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Technical Paper

Optimal Feedback Control with in-Cylinder Pressure Sensor under Engine Start Conditions

In-cylinder pressure sensor, which provides the means for precise combustion control to achieve improved fuel economy, lower emissions, higher comfort, additional diagnostic functions etc., is becoming a necessity in future diesel engines, especially for chemical-kinetics dominated PCCI (Premixed Charge Compression Ignition) or LTC (Low Temperature Combustion) engines. In this paper, new control strategy is investigated to utilize in-cylinder pressure information into engine start process, in order to guarantee the success of engine start and in the meantime prevent penalty of fuel economy or pollutant emissions due to excessive fuel injection. An engine start acceleration model is established to analyze the engine start process. “In-cylinder Combustion Analysis Tool” (i-CAT), is used to acquire and process the in-cylinder pressure data and deliver the combustion indices to ECU (Engine Control Unit). Feedback control is accomplished in ECU based on this information.
Technical Paper

Knocking Suppression using Stratified Stoichiometric Mixture in a DISI Engine

Knocking is the main obstacle of increasing compression ratio to improve the thermal efficiency of gasoline engines. In this paper, the concept of stratified stoichiometric mixture (SSM) was proposed to suppress knocking in gasoline engines. The rich mixture near the spark plug increases the speed of the flame propagation and the lean mixture in the end gas suppresses the auto ignition. The overall air/fuel ratio keeps stoichiometric to solve the emission problem using three way catalysts (TWC). Moreover, both the rich zone and lean zone lead to soot free combustion due to homogeneous mixture. The effect on the knocking of homogeneous and stratified mixture was studied in a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine using numerical simulation and experimental investigation respectively.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study Using Spark-Assisted Stratified Compression Ignition (SSCI) Hybrid Combustion Mode for Engine Particle Number (PN) Reduction in a High Compression Ratio Gasoline Engine

Particle Number (PN) have already been a big issue for developing high efficiency internal combustion engines (ICEs). In this study, controlled spark-assisted stratified compression ignition (SSCI) with moderate end-gas auto-ignition was used for reducing PN in a high compression ratio gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Under wide open throttle (WOT) and Maximum Brake Torque timing (MBT) condition, high external cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was filled in the cylinder, while two-stage direct injection was used to form desired stoichiometric but stratified mixture. SSCI combustion mode exhibits two-stage heat release, where the first stage is associated with flame propagation induced by spark ignition and the second stage is the result of moderate end-gas auto-ignition without pressure oscillation at the middle or late stage of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Electric Vehicles in China: the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

Compared with conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) offer the benefits of replacing petroleum consumption and reducing air pollutions. However, there have been controversies over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of EVs from the life-cycle perspective in China’s coal-dominated power generation context. Besides, it is in doubt whether the cost-effectiveness of EVs in China exceeds other fuel-efficient vehicles considering the high prices. In this study, we compared the life-cycle GHG emissions of existing vehicle models in the market. Afterwards, a cost model is established to compare the total costs of vehicles. Finally, the cost-effectiveness of different vehicle types are compared. It is concluded that the GHG emission intensity of EVs is lower than reference and hybrid vehicles currently and is expected to decrease with the improvement of the power grid.
Technical Paper

Design Concepts of the Four-Wheel-Independent Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

The four-wheel-independent Electro-hydraulic Braking system (4WI EHB) is a wet type Brake-by-Wire system for passenger vehicle and is suitable for electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to cooperate with regenerative braking. This paper gives a review on the design concepts of the 4WI EHB from the following three aspects. 1. Hydraulic architectures. 2. Design concepts of the brake actuator. 3. Installation of the components on the vehicle. Simulations and experiments are carried out to further explore the performance of hydraulic backup and implicit hardware redundancy (IHR). A method to integrate the IHR with hydraulic backup without increasing the total amount of valves is proposed, making the IHR cost and weight competitive. By reviewing various design concepts and analyzing their advantages and drawbacks, a cost and weight competitive design concept of the 4WI EHB with good fail-safe and fault-tolerant performance is proposed.
Technical Paper

Design, Modeling and Simulation of a New Compact Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

With the advantages of free from engine vacuum, wheel cylinder pressure decoupled from the brake pedal and can be regulated individually and precisely, the brake-by-wire system has a huge application potential in vehicles, especially in electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Electro-hydraulic Brake system is the first approach towards brake-by-wire technology. This paper proposed a new compact EHB, aiming at decreasing the size, volume and cost without compromise of performance. The main components of the proposed EHB are pedal simulator, motor pump, accumulator and eight solenoid valves. An authentic model of the EHB and other key components of the brake system were established based on the test data from the test bench. A control algorithm using Round-Robin scheduling was presented to regulate the fluid pressure. Some parameters of the components were discussed to research their effects on system performance.
Technical Paper

Prototype of Distributed Electro-Hydraulic Braking System and its Fail-Safe Control Strategy

Prototype of a brake-by-wire (BBW) system named Distributed Electro-hydraulic Braking System (DEHB) has been developed. As a BBW system, DEHB is suitable to be used in electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Comparing to the ‘dry’ type distributed BBW systems such as Electro-mechanical Braking System (EMB) or Electric Wedge Brake (EWB), the ‘wet’ feature of DEHB brings benefits to system cost, installation, performance and reliability. In this paper, prototype of the DEHB was described. Based on its ‘wet’ feature, a new fail-safe control for DEHB was proposed. Two types of DEHB architectures that can perform the proposed fail-safe control were described. Superiority of the proposed fail-safe control and architectures for DEHB were examined and verified through simulations and HIL experiments, which helps DEHB to reach a high level of safety and reliability with reduced cost on electro/electronic redundancy.
Technical Paper

A Novel Direct Yaw Moment Control System for Autonomous Vehicle

Although autonomous driving technology has become an emerging research focus, safety is still the most crucial concern when autonomous vehicles leave research laboratory and enter public traffic. Direct yaw moment control (DYC), which differentially brakes the wheels to produce a yaw moment, is an important system to ensure the driving stability of vehicle under extreme conditions. Traditional DYC system must need to take into account driver’s intention and vehicle dynamics. However, for autonomous vehicle, no human is involved in driving process, and enforcing traditional DYC system may conflict with the demands of the desired path. Therefore, in this paper, a novel DYC system for autonomous vehicle is proposed to simultaneously suppress lateral path tracking deviation while maintaining autonomous vehicle stability at or close to the driving limits. In the hardware aspect, an integrated-electro-hydraulic brake (IEHB) actuator scheme is adopted.
Technical Paper

An Explanation of the In-Wheel Motor Drive System’s Vibration at Low Velocity Using Motor-Wheel Frequency Characteristics

The in-wheel-motor (IWM) drive system has some interesting features, such as the vibration of this structure at low velocity. An explanation of this phenomenon is given in this paper by considering the dynamics performance of the in-wheel motor drive system under small slip ratio conditions. Firstly, a frequency response function (FRF) is deduced for the drive system that is composed of a dynamic tire model and a simplified motor model. Furthermore, an equation between the resonance velocity with the parameters of the drive system is obtained by combining the resonance frequency of this drive system with the fundamental frequency of the motor. The correctness of the equation is demonstrated through simulations and experimental tests on different road surfaces. The impact of different parameters on the vibration can be explained by this equation, which can give the engineer some instructions to design a control method to avoid this feature.
Technical Paper

‘Wheel Slip-Based’ Evaluation of Road Friction Potential for Distributed Electric Vehicle

As a typical parameter of the road-vehicle interface, the road friction potential acts an important factor that governs the vehicle motion states under certain maneuvering input, which makes the prior knowledge of maximum road friction capacity crucial to the vehicle stability control systems. Since the direct measure of the road friction potential is expensive for vehicle active safety system, the evaluation of this variable by cost effective method is becoming a hot issue all these years. A ‘wheel slip based’ maximum road friction coefficient estimation method based on a modified Dugoff tire model for distributed drive electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. It aims to evaluate the road friction potential with vehicle and wheel dynamics analyzing by using standard sensors equipped on production vehicle, and fully take the advantage of distributed EV that the wheel drive torque and rolling speed can be obtained accurately.
Technical Paper

Operating Characteristics and Description of a Dual Fuel Engine for Diesel-Natural Gas Heavy-Duty Operation

This paper presents a dual fuel system for diesel-natural gas operation for a truck diesel engine, and describes results of testing and analysis of the operating characteristics of the engine. The research results show that rates of fuel consumption and fuel efficiencies are increased with this engine design, and heat consumption decreased with increasing load on the engine. The heat consumption rates at medium-high loads are lower than at light loads. At full loads, the dual fuel engine exhibits heat release in which start combustion is reduced and the following combustion is rapid. The engine is tested with an electronically controlled method to meet the requirement of engine output torque.
Technical Paper

Economic, Environmental and Energy Life-Cycle Assessment of Coal Conversion to Automotive Fuels in China

A life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed to help compare the economic, environmental and energy (EEE) impacts of converting coal to automotive fuels in China. This model was used to evaluate the total economic cost to the customer, the effect on the local and global environments, and the energy efficiencies for each fuel option. It provides a total accounting for each step in the life cycle process including the mining and transportation of coal, the conversion of coal to fuel, fuel distribution, all materials and manufacturing processes used to produce a vehicle, and vehicle operation over the life of the vehicle. The seven fuel scenarios evaluated in this study include methanol from coal, byproduct methanol from coal, methanol from methane, methanol from coke oven gas, gasoline from coal, electricity from coal, and petroleum to gasoline and diesel. The LCA results for all fuels were compared to gasoline as a baseline case.
Technical Paper

Optimization of an Electric Turbo Compounding System for Gasoline Engine Exhaust Energy Recovery

A large proportion (about 33%) of the fuel energy is lost through exhaust gas in a gasoline engine. Electric turbo compounding (ETC) is a promising technology for gasoline engine exhaust energy recovery. In this paper, optimization of an ETC system for turbocharged gasoline engines is carried out. The ETC system has a turbo-generator that is in parallel with the turbocharger, the flow distribution between the turbocharger and the turbo-generator is controlled. The engine exhaust energy is recovered by the turbo-generator with fixed geometry turbine (FGT) or variable nozzle turbine (VNT). The design and control of the ETC system are optimized for best recovery of engine exhaust energy at engine full load and part load operating conditions. The system performance is studied by 1D simulation methods. The gasoline engine is modeled with the GT-POWER software and the turbochargers and turbo-generators are modeled with turbo through-flow models.
Journal Article

A Novel Hierarchical Global Chassis Control System for Distributed Electric Vehicles

The current global chassis control (GCC) frequently makes use of decoupled control methods which depend on driving condition partition and simple rule-based vertical force distribution, and are insufficient to obtain optimal vehicle dynamics performance. Therefore, a novel hierarchical global chassis control system for a distributed electric vehicle (DEV), which is equipped with four wheel driving/steering and active suspension systems, is developed in this paper. The control system consists of three layers: in the upper layer, the desired forces/moments based on vehicular driving demands are determined; in the middle layer, a coordinated control method of longitudinal/lateral/vertical tire forces are proposed; in the lower layer, the driving/steering/suspension control is conducted to realize each distributed tire force.
Technical Paper

Flame Kernel Growth and Propagation in an Optical Direct Injection Engine Using Laser Ignition

The demand for more efficient and clean engines have prompted the research and development of new engine technologies. Automotive engines expected to run with leaner mixtures and higher compression ratios. Lean burn is effective to increase fuel economy whilst reducing emissions but unreliable ignition of the lean mixtures by the conventional spark plug is one of the problems which causes concerns to the engine designers. Laser ignition is a promising technology and holds many benefits over the spark ignition because it can extend the ignitability of lean mixtures with flexibility of the ignition location and absence of electrode degradation for improved engine performance with lean burn. In this study, high-speed photography is used to investigate the flame kernel growth and propagation in an optical direct injection engine using laser ignition by an Nd:YAG laser.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of an Automotive Magneto-Rheological Brake System

The paper presents a new electromechanical brake system for vehicles using magnetorheological fluid. The brake system designed for the electric vehicle has some advantages over the conventional brake system. The brake system is made up of a brake disk, shells, magnetorheological fluid (MRF) and the electromagnets. The brake disk is immersed in the MRF whose yield stress changes as the applied magnetic field. The braking torque of this system can be linearly adjusted by the current in just a few milliseconds without the conventional vacuum booster. This system has a quick response and precise control performance with a low hysteresis. Besides, the system has adopted the original complicated structure to save space and cost. In this paper, the configuration of MRF brake types is described. The braking torques of the MRF brakes is derived based on the MRF theoretical model which is firstly raised. Some braking simulation based on the theoretical model is also shown.