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Monitoring NO2 Production of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

A combination of laboratory reactor measurements and vehicle FTP testing has been combined to demonstrate a method for diagnosing the formation of NO2 from a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Using small cores from a production DOC and simulated diesel exhaust, the laboratory reactor experiments are used to support a model for DOC chemical reaction kinetics. The model we propose shows that the ability to produce NO2 is chemically linked to the ability of the catalyst to oxidize hydrocarbon (HC). For thermally damaged DOCs, loss of the HC oxidation function is simultaneous with loss of the NO2 production function. Since HC oxidation is the source of heat generated in the DOC under regeneration conditions, we conclude that a diagnostic of the DOC exotherm is able to detect the failure of the DOC to produce NO2. Vehicle emissions data from a 6.6 L Duramax HD pick-up with DOC of various levels of thermal degradation is provided to support the diagnostic concept.
Journal Article

Response Surface Generation for Kinematics and Injury Prediction in Pedestrian Impact Simulations

This study concerns the generation of response surfaces for kinematics and injury prediction in pedestrian impact simulations using human body model. A 1000-case DOE (Design of Experiments) study with a Latin Hypercube sampling scheme is conducted using a finite element pedestrian human body model and a simplified parametric vehicle front-end model. The Kriging method is taken as the approach to construct global approximations to system behavior based on results calculated at various points in the design space. Using the response surface models, human lower limb kinematics and injuries, including impact posture, lateral bending angle, ligament elongation and bone fractures, can be quickly assessed when either the structural dimensions or the structural behavior of the vehicle front-end design change. This will aid in vehicle front-end design to enhance protection of pedestrian lower limbs.
Journal Article

Effects of Gasoline and Ethanol Fuel Corrosion Inhibitors on Powertrain Intake Valve Deposits

Corrosion inhibitors (CIs) have been used for years to protect the supply and distribution hardware used for transportation of fuel from refineries and to buffer the potential organic acids present in an ethanol blended fuel to enhance storage stability. The impact of these inhibitors on spark-ignition engine fuel systems, specifically intake valve deposits, is known and presented in open literature. However, the relationship of the corrosion inhibitors to the powertrain intake valve deposit performance is not understood. This paper has two purposes: to present and discuss a second market place survey of corrosion inhibitors and how they vary in concentration in the final blended fuel, specifically E85 (Ethanol Fuel Blends); and, to show how the variation in the concentrations of the components of the CIs impacts the operation and performance of vehicles, specifically, the effects on intake valve deposit formation.
Journal Article

The Front Center Airbag

General Motors and the Takata Corporation have worked together to bring to production a new, industry first technology called the Front Center Airbag which is being implemented on General Motors' 2013 Midsize Crossover Vehicles. This paper reviews field data, describes the hardware, and presents occupant test data to demonstrate in-position performance in far side impacts. The Front Center Airbag is an airbag that mounts to the inboard side of the driver front seat. It has a tubular cushion structure, and it deploys between the front seating positions in far side impacts, near side impacts and rollovers, with the cushion positioning itself adjacent the driver occupant's head and torso. This paper includes pictures of the technology along with a basic description of the design. In-position occupant performance is also described and illustrated with several examples. Single occupant and two front occupant far side impact test data are included, both with and without the airbag present.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection and Estimation Based on Heat Release Strategies

Engine knock has been studied extensively over the years. Its undesired effects on drivability, its potential to damage an engine, and its impact on limiting the compression ratio are the main reasons why it remains a current topic of research. This paper focuses on exploiting the connection between auto-ignition and knock. A new method based on the frequency analysis of the heat release traces is proposed to detect and estimate auto-ignition/knock robustly. Filtering the heat release signal with the appropriate bandwidth is crucial to avoid misdetection. The filter settings used in this paper are found using spectral analysis of the heat release signal. By using the proposed method, it is possible to detect auto-ignition/knock even under the presence of undesired sensor resonance effects and noise from mechanical and electrical sources.
Journal Article

Design Optimization of Front Bumper System for Low Speed Impact Insurance Industry Impact Test using DFSS and CAE Analysis

In 2006, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) released a new Low Speed Bumper Test Protocol for passenger cars1. The new test protocol included the development of a deformable barrier that the vehicle would impact at low speeds. IIHS positioned the new barrier to improve correlation to low speed collisions in the field, and also to assess the ability of the bumper system to protect the vehicle from damage. The bumper system must stay engaged to the barrier to protect other vehicle components from damage. The challenge is to identify the bumper system design features that minimize additional cost and mass to keep engagement to the barrier. The results of the Design for Six Sigma analysis identified the design features that increase the stiffness of the bumper system enable it to stay engaged to the barrier and reduce the deflection.
Technical Paper

Development of Sensor Attachment Criteria (Immunity) - Side Impact Sensor Mounted on Door Impact Beam

The sensor mounted on the door impact beam plays a major role in side impact events. The accelerations of side impact sensors are processed by sensing algorithms to make a decision on the air bag deployment. The sensing signal criterion for the deployable condition is a well understood process. However, the non-deployment sensing signal for the immunity to abuse conditions is a function of sensor attachment stiffness to the base structure. The base structure can be a door inner panel or door impact beam. In one of the production program, the acceleration based sensor attached to the impact beam showed immunity issues in the abusive door slams/opening to objects. Hence, the computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis was used to develop the sensor attachment criterion.
Technical Paper

Lean Oxygen Gum Simulation Test for Gasoline Detergency and its Correlation with M111 Engine Test

Gasoline detergency is related to deposits at various parts of the engine and therefore has impact on vehicle driveability and emission properties. The widely used engine tests such as CEC F-20 M111 and ASTM D6201 Ford 2.3L tests take tens of hours and thus are very expensive and time consuming to carry out. A new simulation test for gasoline detergency on intake valve cleanliness using lean-oxygen gum method was developed and the correlation of test results with M111 engine test was studied. Gasoline samples with different detergency levels were tested with both the lean-oxygen gum method and the M111 engine test. Test results of 24 gasoline samples show satisfactory correlation between the lean-oxygen gum method and the M111 engine test (R₂=0.7258).
Technical Paper

Knocking Suppression using Stratified Stoichiometric Mixture in a DISI Engine

Knocking is the main obstacle of increasing compression ratio to improve the thermal efficiency of gasoline engines. In this paper, the concept of stratified stoichiometric mixture (SSM) was proposed to suppress knocking in gasoline engines. The rich mixture near the spark plug increases the speed of the flame propagation and the lean mixture in the end gas suppresses the auto ignition. The overall air/fuel ratio keeps stoichiometric to solve the emission problem using three way catalysts (TWC). Moreover, both the rich zone and lean zone lead to soot free combustion due to homogeneous mixture. The effect on the knocking of homogeneous and stratified mixture was studied in a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine using numerical simulation and experimental investigation respectively.
Technical Paper

Role of Wall Effect on Hot-Spot Induced Deflagration to Detonation in Iso-Octane/Air Mixture Under High Temperature and Pressure

A 1-Dimensional (1-D) model of fluid dynamic and chemistry kinetics following hot spot auto-ignition has been developed to simulate the process from auto-ignition to pressure wave propagation. The role of wall effect on the physical-chemical interaction process is numerically studied. A pressure wave is generated after hot spot auto-ignition and gradually damped as it propagates. The reflection of the wall forms a reflected pressure wave with twice the amplitude of the incident wave near the wall. The superposition of the reflected and forward pressure waves reinforces the intensity of the initial pressure wave. Wall effect is determined by the distance between the hot spot center and the cylinder wall. Hot spot auto-ignition near the wall easily initiates detonation under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions because pressure wave reflection couples with chemical reactions and propagates in the mixture with high reactivity.
Technical Paper

A Study of Hybrid III 5th Percentile Female ATD Chest Accelerometers to Assess Sternum Compression Rate in Chest on Module Driver Out-of-Position Evaluations

Driver out-of-position (OOP) tests were developed to evaluate the risk of inflation induced injury when the occupant is close to the airbag module during deployment. The Hybrid III 5th percentile female Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) measures both sternum displacement and chest acceleration through a potentiometer and accelerometers, which can be used to calculate sternum compression rate. This paper documents a study evaluating the chest accelerometers to assess punch-out loading of the chest during this test configuration. The study included ATD mechanical loading and instrumentation review. Finite element analysis was conducted using a Hybrid III - 5th percentile female ATD correlated to testing. The correlated restraint model was utilized with a Hybrid III - 50th percentile male ATD. A 50th percentile male Global Human Body Model (HBM) was then applied for enhanced anatomical review.
Technical Paper

Combustion Mode Switch by Integrating Stoichiometric ASSCI Mode in a Four-cylinder Gasoline SI/HCCI Engine

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Spark Ignition (SI) dual-mode operation provides a practical solution to apply HCCI combustion in gasoline engines. However, the different requirements of air-fuel ratio and EGR ratio between HCCI combustion and SI combustion results in enormous control challenges in HCCI/SI mode switch. In this paper, HCCI combustion was achieved in a four-cylinder gasoline direct injection engine without knock and misfire using close-loop control by knock index. Assisted Spark Stratified Compression Ignition (ASSCI) combustion was obtained stably at medium-high load. ASSCI combustion exhibits two-stage heat release with initial flame propagation and controlled auto-ignition. The knock index of ASSCI combustion is less than HCCI combustion due to the lower pressure rise rate.
Technical Paper

Driver Visibility: Customer Insights and Metric Development

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in driver visibility. This is, in part, due to increasing emphasis placed on design factors influencing visibility such as: aerodynamics, styling, structural stiffness and vehicle packaging. During the development process of a vehicle, it is important to be able to quantify all of these factors. Visibility, however, owing to its sensory nature, has been harder to quantify. As a result, General Motors (GM) has undertaken a study to gain deeper insight into customer perceptions surrounding visibility. Clinics were conducted to help determine the relative importance of different metrics. The paper also explores several new metrics that can help predict customer satisfaction based on vehicle configuration.
Technical Paper

Cellulosic Ethanol Fuel Quality Evaluation and its Effects on PFI Intake Valve Deposits and GDI Fuel Injector Plugging Performance

The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) mandates the use of advanced renewable fuels such as cellulosic ethanol to be blended into gasoline in the near future. As such, determining the impact of these new fuel blends on vehicle performance is important. Therefore, General Motors conducted engine dynamometer evaluations on the impact of cellulosic ethanol blends on port fuel injected (PFI) intake valve deposits and gasoline direct injected (GDI) fuel injector plugging. Chemical analysis of the test fuels was also conducted and presented to support the interpretation of the engine results. The chemical analyses included an evaluation of the specified fuel parameters listed in ASTM International's D4806 denatured fuel ethanol specification as well as GC/MS hydrocarbon speciations to help identify any trace level contaminant species from the new ethanol production processes.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Buoyancy-Driven Flow in a Simplified Underhood with Open Enclosure

Numerical results are presented for simulating buoyancy driven flow in a simplified full-scale underhood with open enclosure in automobile. The flow condition is set up in such a way that it mimics the underhood soak condition, when the vehicle is parked in a windbreak with power shut-down after enduring high thermal loads due to performing a sequence of operating conditions, such as highway driving and trailer-grade loads in a hot ambient environment. The experimental underhood geometry, although simplified, consists of the essential components in a typical automobile underhood undergoing the buoyancy-driven flow condition. It includes an open enclosure which has openings to the surrounding environment from the ground and through the top hood gap, an engine block and two exhaust cylinders mounted along the sides of the engine block. The calculated temperature and velocity were compared with the measured data at different locations near and away from the hot exhaust plumes.
Journal Article

Gasoline DICI Engine Operation in the LTC Regime Using Triple- Pulse Injection

An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline injected using a triple-pulse strategy in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. This work aims to extend the operation ranges for a light-duty diesel engine, operating on gasoline, that have been identified in previous work via extended controllability of the injection process. The single-cylinder engine (SCE) was operated at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min) and computational simulations of the in-cylinder processes were performed using a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion chosen to match ignition characteristics of the gasoline fuel used for the SCE experiments.
Technical Paper

Coordinated Control of EGR and VNT in Turbocharged Diesel Engine Based on Intake Air Mass Observer

Coordinated EGR-VNT control based on the intake air mass observer is presented in this paper to deal with the transient AFR control of turbocharged diesel engine. The air mass model embedded in the observer is a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy neural network trained with transient simulation results. It can predict the charged fresh air mass entering the cylinder. In a high load region, when EGR is not effective, the coordinated EGR-VNT control will also bring benefits to the transient air-fuel-ratio control. The simulation results of TDI engine model verify that the transient control strategy will allow a better control of the intake air mass, and thus improve air-fuel-ratio control and reduce NOx emission in transients.
Technical Paper

Study of Engine Knock in HCCI Combustion using Large Eddy Simulation and Complex Chemical Kinetics

This paper studied the knock combustion process in gasoline HCCI engines. The complex chemical kinetics was implemented into the three-dimensional CFD code with LES (Large eddy simulation) to study the origin of the knock phenomena in HCCI combustion process. The model was validated using the experimental data from the cylinder pressure measurement. 3D-CFD with LES method gives detailed turbulence, species, temperature and pressure distribution during the gasoline HCCI combustion process. The simulation results indicate that HCCI engine knock originates from the random multipoint auto-ignition in the combustion chamber due to the slight inhomogeneity. It is induced by the significantly different heat release rate of high temperature oxidation (HTO) and low temperature oxidation (LTO) and their interactions.
Technical Paper

The Comparative Study of Gasoline and n-butanol on Spray Characteristics

n-butanol has been recognized as a promising alternative fuel for gasoline and may potentially overcome the drawbacks of methanol and ethanol, e.g. higher energy density. In this paper, the spray characteristics of gasoline and n-butanol have been investigated using a high pressure direct injection injector. High speed imaging and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques were used to study the spray penetration and the droplet atomization process. The tests were carried out in a high pressure constant volume vessel over a range of injection pressure from 60 to 150 bar and ambient pressure from 1 to 5 bar. The results show that gasoline has a longer penetration length than that of n-butanol in most test conditions due to the relatively small density and viscosity of gasoline; n-butanol has larger SMD due to its higher viscosity. The increase in ambient pressure leads to the reduction in SMD by 42% for gasoline and by 37% for n-butanol.