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Technical Paper

Development of Toyota Electro Multivision

1986-05-01
860175
The Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) has many superior characteristics compared to other display devices in the area of response, high-resolution, full-color and multi-display capabilities. However, CRTs commonly- used in offices or in the home have not been applicable for automobiles because they could not ensure sufficient display. performance, brightness, vibration resistance, and reliability due to the severe driving conditions of the automobile. We examined the applicability of the CRT into an automobile display system using an experimental vehicle and improved six especially important aspects such as dimensions, display appearance time, effect of magnetism, visibility, stabilization of brightness and prevention of excessive battery drain. Consequently, we developed a new display system called “Toyota Electro Multivision” and introduced it into the ‘85 Toyota Soarer, a luxury class passenger car for the Japanese market only.
Technical Paper

High Toughness Microalloyed Steels for Vital Automotive Parts

1989-02-01
890511
We developed new microalloyed steels, containing about 0.05% sulfur, which have excellent as hot-forged toughness even when forged at the temperatures of about 1300°C(2375°F). We also estimated the various properties of the new microalloy steel in the as hot-forged condition, comparing them to quench and tempered SAE1055 steel used in the front axle of a small truck. The results showed the new steel has improved yield strength, fatigue strength, absorbed impact energy and machinability over the SAE1055 steel.
Technical Paper

A SEA-Based Optimizing Approach for Sound Package Design

2003-05-05
2003-01-1556
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is a promising tool for developing an efficient sound package design for reducing airborne interior noise at high frequencies. The optimal sound package, however, is not directly predicted by using the SEA vehicle model alone and therefore requires parametric studies of sound package configurations. This paper describes an effective method for using SEA modeling to achieve the desired interior noise level targets. A mathematical model, expressed by one equation, is derived on the assumption that the directions of the power flows are known in the SEA model. This equation describes the relationship between sound package properties and the resulting interior noise level. Using the relationship between weight and performance of sound package, an efficient configuration can be determined. The predicted sound pressure level of the vehicle interior with the optimized sound package correlated well to the experimental data for the case presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

An Approach for Compatibility Improvement Based on US Traffic Accident Data

2003-03-03
2003-01-0906
Traffic accidents in the United States were analyzed using FARS and NASS data. When classified according to vehicle body type and collision type, fatalities were most common in the case of (1) passenger car to passenger car frontal impacts, (2) passenger car to passenger car side impacts, (3) passenger car to LTV side impacts, (4) passenger car to truck frontal impacts, and (5) passenger car to LTV frontal impacts. Among these collisions, it was clearly confirmed that the occupants of a passenger car have a strong tendency to suffer injury when “the passenger car has a frontal impact with a heavier passenger car,” “the passenger car has a frontal impact with an LTV/SUV, truck,” and “the passenger car is side impacted by an LTV/SUV,” or the like. These examples should be recognized as clear cases of incompatibility. This paper will describe an approach which aim at improving compatibility. However, around 60% of occupants who suffer fatal injuries are not wearing a seat belt.
Technical Paper

New Conceptual Lead Free Overlays Consisted of Solid Lubricant for Internal Combustion Engine Bearings

2003-03-03
2003-01-0244
Two types of new conceptual lead free overlays are developed for automotive internal combustion(IC) engine bearings. The overlays are consisted of molybdenum disulfide(MoS2) and polyamideimide(PAI) resin for binding. One of the overlays is suitable for diesel engines with higher unit load and the other overlay is suitable for gasoline engines with higher sliding velocity. Both overlays indicate good corrosion resistance and wear resistance comparing with conventional lead base overlay. Moreover, higher fatigue resistance is obtained in combination with high performance lead free bearing alloy. These new bearings have the potential to become alternative materials to conventional copper lead bearings with lead base overlay.
Technical Paper

Influence of New Engine Oil Additives on the Properties of Fluoroelastomers

1998-10-19
982437
Fluoroelastmers are well known for their resistance to heat and fluids, and have become major material for crankcase oil seals. On the other hand, new additive formulations are developed for engine lubricants used for fuel economic gasoline engines. In this paper, the effects of those additives on properties of fluoroelastmers are investigated. The results of the immersion tests of both test plaques and oil seal products indicate that dithiocarbamates, friction modifier, have hardening effects on fluoroelastmers. The fluoroelastmer deterioration mechanism is determined by analysis of elastmer samples after immersion in oil.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Automatic Transmission Fluid Effects on Friction Torque Capacity - A Study by the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

1998-10-19
982672
As part of the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee's (ILSAC) goal of developing a global automatic transmission fluid (ATF) specification, members have been evaluating test methods that are currently used by various automotive manufacturers for qualifying ATF for use in their respective transmissions. This report deals with comparing test methods used for determining torque capacity in friction systems (shifting clutches). Three test methods were compared, the Plate Friction Test from the General Motors DEXRON®-III Specification, the Friction Durability Test from the Ford MERCON® Specification, and the Japanese Automotive Manufacturers Association Friction Test - JASO Method 348-95. Eight different fluids were evaluated. Friction parameters used in the comparison were breakaway friction, dynamic friction torque at midpoint and the end of engagement, and the ratio of end torque to midpoint torque.
Technical Paper

The Development of Fluid for Small-Sized and Light Weight Viscous Coupling

1998-05-04
981446
For viscous couplings(VCs) as a driving force transmission system of vehicles, requirement of torque characteristics has been getting very stringent. Because the torque characteristics significantly affect four wheel drive vehicles' abilities such as traction performance and driving stability. Furthermore, the recent concerns on high fuel economy, low pollution and low cost require that design of VCs should be increasingly compact, light weighted and excellent in transmitted torque's stability. It is an easy way to increase viscosity of viscous coupling fluids(VCFs) for the compact design of the VC. But it might cause increase in heat load and wear of plates which resulted in degradation of the VCF. The degradation affects VCF's viscosity and impairs stability in torque transmission. Therefore it is indispensable to develop high viscosity VCF which is excellent in long-term viscosity's stability.
Technical Paper

Automatic Transmission Control Based on Estimation of Sporty Driving Intention

2013-04-08
2013-01-0483
The purpose of this research is to develop an automatic shift control method that emulates an experienced driver's manual shift maneuver which enhances driving performance during sporty driving. Driver control maneuvers and vehicle behavior were observed throughout the process of braking, cornering, and accelerating out of a corner on a winding test track. Close correlations were found between driving maneuvers, longitudinal and lateral acceleration, and the selected engine speed. Based on the analysis, an index is proposed for estimating the intention of the driver to drive in a sporty manner. This index consists of the magnitude of acceleration in a friction circle and the maximum longitudinal acceleration restricted by the performance of the power train. An automatic transmission control based on the estimated driving intention was then developed to achieve the necessary and sufficient available force.
Journal Article

Development of iQ with CVT for USA

2011-04-12
2011-01-1425
TOYOTA has developed the iQ with a 1.3L engine for the Scion brand in USA. Due to the importance of fun-to-drive factor for the Scion brand image, a responsive driving performance is required even with compact packaging and a small engine. In addition, because of the recent attention to global-warming and energy issues on a global scale, development of vehicles with high fuel economy is one of the most important issues for a car manufacturer. Therefore, it is necessary for a vehicle to have both high driving performance and fuel economy. TOYOTA has adopted the CVT-i as the transmission for this purpose. The following were achieved by adopting the CVT-i as the transmission for the iQ(1.3L). 1 Responsive driving performance with shift changes without a time lag. 2 Compact transmission for efficient vehicle packaging 3 Class-leading fuel economy performance. Moreover, it was developed with adjustments for the US market by improving the shift schedule for a linear acceleration feel.
Journal Article

Verification of ASSTREET Driver-Agent Model by Collaborating with the Driving Simulator

2012-04-16
2012-01-1161
This paper proposes a novel method of verifying comprehensive driver model used for the evaluation of driving safety systems, which is achieved by coupling the traffic simulation and the driving simulator (DS). The method consists of three-step procedure. In the first step, an actual driver operates a DS vehicle in the traffic flow controlled by the traffic simulation. Then in the next step, the actual driver is replaced by a driver model and the surrounding vehicle maneuvers are replayed using the recorded data from the first step. Then, the maneuver by the driver model is compared directly with the actual driver's maneuver along the simulation time steps.
Journal Article

PEFC Performance Improvement Methodology for Vehicle Applications

2012-04-16
2012-01-1232
For over a decade and a half, Toyota Motor Corporation has been developing fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) and is continuing various approaches to enable mass production. This study used new methods to quantitatively observe some of the mass transfer phenomena in the reaction field, such as oxygen transport, water drainage, and electronic conductivity. The obtained results are applicable to the design requirements of ideal reaction fields, and have the potential to assist to reduce the size of the fuel cell.
Journal Article

Toyota's Integrated Drive Power Control System for Downsized Turbocharged Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1636
New engine controls have been developed for the turbocharged Lexus NX200t to improve driving power by reducing engine torque output lag. Drive power management functions have been centralized in an integrated drive power control system. The newly developed controls minimize the potential reduction in drivability associated with the adoption of a turbocharged engine while improving fuel efficiency. General driveability issues commonly associated with a turbocharged engine include sudden increases in drive power due to the response lag of the turbocharger, and higher shifting frequencies if this response lag triggers a disturbed accelerator operation pattern by the driver. The developed technologies detect and control sudden increases in drive power to create the optimum drive power map, and reduce unnecessary shifts even if the driver's accelerator operation is disturbed.
Journal Article

Improvement in Vehicle Motion Performance by Suppression of Aerodynamic Load Fluctuations

2015-04-14
2015-01-1537
This study focuses on fluctuations in the aerodynamic load acting on a hatchback car model under steady-state conditions, which can lead to degeneration of vehicle motion performance due to excitation of vehicle vibrations. Large eddy simulations were first conducted on a vehicle model based on a production hatchback car with and without additional aerodynamic devices that had received good subjective assessments by drivers. The numerical results showed that the magnitudes of the lateral load fluctuations were larger without the devices at Strouhal numbers less than approximately 0.1, where surface pressure fluctuations indicated a negative correlation between the two sides of the rear end, which could give rise to yawing and rolling vibrations. Based on the numerical results, wind-tunnel tests were performed with a 28%-scale hatchback car model.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compact Adsorption Heat Pump System for Automotive Air Conditioning System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0181
In order to reduce the energy consumption of the automotive air conditioning system, adsorption heat pump (AHP) system is one of the key technologies. We have been developing compact AHP system utilizing the exhaust heat from the engine coolant system (80-100 °C), which can meet the requirements in the automotive application. However, AHP systems have not been practically used in automotive applications because of its low volumetric power density of the adsorber. The volumetric power density of the adsorber is proportional to sorption rate, packing density and latent heat. In general, the sorption rate is determined by mass transfer resistance in primary particle of an adsorbent and heat and mass transfer resistance in packed bed. In order to improve the volumetric power density of the adsorber, it is necessary to increase the production of the sorption rate and the packing density.
Technical Paper

Reference PMHS Sled Tests to Assess Submarining

2015-11-09
2015-22-0008
Sled tests focused on pelvis behavior and submarining can be found in the literature. However, they were performed either with rigid seats or with commercial seats. The objective of this study was to get reference tests to assess the submarining ability of dummies in more realistic conditions than on rigid seat, but still in a repeatable and reproducible setup. For this purpose, a semi-rigid seat was developed, which mimics the behavior of real seats, although it is made of rigid plates and springs that are easy to reproduce and simulate with an FE model. In total, eight PMHS sled tests were performed on this semi-rigid seat to get data in two different configurations: first in a front seat configuration that was designed to prevent submarining, then in a rear seat configuration with adjusted spring stiffness to generate submarining. All subjects sustained extensive rib fractures from the shoulder belt loading.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Sacroiliac and Pubic Rami Fracture Occurrences in Oblique Side Impact Tests on Nine Post Mortem Human Subjects

2015-11-09
2015-22-0002
The WorldSID dummy can be equipped with both a pubic and a sacroiliac joint (S-I joint) loadcell. Although a pubic force criterion and the associated injury risk curve are currently available and used in regulation (ECE95, FMVSS214), as of today injury mechanisms, injury criteria, and injury assessment reference values are not available for the sacroiliac joint itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Three configurations were identified from full-scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th percentile male where the force passing through the pubis in all three tests was approximately 1500 N while the sacroiliac Fy / Mx peak values were 4500 N / 50 Nm, 2400 N / 130 Nm, and 5300 N / 150 Nm, respectively. These tests were reproduced using a 150 kg guided probe impacting Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) at 8 m/s, 5.4 m/s and 7.5 m/s.
Technical Paper

Animal-Vehicle Encounter Naturalistic Driving Data Collection and Photogrammetric Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0124
Animal-vehicle collision (AVC) is a significant safety issue on American roads. Each year approximately 1.5 million AVCs occur in the U.S., the majority of them involving deer. The increasing use of cameras and radar on vehicles provides opportunities for prevention or mitigation of AVCs, particularly those involving deer or other large animals. Developers of such AVC avoidance/mitigation systems require information on the behavior of encountered animals, setting characteristics, and driver response in order to design effective countermeasures. As part of a larger study, naturalistic driving data were collected in high AVC incidence areas using 48 participant-owned vehicles equipped with data acquisition systems (DAS). Continuous driving data including forward video, location information, and vehicle kinematics were recorded. The respective 11TB dataset contains 35k trips covering 360K driving miles.
Journal Article

Smart Lighting for Enhancing Perception of Pedestrians based on Visual Properties

2016-04-05
2016-01-1414
We investigated a lighting method that supports pedestrian perception by vehicle drivers. This lighting method makes active use of visual characteristics such as the spatio-temporal frequency of contrast sensitivity. Using reasonable parameter values derived from preliminary experiments using a Campbell-Robson chart, we determined a suitable lighting pattern that improves the driver's pedestrian perception. In order to assess the influence of visual characteristics on a reaction-time-dependent task, such as pedestrian perception in nighttime, tests were performed in the target environment, the results of which validated the proposed method.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Pelvic Injuries on Eighteen Post Mortem Human Subjects Submitted to Oblique Lateral Impacts

2016-11-07
2016-22-0005
The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Two test configurations were selected from full scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th dummy resulting in high sacroiliac joint loads and low pubic symphysis force, i.e. severe conditions for the sacroiliac joint. The two test conditions were reproduced in laboratory using a 150-155 kg guided probe propelled respectively at 8 m/s and 7.5 m/s and with different shapes and orientations for the plate impacting the pelvis. Nine Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) were tested in each of the two configurations (eighteen PMHS in total). In order to get information on the time of fracture, eleven strain gauges were glued on the pelvic bone of each PMHS. Results - In the first configuration, five PMHS out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. All five presented sacroiliac joint injuries associated with pubic area injuries.
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