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Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Torque Estimation Model: Integration of Physical and Statistical Combustion Model

2007-04-16
2007-01-1302
Recent engine systems have become complex due to the requirements of fuel efficiency, exhaust gas emission control and good drivability. To decrease engine development period, model-based development has been adopted [1]. For torque-based vehicle control, engine torque estimation models are necessary. Simple mean-value torque models are available but these models require large amount of test data for development and validation. In addition, they cannot estimate transient torque precisely. On the other hand, complex physical models require considerable time for modeling and simulation. In order to decrease modeling time and retain model accuracy, the Wiebe function is utilized to calculate the heat release rate.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Pre-crash Safety System

2006-04-03
2006-01-1461
Systems already exist that reduce collision damage through collision-danger alarms and by operating such features as pre-tensioning seat belts and collision mitigation brakes when the system has determined the possibility of a collision by using millimeter-wave radar. Conversely, at present, carelessness in observing oncoming traffic accounts for a large percentage of head-on collisions. Timely collision warnings are effective in avoiding accidents and for mitigating the severity of the collision. However, warnings given too early even before the driver has had a chance to carry out normal evasive maneuvers, can annoy the driver. Accordingly, by adding a driver face direction sensor, the authors have developed in the present research a system that will only hasten the timing of warnings when the system has detected the direction of the driver's face and determined that they are not facing the front of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Improvements in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with Blending ETBE to Diesel Fuel

2007-07-23
2007-01-1866
The effects of blending ETBE to diesel fuel on the characteristics of low temperature diesel combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated in a naturally-aspirated DI diesel engine with large rates of cooled EGR. Low temperature smokeless diesel combustion in a wide EGR range was established with ETBE blended diesel fuel as mixture homogeneity is promoted with increased premixed duration due to decreases in ignitability as well as with improvement in fuel vaporization due to the lower boiling point of ETBE. Increasing the ETBE content in the fuel helps to suppress smoke emissions and maintain efficient smokeless operation when increasing EGR, however a too high ETBE content causes misfiring at larger rates of EGR. While the NOx emissions increase with increases in ETBE content at high intake oxygen concentrations, NOx almost completely disappears when reducing the intake oxygen content below 14 % with cooled EGR.
Technical Paper

Development of High Fidelity Combustion-Driven Vehicle Models for Driveability Using Advanced Multi-Body Simulations

2007-04-16
2007-01-1634
This paper demonstrates the development of a full multi-body vehicle model and its use in virtual design and troubleshooting of a vehicle response to throttle input. The multibody model is divided into three main subsystems: the chassis, the driveline and the powertrain subsystems. The chassis system includes a complete representation of both the front and the rear suspensions, both the front and rear subframes, and the vehicle body. The driveline system includes the output shafts from the transmission unit to the tires. The powertrain system includes complete representation of the cranktrain for a V6 combustion engine. Also included in the powertrain is a nonlinear representation of the gearbox where bearing clearances and gear lashes are considered. The cranktrain torque output is linked to the transmission using a torque converter model. The vehicle components are virtually assembled together through different joint types, force elements, and kinematic constraints.
Technical Paper

High-pressure Metal Hydride Tank for Fuel Cell Vehicles

2007-07-23
2007-01-2011
High-pressure metal hydride (MH) tank has been designed based on a 35 MPa cylinder vessel. The heat exchanger module is integrated into the tank. Its advantage over high-pressure cylinder vessels is its large hydrogen storage capacity, for example 9.5 kg with a tank volume of 180 L by Ti25Cr50V20Mo5 alloy. Cruising range is about 900 km, over 3 times longer than that of a 35 MPa cylinder vessel system with the same volume. The hydrogen-charging rate of this system is equal to the 35 MPa cylinders without any external cooling facility. And release of hydrogen at 243 K is enabled due to the use of hydrogen-absorbing alloy with high-dissociation pressure, for example Ti35Cr34Mn31 alloy.
Technical Paper

Noise and Vibration Reduction Technology in the Development of Hybrid Luxury Sedan with Series/Parallel Hybrid System

2007-05-15
2007-01-2232
For a luxury sedan, quietness is a major selling point, and a hybrid luxury sedan is expected to be especially quiet. Therefore, in the development of the hybrid luxury sedan, every possible effort is needed to reduce the hybrid system noise in order to ensure a level of quietness far superior to that of an ordinary gasoline-powered vehicle. In addition, the noise and vibration phenomena that are particular to vehicles with longitudinal power trains require special reduction technologies. This paper first describes the superior quietness of hybrid luxury vehicles in comparison with ordinary gasoline-powered vehicles. This paper then addresses the development issues of vibration during engine starting, engine booming noise, and motor noise, explaining the mechanisms by which they are generated and the technologies employed to reduce them.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Acoustic Coupling Vibration of Wheel and Suspension Vibration on Tire Cavity Resonance

2007-05-15
2007-01-2345
It is difficult to improve tire cavity noise since the pressure of cavity resonance acts as a compelling force, and its low damping and high gain characteristics dominate the vibration of both the suspension and body. For this reason, the analysis described in this article aimed to clarify the design factors involved and to improve this phenomenon at the source. This was accomplished by investigating the acoustic coupling vibration mode of the wheel, which is the component that transmits the pressure of cavity resonance at first. In addition, the vibration characteristic of suspension was investigated also. A speaker-equipped sound pressure generator inside the tire and wheel assembly was developed and used to infer that wheel vibration under cavity resonance is a forced vibration mode with respect to the cavity resonance pressure distribution, not an eigenvalue mode, and this phenomenon may therefore be improved by optimizing the out-of-plane torsional stiffness of the disk.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis on Piston Cavity Shape of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-2029
This paper describes the analyses to improve both stratified and homogeneous charge combustion of a gasoline direct injection engine. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and high-speed hydrocarbon (HC) measurement were employed to observe the mixture formation process. The analysis of the combustion flame propagation was conducted by in-cylinder visualization and ion current measurement. As a result of the analyses, the following conclusions were made: 1 An oval shaped wall cavity can direct the mixture gas to the vicinity of the spark plug better than a conventional shell-shaped wall cavity. The oval shaped wall cavity can improve fuel consumption and HC emission at stratified charge combustion. 2 A shallow cavity improves the homogenization of mixture gases and wide open throttle (WOT) performance.
Technical Paper

Development of “Virtual and Real Simulator” for Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1355
We developed a progressive system, “virtual and real simulator (V&R-S)” for engine. To innovate the process of engine development, the test system creates dynamic load of drivetrain, wheel, body and road with the virtual vehicle model. We set the phenomena such as drivetrain vibration for reproducing object of this system. The load is transmitted to the engine crankshaft end as torque with the connecting shaft made of fiberglass. The mainly developed technologies are the dynamometer with rotational inertia as low as engine, correction method of transmitted torque error of connecting shaft by H-infinity control. Thanks to these, we achieved the capability of optimization for most of dynamic characteristics (emission, fuel consumption, drivability) on engine test bench. And we now be able to limit real vehicle test to the final tuning. As a result, we have realized new engine evaluation and optimization process.
Technical Paper

Development of Robust Design Method in Pedestrian Impact Test

2007-04-16
2007-01-0881
This paper describes that a method has been developed to estimate the range of the scatter of Head Injury Criterion (HIC) values in pedestrian impact tests, which could help to reduce the range of the scatter of HIC values by applying the stochastic method for Finite Element (FE) analysis. A major advantage of this method is that it enables the range of scatter of HIC values to be estimated and to explain the mechanics of the behavior. The test procedure of pedestrian impact allows some tolerances for the resultant conditions of impact such that the distance of actual impact location from the selected point is within 10 mm and the impact velocity is within ±0.7 km/h [1]. A HIC value calculated by impact simulation under a deterministic impact condition with the nominal input data does not necessarily represent the variation of measured data in impactor tests.
Technical Paper

Development of Water Level Predicting Method around the Air Intake Duct by using Multivariate Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-0884
This paper describes a water-level prediction method for the air intake duct using multivariate analysis. When a vehicle runs on a submerged proving ground, in some cases the water level around the air intake duct rises. Although the rise in water level can be measured experimentally in actual vehicles, the design factors that determine the water level are not yet fully understood. The first step in understanding the factors for determining the water level on front-engine and front-drive (FF) -type vehicles is to establish a water level prediction technique. This is accomplished by the development of an original Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis method capable of accurately simulating a free surface. The next step is to conduct multivariate analysis based on the results of parametric studies using this CFD analysis method that leads to the factors determining the water level at the air intake duct.
Technical Paper

Development of Suspension Design Technology Applying Principal Elastic Axes

2007-04-16
2007-01-0857
Automobile manufacturers have increased the pace of vehicle development in recent years to respond to diverse market demands. Consequently, it has become crucial for manufacturers to develop new technology which enables a particular vehicle to simultaneously achieve both ride comfort and handling performance at an optimal level. This article introduces the suspension design technology applying the Principal Elastic Axes that has been developed by our company for use in its vehicles. These axes, which consist of three translational and three rotational axes, represent the set of fully decoupled stiffness axes. Applying the Principal Elastic Axes to the suspension reduces the number of design parameters, which enables suspension movements to be considered totally and simply.
Technical Paper

JCAPII Cross Check Tests of Fast Electrical Mobility Spectrometers for Evaluation of Accuracy

2007-10-29
2007-01-4081
Crosscheck tests of fast electrical mobility spectrometers, Differential Mobility Spectroscopy (DMS) and Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer(EEPS), were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of fine particle measurement. Two kinds of particles were used as test particles for the crosscheck test of instruments: particles emitted from diesel vehicles and diluted in a full dilution tunnel, and particles generated by CAST. In the steady state tests, it was confirmed that the average concentration of each instrument was within the range of ±2σ from the average concentration of all the same type of instruments. In the transient tests, it is verified that the instruments have almost equal sensitivity. For application of the fast electrical mobility spectrometers to evaluation of particle number and size distributions, it is essential to develop a calibration method using reference particle counters and sizers (CPC, SMPS, etc.) and maintenance methods appropriate for each model.
Technical Paper

Development of Reduction Method for Whirl Noise on Turbocharger

2007-10-29
2007-01-4018
The whirl noise on turbochargers is generated by the self-induced vibration of the oil film in the bearing system. The noise is characterized by its frequency behavior that doesn't increase proportionately to the turbo shaft speed. It tends to be felt annoying. In this paper, to improve the whirl vibration, a statistical analysis approach was applied to the bearing specifications. The results from experiments showed that the bearing clearances played an important role in the reduction of the whirl vibration. To further investigate into this phenomenon, the shaft oscillation behavior was measured. And a vibration simulation program for the turbocharger bearing system was also developed.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study and Clarification of Determination Factors of Diesel Exhaust Emission Using a Single Cylinder Engine and Model Fuels - JCAP Combustion Analysis Working Group Report Part I

2002-10-21
2002-01-2824
Single cylinder engine testing was carried out to clearly understand the test results of multi-cylinder engines reported by the Diesel WG in JCAP (Japan Clean Air Program) (1), (2), (3) and (4). In this tests, engine specifications such as fuel injection pressure, nozzle hole diameter, turbo-charging pressure, EGR rate, and fuel properties such as 1-, 2-, 3-ring aromatics content, n-,i-paraffins content, and T90 were parametrically changed and their influence on the emissions were studied. PM emission generally increased in each engine condition with increased aromatic contents and T90. In particular, multi ring aromatics brought about large increases in PM regardless of the engine conditions. The influence of fuel properties on NOx emission is smaller than the influence on PM emission. Some other fuels that have various side chain structures of 1-ring aromatics, normal paraffins only and various naphthene contents were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Engine Starting System Development by Belt Drive Mechanism

2002-03-04
2002-01-1086
The basic concept of the Toyota mild hybrid system is to provide a smooth and reliable engine restarting method from an idling stop, while at the same time being able to drive all of the accessories during the idling stop. This concept has been realized and marketed for the first time in the world, by utilizing a newly developed simulation of belt behavior to optimize the specification of the belt and its peripheral parts.
Technical Paper

Development of Pre-Crash Safety System for Heavy Duty Trucks

2006-10-31
2006-01-3486
In fatal accidents due to heavy duty trucks, the fatalities of occupants in passenger cars in which rear-end collision occur account for the largest percent. Collisions to the vehicles in traffic jams and collision to other accidents scenes on express ways can result in serious repercussions. Therefore the system which reduces the damage of collisions has long been demanded and here the world-first Pre-crash Safety (PCS) System for heavy duty trucks was developed. This system gives warning to the driver in case there is a possibility of collision with preceding vehicles, and activates the brakes to mitigate damage in case there is a higher possibility of collision. In order to get the maximum effect on the express ways where the trucks are in high speed, it is necessary to give warning and activate the brakes with relatively early timing.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Design Tool and Software Platform for Time-Triggered Network Systems

2006-10-16
2006-21-0041
This paper describes a design tool and a software platform for FlexRay systems that are investigated in Nagoya University and are proposed to JasPar. The design tool reads the specification of a system as a task graph that consists of a set of tasks and messages among them. The design tool, then, allocates the tasks to ECUs and schedules the messages on a FlexRay network. The software platform consists of a middleware called time-trigger module (TTM) which dispatches time-triggered tasks, a communication middleware for a time-triggered network (TT-COM), a network management middleware for FlexRay (FlexRay-NM), and a device driver for FlexRay controller.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Seatbelt Pretensioner Loading of the Abdomen

2006-11-06
2006-22-0002
This study characterizes the response of the human cadaver abdomen to high-speed seatbelt loading using pyrotechnic pretensioners. A test apparatus was developed to deliver symmetric loading to the abdomen using a seatbelt equipped with two low-mass load cells. Eight subjects were tested under worst-case scenario, out-of-position (OOP) conditions. A seatbelt was placed at the level of mid-umbilicus and drawn back along the sides of the specimens, which were seated upright using a fixed-back configuration. Penetration was measured by a laser, which tracked the anterior aspect of the abdomen, and by high-speed video. Additionally, aortic pressure was monitored. Three different pretensioner designs were used, referred to as system A, system B and system C. The B and C systems employed single pretensioners. The A system consisted of two B system pretensioners. The vascular systems of the subjects were perfused.
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