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Journal Article

Low Emissions and High-Efficiency Diesel Combustion Using Highly Dispersed Spray with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flows

2011-04-12
2011-01-1393
A new clean diesel combustion concept has been proposed and its excellent performance with respect to gas emissions and fuel economy were demonstrated using a single cylinder diesel engine. It features the following three items: (1) low-penetrating and highly dispersed spray using a specially designed injector with very small and numerous orifices, (2) a lower compression ratio, and (3) drastically restricted in-cylinder flow by means of very low swirl ports and a lip-less shallow dish type piston cavity. Item (1) creates a more homogeneous air-fuel mixture with early fuel injection timings, while preventing wall wetting, i.e., impingement of the spray onto the wall. In other words, this spray is suitable for premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation, and can decrease both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot considerably when the utilization range of PCCI is maximized.
Technical Paper

New Drivetrain for Toyota's Flagship Lexus LFA Sports Car

2011-04-12
2011-01-1427
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new drivetrain for their flagship Lexus LFA sports car. Passionate driving experience was pursued at the forefront of development. Superior vehicle performance, handling, and responsiveness that seem to anticipate the driver's intentions are achieved. Special vehicle packaging and component placement are adopted in the LFA in order to realize such performance. The engine, clutch, and front counter gear are positioned at the front of the vehicle, and the transaxle at the rear. The engine and transaxle are connected by a rigid torque tube. The transaxle is an automated manual transmission equipped with an electrohydraulic actuator for controlling both the shift and clutch operations. This actuator enables accurate control of the transmission and extremely quick response to shift paddle operation by the driver. This paper describes a general outline of the drivetrain and each component that has significantly contributed to LFA product appeal.
Journal Article

Development of iQ with CVT for USA

2011-04-12
2011-01-1425
TOYOTA has developed the iQ with a 1.3L engine for the Scion brand in USA. Due to the importance of fun-to-drive factor for the Scion brand image, a responsive driving performance is required even with compact packaging and a small engine. In addition, because of the recent attention to global-warming and energy issues on a global scale, development of vehicles with high fuel economy is one of the most important issues for a car manufacturer. Therefore, it is necessary for a vehicle to have both high driving performance and fuel economy. TOYOTA has adopted the CVT-i as the transmission for this purpose. The following were achieved by adopting the CVT-i as the transmission for the iQ(1.3L). 1 Responsive driving performance with shift changes without a time lag. 2 Compact transmission for efficient vehicle packaging 3 Class-leading fuel economy performance. Moreover, it was developed with adjustments for the US market by improving the shift schedule for a linear acceleration feel.
Technical Paper

A Study of Driver Injury Mechanism in High Speed Lateral Impacts of Stock Car Auto Racing Using a Human Body FE Model

2011-04-12
2011-01-1104
This paper analyzed the mechanisms of injury in high speed, right-lateral impacts of stock car auto racing, and interaction of the occupant and the seat system for the purpose of reducing the risk of injury, primarily rib fractures. Many safety improvements have been made to stock car racing recently, including the Head and Neck Support devices (HANS®), the 6-point restraint harnesses, and the implementation of the SAFER Barrier. These improvements have contributed greatly to mitigating injury during the race crash event. However, there is still potential to improve the seat structure and the understanding of the interaction between the driver and the seat in the continuation of making racing safety improvements. This is particularly true in the case of right-lateral impacts where the primary interaction is between the seat supports and the driver and where the chest is the primary region of injury.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Seatbelt Pretensioner Loading of the Abdomen

2006-11-06
2006-22-0002
This study characterizes the response of the human cadaver abdomen to high-speed seatbelt loading using pyrotechnic pretensioners. A test apparatus was developed to deliver symmetric loading to the abdomen using a seatbelt equipped with two low-mass load cells. Eight subjects were tested under worst-case scenario, out-of-position (OOP) conditions. A seatbelt was placed at the level of mid-umbilicus and drawn back along the sides of the specimens, which were seated upright using a fixed-back configuration. Penetration was measured by a laser, which tracked the anterior aspect of the abdomen, and by high-speed video. Additionally, aortic pressure was monitored. Three different pretensioner designs were used, referred to as system A, system B and system C. The B and C systems employed single pretensioners. The A system consisted of two B system pretensioners. The vascular systems of the subjects were perfused.
Technical Paper

Automatic Transmission Control Based on Estimation of Sporty Driving Intention

2013-04-08
2013-01-0483
The purpose of this research is to develop an automatic shift control method that emulates an experienced driver's manual shift maneuver which enhances driving performance during sporty driving. Driver control maneuvers and vehicle behavior were observed throughout the process of braking, cornering, and accelerating out of a corner on a winding test track. Close correlations were found between driving maneuvers, longitudinal and lateral acceleration, and the selected engine speed. Based on the analysis, an index is proposed for estimating the intention of the driver to drive in a sporty manner. This index consists of the magnitude of acceleration in a friction circle and the maximum longitudinal acceleration restricted by the performance of the power train. An automatic transmission control based on the estimated driving intention was then developed to achieve the necessary and sufficient available force.
Journal Article

Development of Ratio Control System for Toyota's New Continuously Variable Transmission

2013-04-08
2013-01-0367
Toyota has developed a new belt-type continuously variable transmission (CVT) for 1.5-liter compact vehicles. To improve both driveability and fuel economy over previous CVTs, pressure management was adopted as the shift control method. The new shift control system was designed using a model-based control method which uses a two-degree-of-freedom system composed of feedback and feedforward controls. Smooth shifting in all the target shift speed regions was realized by combining a feedback loop that considers the output limit of the pulley thrust into the feedforward controller. Furthermore, shift response was improved while maintaining or even improving stability. This paper describes the details of this shift control system.
Technical Paper

Emissions Measurement System for Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using Intermittent Sampling Strategy

2013-04-08
2013-01-1047
Conventional constant volume sampling (CVS) is well known as a precision emissions measurement method, even though the concentrations of THC, NOX, CO and CH₄ emitted from vehicles are getting lower by improvement of emissions control devices. Recently, fuel economy requirements have increased in many regions. Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), is one of the solutions for fuel economy improvement. HEVs and PHEVs have an all-electric range in which the internal combustion engines (ICEs) are completely shut down. This operation results in a high dilution factor (DF) and low concentrations of gaseous components, including CO₂, in the CVS system. Such dilution conditions directly cause an increase of numerical error for DF and an analysis error for gaseous components. Furthermore, a small amount of air flow across exhaust catalysts, drawn by slightly negative tailpipe pressure generated by the CVS during ICE shutdown may influence emission results.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Vehicle System for City Commuter Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1447
Recently, automakers have launched various types of electric vehicles (EVs) to help reduce global CO₂ emissions and reduce dependency on fossil fuel energy. Because the lithium-ion batteries that are currently under development are restricted by energy density, the physical size and mass of the battery must be significantly increased to extend the cruising range of the EV. Furthermore, dedicated charging infrastructure is required to charge the battery in a short time. At SAE in 2012, Toyota Motor Corporation proposed a concept that described the EV as suitable mainly for short-distance transportation now and in the near future. Later in the same year, Toyota launched a new EV that embodies this concept in the American and Japanese markets. This new EV is light-weight and has a compact body size, and its battery capacity is designed to sufficiently cover distances traveled in daily life. Charging is assumed to take place mainly at home.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lateral Acceleration Feedback Control with Steer-by-Wire System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0996
Steer-by-wire is a system that can independently control steering-wheel torque and vehicle-wheel steering angle. The object of this research was to realize a vehicle that can be driven according to driver's intention in any situation, such as in a crosswind, and rutted road surface. Using a steer-by-wire system, disturbance torque from the vehicle-wheels is not transmitted to the driver, signifying that the steering-wheel angle always indicates driver intention. Also, since unexpected feelings by active steering controls are reduced, feedback controls for the target vehicle behavior are easily realized. This research achieved good characteristics from steering-wheel angle to lateral acceleration by studying response characteristics using a vehicle equipped to measure lateral acceleration feedback.
Journal Article

Analysis of Piston Friction in Internal Combustion Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2515
The purpose of this study is to analyze the piston skirt friction reduction effect of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated wrist pin. The floating liner method and elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) simulation were used to analyze piston skirt friction. The experimental results showed that a DLC-coated wrist pin reduced cylinder liner friction, and that this reduction was particularly large at low engine speeds and large pin offset conditions. Friction was particularly reduced at around the top and bottom dead center positions (TDC and BDC). EHL simulation confirmed that a DLC-coated wrist pin affects the piston motion and reduces the contact pressure between the piston skirt and cylinder liner.
Journal Article

Multi Attribute Optimization: Fuel Consumption, Emissions and Driveability

2012-04-16
2012-01-0946
In making our products more attractive, it is becoming increasingly important to balance multiple areas of performance, such as fuel economy, emissions and drivability. Customer expectations and government legislations, to protect global environment, strongly increase the work complexity of auto firms in order to release high quality and eco-friendly vehicles. The balancing between several target is becoming a key factor in the car design: respect current (and anticipate future) emission limits optimization of fuel consumption insure high level of drivability maintain acceptable(or increase) performances sustain acceptable cost, reliability, etc. From recent emissions limitations, engine cold start (at the beginning of driving cycle) plays a major role in the total amount of pollutants. Especially, achievements of HC limitations are a big challenge for vehicles with a conventional spark ignition engine.
Technical Paper

Development of the New THS-II Powertrain for Compact Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-1017
Reflecting on the world's trend on saving crude oil consumption and to create an economical fuel efficient vehicle for the increasing world population, a new THS-II HV powertrain has been developed for the compact vehicle class. The application of a THS type powertrain for the compact vehicle class was a first for the world and to achieve it, brand new hardware, and software needed to be developed. For the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), state of the art technologies such as the use of the Atkinson cycle with Variable Valve Timing (VVT), cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), an electric water pump, a compact exhaust manifold, a Low Friction chain, beltless system and exhaust heat recovery system were applied. For the electric motor, copper wire with a rectangular cross section and divided stator cores combined with a newly developed production process were applied for higher volumetric density.
Technical Paper

The Power Performance and the Fuel Economy Estimation of HV for Vehicle Concept Planning Using VHDL-AMS Full Vehicle Simulation

2012-04-16
2012-01-1025
In order to reduce CO₂, Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Vehicles (HV) are effective. Those types of vehicles have powertrains from conventional vehicles. Those new powertrains drastically improve their efficiency from conventional vehicles keeping the same or superior power performance. On the other hand, those vehicles have an issue for thermal energy shortage during warming up process. The thermal energy is very large, and seriously affects the fuel economy for HV and the mileage for EV. In this paper, we propose VHDL-AMS multi-domain simulation technique for the estimation of the vehicle performance at the concept planning stage. The VHDL-AMS is IEEE and IEC standardized language, which supports not only multi-domain (physics) but also encryption. The common modeling language and encryption standard is indispensable for full-vehicle simulation.
Journal Article

Verification of ASSTREET Driver-Agent Model by Collaborating with the Driving Simulator

2012-04-16
2012-01-1161
This paper proposes a novel method of verifying comprehensive driver model used for the evaluation of driving safety systems, which is achieved by coupling the traffic simulation and the driving simulator (DS). The method consists of three-step procedure. In the first step, an actual driver operates a DS vehicle in the traffic flow controlled by the traffic simulation. Then in the next step, the actual driver is replaced by a driver model and the surrounding vehicle maneuvers are replayed using the recorded data from the first step. Then, the maneuver by the driver model is compared directly with the actual driver's maneuver along the simulation time steps.
Technical Paper

Biodiesel Stability and its Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment

2012-04-16
2012-01-0860
The effects of biodiesel oxidation stability on diesel fuel injection equipment (FIE) behavior were investigated using newly developed test rig and methodology. On the test rig, biodiesel blend fuels were circulated through a fuel tank and a common rail injection system. Fuel injected from typical diesel injectors was returned into the fuel tank to enhance the speed of fuel degradation. The results showed that injector deposits could be reproduced on a test rig. It was observed that injector body temperature increase accelerates the degradation of fuel and therefore gives earlier FIE failure. Fuel renewal could partially restore the injection quantity after complete failure at low injection pressure, thus showing a potential cleaning effect on injector deposits when refueling a car.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Components on Engine Abnormal Combustion

2012-04-16
2012-01-1276
These days, improving fuel economy is essential from the view point of energy security and global warming. Engine technologies, such as high compression engines and turbocharged engines, have already been introduced into the market. Furthermore new technologies like lean boosted engines are now being developed. However, these engines are susceptible to abnormal combustion like knocking, auto-ignition, and pre-ignition at low or high engine speeds, because these engines are run at higher combustion pressures and temperatures compared to naturally aspirated engines. It is well known that fuels have some affect on combustion characteristics. This paper examines the effects of fuel characteristics on various types of abnormal combustion. The results show that temperature and pressure have a direct impact on abnormal combustion.
Technical Paper

Development of ILSAC GF-5 0W-20 Fuel Economy Gasoline Engine Oil

2012-09-10
2012-01-1614
We report in this paper our newly developed technology applied to ILSAC GF-5 0W-20 engine oil that offers great fuel economy improvement over GF-4 counterpart, which is a key performance requirement of modern engine oil to reduce CO2 emissions from a vehicle. Our development strategy of the oil consisted of two elements: (1) further friction reduction under mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication conditions considering use of roller rocker arm type valve train system and (2) lowering viscosity at low temperature conditions to improve fuel economy under cold cycles. Use of roller rocker arm type valve train system has been spreading, because of its advantage of reducing mechanical friction. Unlike engine with conventional direct-acting type valve train system, lubrication condition of engine with the roller rocker arm type valve train system has higher contribution of mixed or hydrodynamic lubrication conditions rather than boundary lubrication condition.
Technical Paper

Research of the Relationship of Pedestrian Injury to Collision Speed, Car-type, Impact Location and Pedestrian Sizes using Human FE model (THUMS Version 4)

2012-10-29
2012-22-0007
Injuries in car to pedestrian collisions are affected by various factors such as the vehicle body type, pedestrian body size and impact location as well as the collision speed. This study aimed to investigate the influence of such factors taking a Finite Element (FE) approach. A total of 72 collision cases were simulated using three different vehicle FE models (Sedan, SUV, Mini-Van), three different pedestrian FE models (AM50, AF05, AM95), assuming two different impact locations (center and the corner of the bumper) and at four different collision speeds (20, 30, 40 and 50 km/h). The impact kinematics and the responses of the pedestrian model were validated against those in the literature prior to the simulations. The relationship between the collision speed and the predicted occurrence of head and chest injuries was examined for each case, analyzing the impact kinematics of the pedestrian against the vehicle body and resultant loading to the head and the chest.
Technical Paper

Development of Side Impact Dummy FE Models using Reverse Engineering

2012-04-16
2012-01-0091
This paper describes the development of dummy FE models to be used for side impact simulations. The precise geometries of the ES-2re dummy and the SID-IIs dummy were measured at a pitch of 1.0 mm using X-ray CT scan. The material properties and the mechanical responses of the components were measured in static and dynamic tests and were used for the model validation. The models were further validated to US-NCAP side impact requirements. Good correlation was seen for both response time history, and to peak deformation values. It is shown that modeling the precise dummy internal structure in addition to the external geometry and applying accurate material properties enabled simulation of deformation kinematics and load transfer inside the dummies. As a result, it was possible to accurately simulate the injury value time histories in an actual test, and understand the mechanisms causing changes to the loading.
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