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Technical Paper

Development of “Virtual and Real Simulator” for Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1355
We developed a progressive system, “virtual and real simulator (V&R-S)” for engine. To innovate the process of engine development, the test system creates dynamic load of drivetrain, wheel, body and road with the virtual vehicle model. We set the phenomena such as drivetrain vibration for reproducing object of this system. The load is transmitted to the engine crankshaft end as torque with the connecting shaft made of fiberglass. The mainly developed technologies are the dynamometer with rotational inertia as low as engine, correction method of transmitted torque error of connecting shaft by H-infinity control. Thanks to these, we achieved the capability of optimization for most of dynamic characteristics (emission, fuel consumption, drivability) on engine test bench. And we now be able to limit real vehicle test to the final tuning. As a result, we have realized new engine evaluation and optimization process.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Automatic Transmission Fluids -A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

2001-05-07
2001-01-1991
The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
Technical Paper

The Establishment of Laboratory Test Method for Gelation of Engine Oil Containing Magnesium Detergents

2001-05-07
2001-01-1986
It has been reported that engine oils containing magnesium detergents gel under special conditions. The authors have previously reported on the mechanism by which magnesium detergents form needle crystals, which is the main cause of the gelation[1]. For this article, the authors conducted tests in actual vehicles using several types of engine oils containing magnesium detergents, including oils for which gelation problems have been reported in the market. The gelation was reproduced, and the test oils were ranked by their propensity to gel. In addition, a laboratory test method was used in which water and CO2 were mixed into engine oil under controlled conditions, then left stored in a bottle for twenty days, after which the kinematic viscosity and the quantity of insolubles of the mixture were measured. The study demonstrated the correlation between the laboratory test method and the actual vehicle tests.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Automatic Transmission Fluid Effects on Friction Torque Capacity - A Study by the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

1998-10-19
982672
As part of the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee's (ILSAC) goal of developing a global automatic transmission fluid (ATF) specification, members have been evaluating test methods that are currently used by various automotive manufacturers for qualifying ATF for use in their respective transmissions. This report deals with comparing test methods used for determining torque capacity in friction systems (shifting clutches). Three test methods were compared, the Plate Friction Test from the General Motors DEXRON®-III Specification, the Friction Durability Test from the Ford MERCON® Specification, and the Japanese Automotive Manufacturers Association Friction Test - JASO Method 348-95. Eight different fluids were evaluated. Friction parameters used in the comparison were breakaway friction, dynamic friction torque at midpoint and the end of engagement, and the ratio of end torque to midpoint torque.
Technical Paper

A Java Implementation of Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) Fuel Economy Simulation Code Modules

2018-04-03
2018-01-0412
Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is a free and open-source tool developed by National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL). Among the attractive capabilities of the FASTSim is that it can perform computationally efficient fuel economy simulations of automotive vehicles with reasonable accuracy for standard or arbitrary drive cycles. The modeling capability includes vehicles with various types of powertrains such as: conventional vehicles (CVs), hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery-only electric vehicles (BEVs). The public version of FASTSim available from NREL is implemented in Excel, which achieves the goal of good accessibility to a broad audience, but has some limitations, including: i) bottleneck in computations when importing arbitrary drive cycles, ii) slower computations in general than other scripting or programming languages, and iii) less portable to integration with other applications and/or other platforms.
Technical Paper

Automatic Transmission Control Based on Estimation of Sporty Driving Intention

2013-04-08
2013-01-0483
The purpose of this research is to develop an automatic shift control method that emulates an experienced driver's manual shift maneuver which enhances driving performance during sporty driving. Driver control maneuvers and vehicle behavior were observed throughout the process of braking, cornering, and accelerating out of a corner on a winding test track. Close correlations were found between driving maneuvers, longitudinal and lateral acceleration, and the selected engine speed. Based on the analysis, an index is proposed for estimating the intention of the driver to drive in a sporty manner. This index consists of the magnitude of acceleration in a friction circle and the maximum longitudinal acceleration restricted by the performance of the power train. An automatic transmission control based on the estimated driving intention was then developed to achieve the necessary and sufficient available force.
Technical Paper

Biodiesel Stability and its Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment

2012-04-16
2012-01-0860
The effects of biodiesel oxidation stability on diesel fuel injection equipment (FIE) behavior were investigated using newly developed test rig and methodology. On the test rig, biodiesel blend fuels were circulated through a fuel tank and a common rail injection system. Fuel injected from typical diesel injectors was returned into the fuel tank to enhance the speed of fuel degradation. The results showed that injector deposits could be reproduced on a test rig. It was observed that injector body temperature increase accelerates the degradation of fuel and therefore gives earlier FIE failure. Fuel renewal could partially restore the injection quantity after complete failure at low injection pressure, thus showing a potential cleaning effect on injector deposits when refueling a car.
Technical Paper

The Power Performance and the Fuel Economy Estimation of HV for Vehicle Concept Planning Using VHDL-AMS Full Vehicle Simulation

2012-04-16
2012-01-1025
In order to reduce CO₂, Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Vehicles (HV) are effective. Those types of vehicles have powertrains from conventional vehicles. Those new powertrains drastically improve their efficiency from conventional vehicles keeping the same or superior power performance. On the other hand, those vehicles have an issue for thermal energy shortage during warming up process. The thermal energy is very large, and seriously affects the fuel economy for HV and the mileage for EV. In this paper, we propose VHDL-AMS multi-domain simulation technique for the estimation of the vehicle performance at the concept planning stage. The VHDL-AMS is IEEE and IEC standardized language, which supports not only multi-domain (physics) but also encryption. The common modeling language and encryption standard is indispensable for full-vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Demonstration of Smart Charging and Demand Response for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Based on SAE Standards

2015-04-14
2015-01-0301
In this paper, we present an implementation of smart charging systems for plug-in electric vehicles based on off-the-shelf communication protocols for smart grids including SAE J2836/2847/J2931 standards and SEP 2.0. In this system, the charging schedule is optimized so that it supplies sufficient electricity for the next trip and also minimizes the charging cost under given time-of-use rate structures while it follows demand response events requested by a utility. Also, users can control charging schedule and check the current status of charging through application software of tablet computers. To validate the effectiveness of the developed smart charging system, we conducted experimental demonstration in which a total of 10 customers of Duke Energy regularly used our developed system for approximately one year with simulated time-of-use rate structures and demand response events.
Technical Paper

Design Tool and Software Platform for Time-Triggered Network Systems

2006-10-16
2006-21-0041
This paper describes a design tool and a software platform for FlexRay systems that are investigated in Nagoya University and are proposed to JasPar. The design tool reads the specification of a system as a task graph that consists of a set of tasks and messages among them. The design tool, then, allocates the tasks to ECUs and schedules the messages on a FlexRay network. The software platform consists of a middleware called time-trigger module (TTM) which dispatches time-triggered tasks, a communication middleware for a time-triggered network (TT-COM), a network management middleware for FlexRay (FlexRay-NM), and a device driver for FlexRay controller.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

2000-06-19
2000-01-1870
In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions Simulator for Verification of Extremely Low Emission Measurement Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-0316
With the support of Horiba and Horiba STEC, Toyota Motor Corporation has developed an exhaust emissions simulator to verify the accuracy of extremely low emissions measurement systems. It can reliably verify the accuracy (correlation) of each SULEV emission measurement system to within 5% under actual conditions. The simulator's method of simulating SULEV gasoline engine cold-start emissions is to inject bottled gases with known concentrations of each emission constituent to the base gas, which is clean exhaust gas from a SULEV vehicle with new fully warmed catalysts. First, the frequencies and dynamic ranges of the SULEV cold-start emissions were analyzed and the method of 2 injecting the bottled gases was considered based on the results of that analysis. A high level of repeatability and accuracy was attained for all injection flow ranges in the SULEV cold-start emission simulation by switching between high-response digital Mass Flow Controllers (MFCs) of different full scales.
Technical Paper

Development of Robust Design Method in Pedestrian Impact Test

2007-04-16
2007-01-0881
This paper describes that a method has been developed to estimate the range of the scatter of Head Injury Criterion (HIC) values in pedestrian impact tests, which could help to reduce the range of the scatter of HIC values by applying the stochastic method for Finite Element (FE) analysis. A major advantage of this method is that it enables the range of scatter of HIC values to be estimated and to explain the mechanics of the behavior. The test procedure of pedestrian impact allows some tolerances for the resultant conditions of impact such that the distance of actual impact location from the selected point is within 10 mm and the impact velocity is within ±0.7 km/h [1]. A HIC value calculated by impact simulation under a deterministic impact condition with the nominal input data does not necessarily represent the variation of measured data in impactor tests.
Technical Paper

Development of a Method to Predict the Rupture of Spot Welds in Vehicle Crash Analysis

2006-04-03
2006-01-0533
This paper describes a new method to predict the rupture of spot welds, suitable for vehicle crash simulation. In a crash simulation used for vehicle development process, the calculation is performed assuming that the spot welds in the vehicle do not rupture. However, if some spot welds rupture in test of a prototype vehicle, the simulated deformation and test deformation may not match, resulting in inaccurate estimation of deformation from simulation. Therefore accuracy of predicting the rupture of spot welds is crucial in accurately estimating the deformation and improving reliability of vehicle crash simulation results. The new method to predict the rupture of spot welds which relates axial and shear forces and bending moment of spot weld to stress around nugget has been developed by authors. Based on developed method, the rupture risk of spot welds has been estimated. The new method was applied to estimate the spot weld rupture using three types of specimens.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Compatibility of ETBE Gasoline with Current Gasoline Vehicles

2006-10-16
2006-01-3381
Clarifying the impact of ETBE 8% blended fuel on current Japanese gasoline vehicles, under the Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAPII) we conducted exhaust emission tests, evaporative emission tests, durability tests on the exhaust after-treatment system, cold starting tests, and material immersion tests. ETBE 17% blended fuel was also investigated as a reference. The regulated exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx) didn't increase with any increase of ETBE content in the fuel. In durability tests, no noticeable increase of exhaust emission after 40,000km was observed. In evaporative emissions tests, HSL (Hot Soak Loss) and DBL (Diurnal Breathing Loss) didn't increase. In cold starting tests, duration of cranking using ETBE 8% fuel was similar to that of ETBE 0%. In the material immersion tests, no influence of ETBE on these material properties was observed.
Technical Paper

A Study of Anticorrosive Technology in Super Long Life Coolant

2004-03-08
2004-01-0055
The protection of the environment has become a worldwide concern. To reduce the effects of engine coolant on the environment, ways to minimize the amount of coolant released into the environment were investigated. One option is to develop a super long-life coolant. The key issue in developing a long-life engine coolant is selecting an appropriate inhibitor. The inhibitor should be stable over time and completely anticorrosive. In general carboxylic acids are considered to be the class of inhibitors with the highest stability. However, various lab studies have shown the long-term use of monocarboxylic acid could form the foreign substance that causes blockage in radiators. Therefore, the mechanism leading to the formation of foreign substance was determined. A series of carboxylic acids and additives were evaluated. An optimum formulation was then determined, resulting in the development of the Super Long Life Coolant.
Technical Paper

New Frictional Testing Method for Stamping Formability - Development of Dr. STAMP (Direct & Rapid, Surface Tribology Analyzing Method for Press) Method -

2003-10-27
2003-01-2812
Galvannealed steel sheet (GA) is very extensively used for vehicle panels. However ζ-phase (FeZn13) in GA coat causes poor stamping formability. Previously, there were no easy methods to evaluate the influence of ζ-phase on the frictional characteristics other than the X-ray diffraction method. This study will discuss the development of a new testing method: Dr. STAMP Method that is both efficient and convenient with pin-on-disc tester.
Technical Paper

Effects of Bio-Fuels on Vehicle Performance: Degradation Mechanism Analysis of Bio-Fuels

2004-10-25
2004-01-3031
In recent years, alternative sources of fuel are receiving a lot of attention in the automotive industry. Fuels derived from an agricultural feedstock are an attractive option. Bio-fuels based on vegetable oils offer the advantage being a sustainable, annually renewable source of automobile fuel. One of key issues in using vegetable oil based fuels is its oxidation stability. Since diesel fuels from fossil oil have good oxidation stability, automobile companies have not considered fuel degradation when developing diesel engines and vehicles as compared with gasoline engines. This paper presents the results of oxidation stability testing on bio-fuels. Oxidation stability was determined using three test methods, ASTM D525, EN14112 and ASTM D2274. The effects of storage condition, bio-fuel composition and antioxidants on the degradation of bio-fuels were all investigated. ASTM D525 is an effective test method to determine the effects of storage condition on bio-fuels stability.
Technical Paper

Correlation Tests Between Japanese Full-Scale Automotive Wind Tunnels Using the Correction Methods for Drag Coefficient

2005-04-11
2005-01-1457
This paper describes results of the correlation tests between several full-scale automotive wind tunnels in Japan. The tests were carried out during FY 2003 by members of the working group for wind tunnel correlation test, which was organized in JSAE Vehicle Aerodynamics Research Committee. Five wind tunnels were selected, i.e., three open test section type wind tunnels and two closed ones. Four test models were selected, i.e., sedan, station wagon, minivan and hatch back car, all of which are current production models. Tests were done with EADE test conditions. Correlation formulas for drag coefficient, which are based on the previous methods by Mercker and Wiedemann [13] and Mercker [3, 10] respectively for open and closed test section type wind tunnels, were used. Also considered were the differences of the boundary layer thickness between five wind tunnels.
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