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Technical Paper

Effects of Outriggers on Dynamic Rollover Resistance Maneuvers - Results from Phase V of NHTSA's Light Vehicle Rollover Research Program

2003-03-03
2003-01-1011
This paper describes the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) efforts to determine how different outrigger designs can affect J-Turn and Road Edge Recovery test maneuver outcome. Data were collected during tests performed with three different outrigger designs (made from aluminum, carbon fiber, and titanium) having different physical properties (geometry and weight). Four sport utility vehicles were tested: a 2001 Chevrolet Blazer, 2001 Toyota 4Runner, 2001 Ford Escape, and a 1999 Mercedes ML320. The 4Runner and ML320 were each equipped with electronic stability control, however the systems were disabled for the tests performed in this study. A detailed description of the testing performed and the results obtained are discussed. From the results, a comparison of how the three outrigger designs affected the test results is provided.
Technical Paper

Heavy Tractor-Trailer Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

2003-03-03
2003-01-0965
This paper presents the development of a real-time vehicle dynamics model of the heavy tractor-trailer combination used in the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The model includes multi-body dynamics of the tractor and trailer chassis, suspension, and steering mechanisms. The rigid body model is formulated using recursive multi-body dynamics code. This model is augmented with subsystem models that include tires, leaf springs, brakes, steering system, and aerodynamic drag. This paper also presents parameter measurement and estimations used to set up the model. Also included are models for brake fade, steering torque resistance, and defective tires.
Technical Paper

Simulation Results from a Model of a Tractor Trailer Vehicle Equipped with Roll Stability Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0098
In 2007, a software model of a Roll Stability Control (RSC) system was developed based on test data for a Volvo tractor at NHTSA's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC). This model was designed to simulate the RSC performance of a commercially available Electronic Stability Control (ESC) system. The RSC model was developed in Simulink and integrated with the available braking model (TruckSim) for the truck. The Simulink models were run in parallel with the vehicle dynamics model of a truck in TruckSim. The complete vehicle model including the RSC system model is used to simulate the behavior of the actual truck and determine the capability of the RSC system in preventing rollovers under different conditions. Several simulations were performed to study the behavior of the model developed and to compare its performance with that of an actual test vehicle equipped with RSC.
Technical Paper

Modeling of a 6×4 Tractor and Trailers for Use in Real Time Hardware in the Loop Simulation for ESC Testing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0693
According to NHTSA's 2011 Traffic Safety Facts [1], passenger vehicle occupant fatalities continued the strong decline that has been occurring recently. In 2011, there were 21,253 passenger vehicles fatalities compared to 22,273 in 2010, and that was a 4.6% decrease. However; large-truck occupant fatalities increased from 530 in 2010 to 635 in 2011, which is a 20% increase. This was a second consecutive year in which large truck fatalities have increased (9% increase from 2009 to 2010). There was also a 15% increase in large truck occupant injuries from 2010. Moreover, the fatal crashes involving large trucks increased by 1.9%, in contrast to other-vehicle-occupant fatalities that declined by 3.6% from 2010. The 2010 accident statistics NHTSA's report reveals that large trucks have a fatal accident involvement rate of 1.22 vehicles per 100 million vehicle miles traveled compared to 1.53 for light trucks and 1.18 for passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Scenario Regeneration using a Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation Platform to Study ABS and ESC Performance Benefits

2015-09-29
2015-01-2835
This study was performed to showcase the possible applications of the Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation environment developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), to test heavy truck crash avoidance safety systems. In this study, the HIL simulation environment was used to recreate a simulation of an actual accident scenario involving a single tractor semi-trailer combination. The scenario was then simulated with and without an antilock brake system (ABS) and electronic stability control (ESC) system to investigate the crash avoidance potential afforded by the tractor equipped with the safety systems. The crash scenario was interpreted as a path-following problem, and three possible driver intended paths were developed from the accident scene data.
Technical Paper

Parameter Determination and Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for The National Advanced Driving Simulator of the 2006 BMW 330i

2007-04-16
2007-01-0818
The paper discusses the development of a model for the 2006 BMW 330i for the National Advanced Driving Simulator's (NADS) vehicle dynamics simulation, NADSdyna. The front and rear suspensions are independent strut and link type suspensions modeled using recursive rigid-body dynamics formulations. The suspension springs and shock absorbers are modeled as force elements. The paper includes parameters for front and rear semi-empirical tire models used with NADSdyna. Longitudinal and lateral tire force plots are also included. The NADSdyna model provides state-of-the-art high-fidelity handling dynamics for real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The realism of a particular model depends heavily on how the parameters are obtained from the actual physical system. Complex models do not guarantee high fidelity if the parameters used were not properly measured. Methodologies for determining the parameters are detailed in this paper.
Journal Article

Hardware-in-the-Loop Pneumatic Braking System for Heavy Truck Testing of Advanced Electronic Safety Interventions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1648
The rapid innovation underway with vehicle brake safety systems leads to extensive evaluation and testing by system developers and regulatory agencies. The ability to evaluate complex heavy truck braking systems is potentially more rapid and economical through hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation which employs the actual electronics and vehicle hardware. Though the initial HiL system development is time consuming and expensive, tests conducted on the completed system do not require track time, fuel, vehicle maintenance, or technician labor for driving or truck configuration changes. Truck and trailer configuration and loading as well as test scenarios can be rapidly adjusted within the vehicle dynamics simulation software to evaluate the performance of automated safety interventions (such as ESC) over a wide range of conditions.
Technical Paper

Validation and Enhancement of a Heavy Truck Simulation Model with an Electronic Stability Control Model

2010-04-12
2010-01-0104
Validation was performed on an existing heavy truck vehicle dynamics computer model with roll stability control (RSC). The first stage in this validation was to compare the response of the simulated tractor to that of the experimental tractor. By looking at the steady-state gains of the tractor, adjustments were made to the model to more closely match the experimental results. These adjustments included suspension and steering compliances, as well as auxiliary roll moment modifications. Once the validation of the truck tractor was completed for the current configuration, the existing 53-foot box trailer model was added to the vehicle model. The next stage in experimental validation for the current tractor-trailer model was to incorporate suspension compliances and modify the auxiliary roll stiffness to more closely model the experimental response of the vehicle. The final validation stage was to implement some minor modifications to the existing RSC model.
Journal Article

Validation of Real Time Hardware in the Loop Simulation for ESC Testing with a 6×4 Tractor and Trailer Models

2013-04-08
2013-01-0692
The tractor trailer models discussed in this paper were for a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation to test heavy truck electronic stability control (ESC) systems [1]. The accuracy of the simulation results relies on the fidelity and accuracy of the vehicle parameters used. However in this case where hardware components are part of the simulation, their accuracy also affects the proper working of the simulation and ESC unit. Hence both the software and hardware components have to be validated. The validation process discussed in this paper is divided into two sections. The first section deals with the validation of the TruckSim vehicle model, where experimental data is compared with simulation results from TruckSim. Once the vehicle models are validated, they are incorporated in the HIL simulation and the second section discusses the validation of the whole HIL system with ESC.
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