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Technical Paper

CAD of engine dynamic test bed based on hybrid simulation

2000-06-12
2000-05-0348
The hybrid simulation method is adopted to develop engine dynamic test bed based on eddy-current dynamometer. The hybrid simulation scheme of engine dynamic test bed is designed. The principle is discussed. Finally, the CAD method is used to design main parameters of engine dynamic test bed based on simulation ECE15 and US LA4-CH Driving Schedules by Shanghai Santana 2000 car. The results are compared to the actual test results on the chassis dynamometer. The hybrid simulation method is proved to be an efficient way by simulation and comparison.
Journal Article

Closed Loop Control Algorithm of Fuel Cell Output Power for a City Bus

2013-04-08
2013-01-0479
This paper studies a control algorithm for fuel cell/battery city buses. The output power of the fuel cell is controlled by a D.C. converter, and the output ports of the converter and the battery are connected in parallel to supply power for the electric motor. One way to prolong service life is to have the fuel cell system to deliver a steady-state power. However, because of fluctuations in the bus voltage and uncertainness in the D.C. converter, the output power of the fuel cell system changes drastically. A closed-loop control algorithm is necessary to eliminate the errors between the output and target power of the fuel cell system. The algorithm is composed of two parts, the feed forward one and the feedback one. Influences of the bus voltage and D.C. efficiency are compensated automatically in the feedback algorithm by using a PI algorithm. The stability and robustness of the algorithm is analyzed.
Technical Paper

Lean Oxygen Gum Simulation Test for Gasoline Detergency and its Correlation with M111 Engine Test

2010-10-25
2010-01-2134
Gasoline detergency is related to deposits at various parts of the engine and therefore has impact on vehicle driveability and emission properties. The widely used engine tests such as CEC F-20 M111 and ASTM D6201 Ford 2.3L tests take tens of hours and thus are very expensive and time consuming to carry out. A new simulation test for gasoline detergency on intake valve cleanliness using lean-oxygen gum method was developed and the correlation of test results with M111 engine test was studied. Gasoline samples with different detergency levels were tested with both the lean-oxygen gum method and the M111 engine test. Test results of 24 gasoline samples show satisfactory correlation between the lean-oxygen gum method and the M111 engine test (R₂=0.7258).
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study Using Spark-Assisted Stratified Compression Ignition (SSCI) Hybrid Combustion Mode for Engine Particle Number (PN) Reduction in a High Compression Ratio Gasoline Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0758
Particle Number (PN) have already been a big issue for developing high efficiency internal combustion engines (ICEs). In this study, controlled spark-assisted stratified compression ignition (SSCI) with moderate end-gas auto-ignition was used for reducing PN in a high compression ratio gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Under wide open throttle (WOT) and Maximum Brake Torque timing (MBT) condition, high external cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was filled in the cylinder, while two-stage direct injection was used to form desired stoichiometric but stratified mixture. SSCI combustion mode exhibits two-stage heat release, where the first stage is associated with flame propagation induced by spark ignition and the second stage is the result of moderate end-gas auto-ignition without pressure oscillation at the middle or late stage of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Substructure Modal Composition and Sensitivity Analysis based on Closed-Loop Coupling Model without Coupling Spring

2016-04-05
2016-01-1309
In this paper, analysis methods for brake squeal including substructure modal composition analysis and substructure modal parameters sensitivity analysis are presented. These methods are based on a new closed-loop coupling disc brake model, where the coupled nodal pairs in each coupling interface are connected tightly. This assumption is different from other existing models in literatures, where the interface nodes are coupled through assumed springs. Based on this new model, two analysis methods are derived: Substructure modal composition analysis indicates the contribution of modes of each substructure to the noise mode; Substructure modal parameters sensitivity analysis indicates the sensitivity of the real part of system’s eigenvalue to component’s modal frequency and shape. Finally, the presented analysis methods are applied to analyse a high frequency squeal problem of a squealing disc brake.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model for SI Engines Fuelled by Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas

2008-06-23
2008-01-1633
HCNG is short for hydrogen enriched natural gas. Compared to traditional gasoline, diesel or even natural gas engines HCNG fuelled engines have several advantages on environment protection and energy security and in order to make full extent of the new fuel, several modifications have to be made in the corresponding engine and the control strategy. So there is a need to develop a predictive model to simulate the engine's performance without really running the engine, which could speed up the development of HCNG engines. This paper dose such a job. At first the paper presents the fundamentals of the quasi-dimensional model. The equations of the two-zone thermodynamic model and turbulent entrainment combustion model are both introduced. The methods of calculating the related parameters such as theoretical adiabatic flame temperature, laminar burning velocity of HCNG mixture under various hydrogen blending ratios are also given.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of an On-line Hydrogen-Natural Gas Mixing System for Internal Combustion Engine Testing

2008-06-23
2008-01-1580
Hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG) is thought to be a potential alternative to common hydrocarbon fuels for SI engine applications. Experimental researches focusing on how to use this kind of fuel to its full extent have been conducted for over ten years and are still on their way. From a review of these researches it is found that one of the biggest obstacles of efficiently and economically conducting such experiments is how to mix desired amount of hydrogen with natural gas. Most of the previous experiments use pre-bottled hydrogen/ NG mixtures (by mixing and storing desired amount of hydrogen and NG in high pressure steel cylinders before the tests) which are quite costly and unsafe, due to high pressure operation. More importantly, the blending ratio cannot be varied by that approach. By comparison, this paper presents an on-line hydrogen-natural gas mixing system through which the hydrogen/ NG blending ratio can be easily varied during the tests.
Technical Paper

Experimental and theoretical study on the swirl exhaust system for diesel engines

2000-06-12
2000-05-0162
On the basis of modular pulse converter (MPC) exhaust system the authors present a new swirl exhaust system. Structural parameters on the swirl exhaust system and MPC system for N8160ZC diesel engine were calculated by a mathematical optimum method, and the two systems were tested under the same engine operation for comparison. Experimental results show that the swirl exhaust system has a better engine performance under most of the operating conditions than MPC system, but worse under the low-speed and part-load conditions. In order to understand the mechanism of this swirl exhaust system well, a three-dimensional particle dynamic analyzer (3D-PDA) was utilized to measure the steady turbulent airflow in a swirl three-branched model. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code KIVA was modified to simulate the flows. Computational results are in good agreement with measuring ones and reveal the swirl flow behavior in the junction.
Technical Paper

Develop of active suspension and experimental study of control strategy based on output feedback and frequency shaping

2000-06-12
2000-05-0179
In this paper, a 2-DOF experimental equipment of active suspension is developed. This system is hydro-pneumatic type and is controlled through oil flow. A control strategy based on output feedback and frequency shaping is proposed and realized on this model. Output feedback can reduce the number of system states that should be measured and thus simplify the complexity and improve the reliability of the system. Because of the different human sensitivity to different frequency ranges of vibration, it is necessary to pay effort on the suppression of vibration according to human sensitivity. Frequency shaping technology is thus applied on performance index to improve the ride quality. Several types of measurement versions are investigated and optimized. Simulation results indicate that using sprung mass velocity and suspension deflection, the system performance can approach the full-state feedback system performance.
Technical Paper

A Novel Direct Yaw Moment Control System for Autonomous Vehicle

2018-08-07
2018-01-1594
Although autonomous driving technology has become an emerging research focus, safety is still the most crucial concern when autonomous vehicles leave research laboratory and enter public traffic. Direct yaw moment control (DYC), which differentially brakes the wheels to produce a yaw moment, is an important system to ensure the driving stability of vehicle under extreme conditions. Traditional DYC system must need to take into account driver’s intention and vehicle dynamics. However, for autonomous vehicle, no human is involved in driving process, and enforcing traditional DYC system may conflict with the demands of the desired path. Therefore, in this paper, a novel DYC system for autonomous vehicle is proposed to simultaneously suppress lateral path tracking deviation while maintaining autonomous vehicle stability at or close to the driving limits. In the hardware aspect, an integrated-electro-hydraulic brake (IEHB) actuator scheme is adopted.
Journal Article

Influence of Feature Lines of Vehicle Hood Styling on Headform Kinematics and Injury Evaluation in Car-to-Pedestrian Impact Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0518
Vehicle hood styling has significant influence on headform kinematics in assessment tests of pedestrian impact protection performance. Pedestrian headform kinematics on vehicle front-end models with different hood styling characteristics is analyzed based on finite element modeling. More elevated feature lines near hood boundary and the following continuous hood surface towards fender will result in a different headform motion. It can lead to larger deformation space, more rotation and earlier rebound of the headform impactor, which will benefit the head impact protection performance. In addition, hood geometry characteristics such as hood angle and curvature have effects on structural stiffness. Therefore, inclusion of considerations on pedestrian head protection into the vehicle hood styling design stage may lead to a more effective and efficient engineering design process on headform impact analysis.
Technical Paper

‘Wheel Slip-Based’ Evaluation of Road Friction Potential for Distributed Electric Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1667
As a typical parameter of the road-vehicle interface, the road friction potential acts an important factor that governs the vehicle motion states under certain maneuvering input, which makes the prior knowledge of maximum road friction capacity crucial to the vehicle stability control systems. Since the direct measure of the road friction potential is expensive for vehicle active safety system, the evaluation of this variable by cost effective method is becoming a hot issue all these years. A ‘wheel slip based’ maximum road friction coefficient estimation method based on a modified Dugoff tire model for distributed drive electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. It aims to evaluate the road friction potential with vehicle and wheel dynamics analyzing by using standard sensors equipped on production vehicle, and fully take the advantage of distributed EV that the wheel drive torque and rolling speed can be obtained accurately.
Technical Paper

Economic, Environmental and Energy Life-Cycle Assessment of Coal Conversion to Automotive Fuels in China

1998-11-30
982207
A life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed to help compare the economic, environmental and energy (EEE) impacts of converting coal to automotive fuels in China. This model was used to evaluate the total economic cost to the customer, the effect on the local and global environments, and the energy efficiencies for each fuel option. It provides a total accounting for each step in the life cycle process including the mining and transportation of coal, the conversion of coal to fuel, fuel distribution, all materials and manufacturing processes used to produce a vehicle, and vehicle operation over the life of the vehicle. The seven fuel scenarios evaluated in this study include methanol from coal, byproduct methanol from coal, methanol from methane, methanol from coke oven gas, gasoline from coal, electricity from coal, and petroleum to gasoline and diesel. The LCA results for all fuels were compared to gasoline as a baseline case.
Technical Paper

2-Butanone Laminar Burning Velocities - Experimental and Kinetic Modelling Study

2015-09-01
2015-01-1956
2-Butanone (C4H8O) is a promising alternative fuel candidate as a pure as well as a blend component for substitution in standard gasoline fuels. It can be produced by the dehydrogenation of 2-butanol. To describe 2-butanone's basic combustion behaviour, it is important to investigate key physical properties such as the laminar burning velocity. The laminar burning velocity serves on the one hand side as a parameter to validate detailed chemical kinetic models. On the other hand, especially for engine simulations, various combustion models have been introduced, which rely on the laminar burning velocity as the physical quantity describing the progress of chemical reactions, diffusion, and heat conduction. Hence, well validated models for the prediction of laminar burning velocities are needed. New experimental laminar burning velocity data, acquired in a high pressure spherical combustion vessel, are presented for 1 atm and 5 bar at temperatures of 373 K and 423 K.
Technical Paper

Waste Coke Oven Gas Used as a Potential Fuel for Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0920
Coke oven gas (COG) is a byproduct of coking plants in steel mills which can be methanized resulting in a hydrogen-methane mixture with a volumetric fraction of roughly 55% hydrogen (roughly 13.25% by mass) and 45% methane (roughly 86.75% by mass). In order to simulate the use of coke oven gas as a fuel for engines, this study focuses on hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG) at a hydrogen volumetric fraction of 55%, which is the same content as the methanized COG. The power, efficiency and emissions characteristics are outlined at different load conditions which will be provided for the next step electronic control, performance optimization and product development research. This potential alternative fuel has the potential not only to reduce engine emissions, but will also help reduce the waste COG produced in large quantities by factories across the world.
Technical Paper

Optimization of an Electric Turbo Compounding System for Gasoline Engine Exhaust Energy Recovery

2011-04-12
2011-01-0377
A large proportion (about 33%) of the fuel energy is lost through exhaust gas in a gasoline engine. Electric turbo compounding (ETC) is a promising technology for gasoline engine exhaust energy recovery. In this paper, optimization of an ETC system for turbocharged gasoline engines is carried out. The ETC system has a turbo-generator that is in parallel with the turbocharger, the flow distribution between the turbocharger and the turbo-generator is controlled. The engine exhaust energy is recovered by the turbo-generator with fixed geometry turbine (FGT) or variable nozzle turbine (VNT). The design and control of the ETC system are optimized for best recovery of engine exhaust energy at engine full load and part load operating conditions. The system performance is studied by 1D simulation methods. The gasoline engine is modeled with the GT-POWER software and the turbochargers and turbo-generators are modeled with turbo through-flow models.
Journal Article

On the Effect of Friction Law in Closed-Loop Coupling Disc Brake Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0476
Brake squeal is a complex dynamics instability issue for automobile industry. Closed-loop coupling model deals with brake squeal from a perspective of structural instability. Friction characteristics between pads and disc rotor play important roles. In this paper, a closed-loop coupling model which incorporates negative friction-velocity slope is presented. Different from other existing models where the interface nodes are coupled through assumed springs, they are connected directly in the presented model. Negative friction slope is taken into account. Relationship between nodes’ frictional forces, relative speeds and brake pressure under equilibrant sliding and vibrating states is analysed. Then repeated nodal coordinate elimination and substructures’ modal coordinate space transformation of system dynamic equation are performed. It shows that the negative friction slope leads to negative damping items in dynamic equation of system.
Journal Article

Study on Repeated-Root Modes in Substructure Modal Composition Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0477
The dynamic properties of disc rotor play important role in the NVH performance of a disc brake system. Disc rotor in general is a centrosymmetric structure. It has many repeated-root modes within the interested frequency range and they may have significant influence on squeal occurrence. A pair of repeated-root modes is in nature one vibration mode. However, in current complex eigenvalue analysis model and relevant analysis methods, repeated-root modes are processed separately. This may lead to contradictory result. This paper presents methods to deal with repeated-root modes in substructure modal composition (SMC) analysis to avoid the contradiction. Through curve-fitting technique, the modal shape coefficients of repeated-root modes are expressed in an identical formula. This formula is used in SMC analysis to obtain an integrated SMC value to represent the total influence of two repeated-root modes.
Journal Article

Study on a Closed-Loop Coupling Model without Coupling Spring

2016-04-05
2016-01-1315
Closed-loop coupling model, based on complex eigenvalue analysis, is one of the most popular and effective methods for brake squeal analysis. In the model, imaginary coupling springs are used to represent the normal contacting force between coupled nodes. Unfortunately, the physical meaning of these coupling springs was seldom discussed and there’s no systematic method to determine the value of spring stiffness. Realizing this problem, this paper, based on finite element model and modal synthesis technique, develops a new closed-loop coupling disc brake squeal model without introducing imaginary coupling springs. Different from the traditional model where two nodes at coupling interface are connected through a spring, these node-pairs in the new model are assumed to remain in tight contact during vibration. Details of the model, including force analysis, coordinate reduction and transformation and complex eigenvalue decomposition are given in this paper.
Technical Paper

Numerical methods of improving computation efficiency on diesel spray and combustion using large eddy simulation in KIVA3V code

2014-04-01
2014-01-1149
Unlike RANS method, LES method needs more time and much more grids to accurately simulate the spray process. In KIVA, spray process was modeled by Lagrangain-drop and Eulerian-fluid method. The coarse grid can cause errors in predicting the droplet-gas relative velocity, so for reducing grid dependency due to the relative velocity effects, an improved spray model based on a gas-jet theory is used in this work and in order to validate the model seven different size grids were used. In this work, the local dense grid was used to reduce the computation cost and obtain accurate results that also were compared with entire dense grid. Another method to improve computation efficiency is the MUSCL (Monotone Upstream-centered Schemes for Conservation Laws) differencing scheme that was implemented into KIVA3V-LES code to calculate the momentum convective term and reduce numerical errors.
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