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Technical Paper

Incompressible Flow Computations Around Vehicle Bodies Using Unstructured Hybrid Grids

A hybrid unstructured Navier-Stokes method is presented for the simulation of the incompressible turbulent flows around vehicle bodies. The hybrid grid system is composed of a structured or semistructured grid for the near-wall viscous region, and an unstructured grid for the remainder of the computational domain. By using prismatic cells, the number of cells in the boundary-layer region becomes approximately one-third of the tetrahedral grid. And the laminated grid rather than the tetrahedral grid is more suitable in the boundary-layer region for accurately computing the viscous terms. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved on the hybrid grid by a cell-vertex, central differencing finite volume method. The numerical accuracy of the present method is discussed by comparing with the experimental data for the cases of flows around a car model at different ground clearances.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Modeling of Vehicle Fuel Cell Power System Thermal Management

A mathematical model of vehicle fuel cell system thermal management has been developed to investigate the effects of various design and operating conditions on the thermal management and to understand the underlying mechanism. The fuel cell stack structure is represented by a lumped thermal mass model, which has the heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of the fuel cell stack structure. The whole thermal management system is discretized into many volumes, where each flowspit is represented by a single volume, and every pipe is divided into one or more volumes. These volumes are connected by boundaries. The model is solved numerically to analyze thermal management system performance. The effects of coolant flow rates and air flow rates on the system thermal performance, the stack thermal capacity on the transient thermal performance have been investigated in detail.