Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Effect of Ash on Gasoline Particulate Filter Using an Accelerated Ash Loading Method

2018-04-03
2018-01-1258
Gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is considered a suitable solution to meet the increasingly stringent particle number (PN) regulations for both gasoline direct injection (GDI) and multi-port fuel injection (MPI) engines. Generally, GDI engines emit more particulate matter (PM) and PN. In recent years, GDI engines have gained significant market penetration in the automobile industry owing to better fuel economy and drivability. In this study, an accelerated ash loading method was tested by doping lubricating oil into the fuel for a GDI engine. Emission tests were performed at different ash loads with different driving cycles and GPF combinations. The results showed that the GPF could significantly reduce particle emissions to meet the China 6 regulation. With further ash loading, the filtration efficiency increased above 99% and the effects on fuel consumption and backpressure were found to be limited, even with an ash loading of up to 50 g/l.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study and Numerical Interpretation on the Temperature Field of DPF during Active Regeneration with Hydrocarbon Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-1257
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is indispensable for diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. Both the peak temperature and the maximum temperature gradient of the DPF during active regeneration should be well controlled in order to enhance the reliability and durability of the filter. In this paper, the temperature field of the DPF during active regeneration with hydrocarbon (HC) injection was investigated with engine bench tests and numerical simulation. For the experimental study, 24 thermocouples were inserted into the DPF channels to measure the inner temperature of the filter to capture its temperature field, and the circumferential, axial and radial distribution of the filter temperature was analyzed to understand the DPF temperature field behavior during active regeneration.
Technical Paper

A Stochastic Energy Management Strategy for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles

2007-01-23
2007-01-0011
An energy management strategy is needed to optimally allocate the driver's power demands to different power sources in the fuel cell hybrid vehicles. The driver's power demand is modelled as a Markov process in which the transition probabilities are estimated on the basis of the observed sample paths. The Markov Decision Process (MDP) theory is applied to design a stochastic energy management strategy for fuel cell hybrid vehicles. This obtained control strategy was then tested on a real time simulation platform of the fuel cell hybrid vehicles. In comparison to the other 3 strategies, the constant bus voltage strategy, the static optimization strategy and the dynamic programming strategy, simulations in the Beijing bus driving cycle demonstrate that the obtained stochastic energy management strategy can achieve better performance in fuel economy in the same demand of dynamic.
Technical Paper

Research on Steady and Transient Performance of an HCCI Engine with Gasoline Direct Injection

2008-06-23
2008-01-1723
In this paper, a hybrid combustion mode in four-stroke gasoline direct injection engines was studied. Switching cam profiles and injection strategies simultaneously was adopted to obtain a rapid and smooth switch between SI mode and HCCI mode. Based on the continuous pressure traces and corresponding emissions, HCCI steady operation, HCCI transient process (combustion phase adjustment, SI-HCCI, HCCI-SI, HCCI cold start) were studied. In HCCI mode, HCCI combustion phase can be adjusted rapidly by changing the split injection ratio. The HCCI control strategies had been demonstrated in a Chery GDI2.0 engine. The HCCI engine simulation results show that, oxygen and active radicals are stored due to negative valve overlap and split fuel injection under learn burn condition. This reduces the HCCI sensitivity on inlet boundary conditions, such as intake charge and intake temperature. The engine can be run from 1500rpm to 4000rpm in HCCI mode without spark ignition.
Technical Paper

Injection Rate Control in Electronic in-line Pump-Valve-Pipe-Injector Diesel Injection System

1999-03-01
1999-01-0201
Injection rate control is considered as an effective way to optimize diesel combustion process, decrease emission and improve fuel economy. There are many injection rate shaping devices, but most of them still suffer from structure complexity and parameter sensitivity which limit their effectiveness and practicality. A new initial injection rate control method in solenoid-controlled diesel injection systems is introduced in this paper. The basic idea of this method is to maintain a small spill passage between plunger chamber and inlet port during initial injection period. The initial injection rate can be regulated by changing the closing timing of the solenoid-controlled spill valve. This method has the advantages of simple construction, flexible adjustment and stable performance. Computer aided analysis and design based on a simulation program of the system is conducted to compare and select the sizes of the small spill passage according to their effect on injection characteristics.
Technical Paper

Injection Strategy Study of Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Naphtha

2015-09-01
2015-01-1797
This study investigates the performance of a diesel engine fueled with naphtha under different load by varying injection parameters and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate. The experiments were conducted on a 1.9-liter common rail diesel engine with a compression ratio of 17.5. Naphtha with a research octane number of 60.5 was tested. Three multi-injection strategies were designed. Each injection strategy, aided with EGR, conducts a characteristic combustion mode. Multi-injection strategies and single-injection strategy were tested and compared at one operating point under different main injection timing and EGR conditions. Results indicate that the well-designed multi-injection strategy has advantages over the single injection strategy in lowering noise, emissions and improving combustion efficiency. Among the three strategies, the strategy with 15-degree pilot timing and 2mg/cycle pilot injection could achieve both low NOx and PM emissions without sacrificing much fuel efficiency.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Homogeneous Charge Induced Ignition (HCII) with Low-Pressure Injection to Reduce PM Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0775
Homogeneous Charge Induced Ignition (HCII) combustion utilizes a port injection of high-volatile fuel to form a homogeneous charge and a direct injection of high ignitable fuel near the Top Dead Center (TDC) to trigger combustion. Compared to Conventional Diesel Combustion (CDC) with high injection pressures, HCII has the potential to achieve diesel-like thermal efficiency with significant reductions in NOx and PM emissions with relatively low-pressure injections, which would benefit the engine cost saving remarkably. In the first part of current investigation, experiments were conducted at medium load with single diesel injection strategy. HCII exhibited great potential of using low injection pressures to achieve low soot emissions. But the engine load for HCII was limited by high heat release rate. Thus, in the second and third part, experiments were performed at high and low load with double diesel injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Application of Narrow Cone Angle Injectors to Achieve Advanced Compression Ignition on a Mass-Production Diesel Engine - Control Strategy and Engine Performance Evaluation

2009-11-02
2009-01-2700
Advanced compression ignition combustion system which reduces simultaneously both nitride oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) is a promising approach to meet future emission regulations. In order to achieve advanced compression ignition, flexible fuel injection is required for ultra-early and post-TDC injections, which conventional injector fails to accomplish due to wall-wetting effect. In this work, special injectors with the spray angle of 60 degree are applied on a 4 cylinder mass-production diesel engine without modification of the engine configuration. For application-oriented study, sweep experiments of injection timings and durations, fuel injection pressure and the boost pressure are carried out to investigate the relationships between the control parameters and the engine performance. Model based calibration and real application tests validate the maximum applicable operation range of maximum speed of 2200 RPM and IMEP of 8.0 bar.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter with Exhaust Fuel Injection System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1496
The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is an effective technology for particulate matter (PM) and particle number (PN) reduction. On heavy-duty diesel engines, the passive regeneration by Diesel Oxidation catalysts (DOC) and catalyzed DPFs (CDPF) is widely used for its simplicity and low cost, which is generally combined with the active regeneration of exhaust fuel injection. This study investigated a DOC-CDPF system with exhaust fuel injection upstream of the DOC. The system was integrated with a 7-liter diesel engine whose engine-out PM emission was below the Euro IV level and tested on an engine dynamometer. PM and PN concentrations were measured based on the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP), and the number/size spectrum for particles was obtained by a Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS). The filtration efficiency of DPF on PN was higher than 99% in ESC test, while the efficiency on PM was only 58%.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Injector Deposits on Spray and Particulate Emission of Advanced Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle

2016-10-17
2016-01-2284
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have developed rapidly in recent years driven by fuel efficiency and consumption requirements, but face challenges such as injector deposits and particulate emissions compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. While the mechanisms of GDI injector deposits formation and that of particulate emissions have been respectively revealed well, the impact of GDI injector deposits and their relation to particulate emissions have not yet been understood very well through systematic approach to investigate vehicle emissions together with injector spray analysis. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted on a GDI vehicle produced by a Chinese Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and an optical spray test bench to determine the impact of injector deposits on spray and particulate emissions.
Journal Article

Impact of Particle Characteristics and Engine Conditions on Deposit-Induced Pre-Ignition and Superknock in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2345
Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), also referred to as superknock or mega-knock is an undesirable turbocharged engine combustion phenomenon limiting fuel economy, drivability, emissions and durability performance. Numerous researchers have previously reported that the frequency of Superknock is sensitive to engine oil and fuel composition as well as engine conditions in controlled laboratory and engine-based studies. Recent studies by Toyota and Tsinghua University have demonstrated that controlled induction of particles into the combustion chamber can induce pre-ignition and superknock. Afton and Tsinghua recently developed a multi-physics approach which was able to realistically model all of the elementary processes known to be involved in deposit induced pre-ignition. The approach was able to successfully simulate deposit induced pre-ignition at conditions where the phenomenon has been experimentally observed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Oil and Gasoline Properties on Pre-Ignition and Super-Knock in a Thermal Research Engine (TRE) and an Optical Rapid Compression Machine (RCM)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0720
High boost and direct injection are effective ways for energy saving in gasoline engines. However, the occurrence of super-knock at high load has become a main obstacle for further improving power density and fuel economy. It has been known that super-knock can be induced by pre-ignition, and oil droplet auto-ignition is found to be one of the possible mechanisms. In this study, experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder thermal research engine (TRE), in which different types of oil and surrogates were directly injected into the cylinder and then led to pre-ignition and super-knock. The effect of oil injection timing, oil injection quantity, different gasoline and different oil were tested. All the oil in this work could induce pre-ignition, even though their combustion phasing was much later than that in the case of n-hexadecane.
Technical Paper

Mission-based Design Space Exploration for Powertrain Electrification of Series Plugin Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck

2018-04-03
2018-01-1027
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are essential for reducing fuel consumption and emissions. However, when analyzing different segments of the transportation industry, for example, public transportation or different sizes of delivery trucks and how the HEV are used, it is clear that one powertrain may not be optimal in all situations. Choosing a hybrid powertrain architecture and proper component sizes for different applications is an important task to find the optimal trade-off between fuel economy, drivability, and vehicle cost. However, exploring and evaluating all possible architectures and component sizes is a time-consuming task. A search algorithm, using Gaussian Processes, is proposed that simultaneously explores multiple architecture options, to identify the Pareto-optimal solutions.
Journal Article

Large Eddy Simulation of an n-Heptane Spray Flame with Dynamic Adaptive Chemistry under Different Oxygen Concentrations

2015-04-14
2015-01-0400
Detailed chemical kinetics is essential for accurate prediction of combustion performance as well as emissions in practical combustion engines. However, implementation of that is challenging. In this work, dynamic adaptive chemistry (DAC) is integrated into large eddy simulations (LES) of an n-heptane spray flame in a constant volume chamber (CVC) with realistic application conditions. DAC accelerates the time integration of the governing ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for chemical kinetics through the use of locally (spatially and temporally) valid skeletal mechanisms. Instantaneous flame structures and global combustion characteristics such as ignition delay time, flame lift-off length (LOL) and emissions are investigated to assess the effect of DAC on LES-DAC results. The study reveals that in LES-DAC simulations, the auto-ignition time and LOL obtain a well agreement with experiment data under different oxygen concentrations.
Technical Paper

Development of Model Based Closed Loop Control Strategy of SCR System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2383
Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a key technology for heavy-duty diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent nitric oxides (NOx) emission limits of regulations. The urea water solution injection control is critical for urea SCR systems to achieve high NOx conversion efficiency while keeping the ammonia (NH3) slip at a required level. In general, an open loop control strategy is sufficient for SCR systems to satisfy Euro IV and Euro V NOx emission limits. However, for Euro VI emission regulation, advanced control strategy is essential for SCR systems due to its more tightened NOx emission limit and more severe test procedure compared to Euro IV and Euro V. This work proposed an approach to achieve model based closed loop control for SCR systems to meet the Euro VI NOx emission limits. A chemical kinetic model of the SCR catalyst was established and validated to estimate the ammonia storage in the SCR catalyst.
Technical Paper

Energetic Macroscopic Representation Based Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Taking into Account Demand Power Optimization

2017-10-08
2017-01-2208
To further explore the potential of fuel economy for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a methodology of demand power optimization is proposed. The fuel consumption depends not only on the EMS, but also on the way to operate vehicle. A control strategy to adjust driver’s demand before power splitting is necessary. To get accurate and reliable control strategy, two aspects are the most important. First, a rigorous and organized modeling approach is a base to describe complicated powertrain system of HEV. The energetic macroscopic representation (EMR) is a graphical synthetic description of electromechanical conversion system based on energy flow. A powertrain architecture of HEV is described explicitly via the EMR. Second, the effectiveness of EMS and the reasonability of driving operations are vital.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Energy Consumption on Typical Main Cylinder Booster Based Brake-by-Wire System

2016-09-18
2016-01-1955
The traditional vacuum booster is gradually replaced by Brake-by-Wire system (BBW) in modern passenger car, especially Electric Vehicle (EV). Some mechanical and hydraulic components are replaced by electronic components in Brake-by-Wire system. Using BBW system in modern passenger vehicles can not only improve the automotive safety performance, reliability and stability, but also promote vehicle maneuverability, comfort, fuel economy and environmental protection. Although vehicle's braking performance is greatly improved by using BBW, the system will inevitably consume some energy of the vehicle power supply, thus introducing unexpected drawback in comparison with the traditional vacuum assist braking system, since it doesn't need any electric power. Therefore, the analysis of energy consumption on typical main cylinder booster based BBW system under typical driving cycles will contribute to advanced design of current advanced braking system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Detergent on Injector Deposit Formation and Engine Emissions in a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2247
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been developed rapidly in recent years, driven by stringent legislative requirements on vehicle fuel efficiency and emissions. However, one challenge facing GDI is the formation of particulate emissions, particularly with the presence of injector tip deposits. The Chinese market features some gasoline fuels that contain no detergent additives and are prone to deposit formation, which can affect engine performance and emissions. The use of detergent additives to mitigate the formation of injector deposits in a GDI engine was investigated in this study by testing a 1.5L turbocharged GDI engine available in the Chinese market. The engine was operated both on base gasoline and on gasoline dosed with detergent additives to evaluate the effect on injector deposit formation and engine performance and emissions.
Technical Paper

The Impact of GDI Injector Deposits on Engine Combustion and Emission

2017-10-08
2017-01-2248
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine technology is now widely used due to its high fuel efficiency and low CO2 emissions. However, particulate emissions pose one challenge to GDI technology, particularly in the presence of fuel injector deposits. In this paper, a 4-cylinder turbocharged GDI engine in the Chinese market was selected and operated at 2000rpm and 3bar BMEP condition for 55 hours to accumulate injector deposits. The engine spark timing, cylinder pressure, combustion duration, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), gaseous pollutants which include total hydro carbon (THC), NOx (NO and NO2) and carbon dioxide (CO), and particulate emissions were measured before and after the injector fouling test at eight different operating conditions. Test results indicated that mild injector fouling can result in an effect on engine combustion and emissions despite a small change in injector flow rate and pulse width.
Technical Paper

Glow Plug Assisted Compression Ignition (GA-CI) in Cold Conditions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2288
Low temperature combustion (LTC) is an advanced combustion mode, which can achieve low emissions of NOx and PM simultaneously, and keep relatively high thermal efficiency at the same time. However, one of the major challenges for LTC is the cold condition. In cold conditions, stable compression ignition is hard to realize, while thermal efficiency and emissions deteriorate, especially for gasoline or fuel with high octane number. This study presents using pressure sensor glow plugs (PSG) to realize Glow plug assisted compression ignition (GA-CI) at cold conditions. Further, a glow plug control unit (GPCU) is developed, a closed-loop power feedback control algorithm is introduced based on GPCU. In the experiment, engine coolant temperature is swept. Experimental results show that GA-CI has earlier combustion phases, larger combustion duration and higher in-cylinder pressure. And misfire is avoided, cycle-to-cycle variations are greatly reduced.
X