain for Toyota's Flagship Lexus LFA Sports Car

2011-04-12
2011-01-1427
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new drivetrain for their flagship Lexus LFA sports car. Passionate driving experience was pursued at the forefront of development. Superior vehicle performance, handling, and responsiveness that seem to anticipate the driver's intentions are achieved. Special vehicle packaging and component placement are adopted in the LFA in order to realize such performance. The engine, clutch, and front counter gear are positioned at the front of the vehicle, and the transaxle at the rear. The engine and transaxle are connected by a rigid torque tube. The transaxle is an automated manual transmission equipped with an electrohydraulic actuator for controlling both the shift and clutch operations. This actuator enables accurate control of the transmission and extremely quick response to shift paddle operation by the driver. This paper describes a general outline of the drivetrain and each component that has significantly contributed to LFA product appeal.
Journal Article

Multiplex Communication Protocol for Switch/Sensor/Actuator Network: “CXPI”

2016-04-05
2016-01-0057
The growing functionality and complexity of recent vehicle electronic systems have made inter-device communication (on-board LAN) technology vital to vehicle design. By field of application, the LAN (Local Area Network) systems currently in use are LIN (Local Interconnect Network) used for body systems, CAN (Controller Area Network) used for control systems, and MOST (Media Oriented Systems Transport ) used for multimedia and camera systems, and work to standardize the next-generation communication technology for each of those fields is underway. This paper provides a technical overview of the CXPI (Clock Extension Peripheral Interface) communication protocol, which satisfies the body system requirements (rapid response, system extensibility, high reliability, and low cost). It also presents the progress made on standardization at SAE and other organizations.
Journal Article

Experimental Demonstration of Smart Charging and Vehicle-to-Home Technologies for Plugin Electric Vehicles Coordinated with Home Energy Management Systems for Automated Demand Response

2016-04-05
2016-01-0160
In this paper, we consider smart charging and vehicle-to-home (V2H) technologies for plugin electric vehicles coordinated with home energy management systems (HEMS) for automated demand response. In this system, plugin electric vehicles automatically react to demand response events with or without HEMS’s coordination, while vehicles are charged and discharged (i.e., V2H) in appropriate time slots by taking into account demand response events, time-ofuse rate information, and users’ vehicle usage plan. We introduce three approaches on home energy management: centralized energy control, distributed energy control, and coordinated energy control. We implemented smart charging and V2H systems by employing two sets of standardized communication protocols: one using OpenADR 2.0b, SEP 2.0, and SAE standards and the other using OpenADR 2.0b, ECHONET Lite, and ISO/IEC 15118.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Friction Coefficient Variation with Moisture between Friction Surfaces

2016-04-05
2016-01-0411
If a vehicle is left in a humid environment, the coefficient of friction between the brake pads and discs increases, generating a discomforting noise during braking called brake squeal. It is assumed that this increase in the coefficient of friction in a humid environment is the effect of moisture penetrating between the brake friction surfaces. Therefore, this paper analyzes the factors causing coefficient of friction variation with moisture between the friction surfaces by dynamic observation of these surfaces. The observation was achieved by changing the disc materials from cast iron to borosilicate glass. One side of the glass brake disc was pushed onto the brake pad and the sliding surface was observed from the opposite side by a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. First, a preliminary test was carried out in a dry state using two pad materials with different wear properties to select the appropriate pad for observing the friction surfaces.
Technical Paper

Animal-Vehicle Encounter Naturalistic Driving Data Collection and Photogrammetric Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0124
Animal-vehicle collision (AVC) is a significant safety issue on American roads. Each year approximately 1.5 million AVCs occur in the U.S., the majority of them involving deer. The increasing use of cameras and radar on vehicles provides opportunities for prevention or mitigation of AVCs, particularly those involving deer or other large animals. Developers of such AVC avoidance/mitigation systems require information on the behavior of encountered animals, setting characteristics, and driver response in order to design effective countermeasures. As part of a larger study, naturalistic driving data were collected in high AVC incidence areas using 48 participant-owned vehicles equipped with data acquisition systems (DAS). Continuous driving data including forward video, location information, and vehicle kinematics were recorded. The respective 11TB dataset contains 35k trips covering 360K driving miles.
Technical Paper

Development of Automatic Braking System to Help Reduce Rear Impacts

2017-03-28
2017-01-1408
A Rear Cross Traffic Auto Brake (RCTAB) system has been developed that uses radar sensors to detect vehicles approaching from the right or left at the rear of the driver’s vehicle, and then performs braking control if the system judges that a collision may occur. This system predicts the intersecting course of approaching vehicles and uses the calculated time-to-collision (TTC) to control the timing of automatic braking with the aim of helping prevent unnecessary operation while ensuring system performance.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Drowsy Driving Prediction based on Eye Opening Time

2017-03-28
2017-01-1398
Since drowsy driving is a major cause of serious traffic accidents, there is a growing requirement for drowsiness prevention technologies. This study proposes a drowsy driving prediction method based on eye opening time. One issue of using eye opening time is predicting strong drowsiness before the driver actually feels sleepy. Because overlooking potential hazards is one of the causes of traffic accidents and is closely related to driver cognition and drowsiness, this study focuses on eye opening movements during driving. First, this report describes hypotheses concerning drowsiness and eye opening time based on the results of previous studies. It is assumed that the standard deviation of eye opening time (SDEOP) indicates driver drowsiness and the following two transitions are considered: increasing and decreasing SDEOP. To confirm the hypotheses, the relationship between drowsiness and SDEOP was investigated.
Technical Paper

Development of New Shift Control System using a Model-based Control Method for Toyota Stepped Automatic Transmissions

2017-03-28
2017-01-1632
A new shift control system using a model-based control method for stepped automatic transmissions. Using a gear train numerical formula model, the model-based shift control system is constructed using minimum calibration parameters with feedforward and feedback controllers. It also adopts control target values for the input shaft revolution and output shaft torque, thus enabling precise control that provides the most suitable shift feeling in various driving situations and for various vehicle characteristics. Furthermore, the model-based shift control system improves robustness in terms of disturbance elements such as production tolerance, time degradation, and use environment. Toyota has adopted this model-based shift control system in its UA80/UB80 8-speed automatic transmissions for front-wheel-drive vehicles and its AGA0 10-speed automatic transmission for rear-wheel-drive vehicles. This paper describes the details of this model-based shift control system.
Technical Paper

Development of High Accuracy and Quick Light-off NOx Sensor

2018-04-03
2018-01-0334
For the purpose of coping with the strengthening of NOx exhaust gas control and fuel consumption control, it is indispensable to improve the NOx purification capacity. In view of this, vehicle manufacturers are in the course of developing high performance SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) systems [1, 2]. For such SCR systems to be realized, high precision NOx sensors for carrying out urea injection quantity control and SCR degradation diagnosis are absolutely indispensable. Detection of NOx concentration by means of a NOx sensor is generally performed as follows: O2 is discharged by means of an O2 detection electrode; remaining NOx is decomposed by a NOx detection electrode; NOx concentration is then detected as electric current that flows when oxygen ions are conduct through solid electrolyte. In order to detect NOx of ppm-order, it is necessary to detect minute current of nA-order with high accuracy.
Technical Paper

Development of Bicycle Carrier for Bicyclist Pre-Collision System Evaluation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1446
According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. As a novel active safety equipment to mitigate bicyclist crashes, bicyclist Pre-Collision Systems (PCSs) are being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis on the United States national crash databases and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of most common crash scenarios, the motion speed and profile of bicycles. The bicycle carrier was designed to carry or pull the surrogate bicyclist for bicycle PCS evaluation. The carrier is a platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Low Illuminance Road Lighting Condition Using Road Temporal Profile

2016-04-05
2016-01-1454
Pedestrian Automatic Emergency Braking (PAEB) for helping avoiding/mitigating pedestrian crashes has been equipped on some passenger vehicles. Since approximately 70% pedestrian crashes occur in dark conditions, one of the important components in the PAEB evaluation is the development of standard testing at night. The test facility should include representative low-illuminance environment to enable the examination of the sensing and control functions of different PAEB systems. The goal of this research is to characterize and model light source distributions and variations in the low-illuminance environment and determine possible ways to reconstruct such an environment for PAEB evaluation. This paper describes a general method to collect light sources and illuminance information by processing large amount of potential collision locations at night from naturalistic driving video data.
Technical Paper

Pre-Collision System for Toyota Safety Sense

2016-04-05
2016-01-1458
Toyota Safety Sense is a safety system package developed to help drivers avoid accident types with a high frequency of occurrence. This paper deals with pre-collision system which forms the core of Toyota Safety Sense, especially Toyota Safety Sense P which uses a combined sensor configuration consisting of a monocular camera paired with millimeter wave radar, in order to achieve both high recognition performance and reliability. The use of a wide-angle monocular camera, millimeter wave radar integrated in the front grill emblem, and a collision determination algorithm for pedestrian targets enabled the development of a pre-collision system comprising detection capability of crossing pedestrians. Toyota has developed warning and pre-collision brake assist for driver to assist in avoiding a collision effectively; In addition, Pre-collision brake has achieved high level of performance for the drivers who cannot avoid a collision.
Technical Paper

Highly Decorative, Lightweight Flexible Solar Cells for Automotive Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0863
The strict CO2 emission limit for passenger cars have been set by US, EU, Japan, China and other countries. In order to meet the requirement, it is essential to develop an alternative power source for the future cars. Power generation by solar panels is a promising renewable energy candidate because the most environmentally friendly vehicles such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are equipped with large-capacity batteries that can be charged with electricity generated by solar panels. The requirements for the solar panels are paintable with desired color and to be lightweight. In this study, we developed a simple lift-off process for producing colorful and lightweight Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells for future automotive application. Our measurements show that the developed lift-off process can provide the lightweight solar panel that have nearly identical performance compared to that of the cell before the lift-off process.
Technical Paper

Research of Knocking Deterioration due to Accumulated Carbon Deposits on Piston Surfaces

2019-04-02
2019-01-1141
The quantity of heavy components in fuel is increasing as automotive fuels diversify, and engine oil formulations are becoming more complex. These trends result in the formation of larger amounts of carbon deposits as reaction byproducts during combustion, potentially worsening the susceptibility of the engine to knock [1]. The research described in this paper aimed to identify the mechanism that causes knocking to deteriorate due to carbon deposits in low to medium engine load ranges, which are mainly used when the vehicle drives off and accelerates. With this objective, the cylinder temperature and pressure with and without deposits were measured, and it was found that knocking deteriorates in a certain range of ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

Development of TLP-AI Technology to Realize High Temperature Operation of Power Module

2019-04-02
2019-01-0607
Application of SiC power devices is regarded as a promising means of reducing the power loss of power modules mounted in power control units. Due to those high thermostable characteristics, the power module with SiC power devices are required to have higher operating temperature than the conventional power module with Si power devices. However, the limitations of current packaging technology prevent the utilization of the full potential of SiC power devices. To resolve these issues, the development of device bonding technology is very important. Although transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding is a promising technology for enabling high temperature operation because its bonding layer has a high melting point, the characteristics of the TLP bonding layer tend to damage the power devices. This paper describes the development of a bonding technology to achieve high temperature operation using a stress reduction effect.
Technical Paper

Development of New Electronic Control System for a Diesel Engine

1986-03-01
860597
An unique diesel engine electronic control system has been developed, which contains two distinctive features. Firstly, the delivery type fuel injection pump has an electro-magnetic valve to control the quantity of fuel injected. This valve is then acutuated to ensure that the timing of the high pressure fuel flow out stops the fuel injection. In the previous diesel electronic control system, the fuel quantity control was effected via the position control of a mechanical spill ring. Since timing control is more suitable than position control for handling by a microcomputer, the electro-magnetic valve is able to control the quantity of fuel injected more precisely, whilst consisting of a simpler structure. Secondly, an optical combustion timing sensor is able to detect initial combustion timing by sensing the light of the combustion flame in the combustion chamber. Using the signal from the sensor, the microcomputer then exerts a compensating control over the fuel injection timing.
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