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Technical Paper

An Elementary Simulation of Vibration Isolation Characteristics of Hydraulically Damped Rubber Mount of Car Engine

Hydraulically damped rubber engine mounts (HDM) are an effective means of providing sufficient isolation from engine vibration while also providing significant damping to control the rigid body motions of the engine during normal driving conditions. This results in a system which exhibits a high degree of non-linearity in terms of both frequency and amplitude. The numerical simulation of vibration isolation characteristics of HDM is difficult due to the fluid-structure interaction between the main supporting rubber and fluid in chambers, the nonlinear material properties, the large deformation of rubber parts, structure contact problems among the inner parts, and the turbulent flow in the inertia track. In this paper an integrated numerical simulation analysis based on structural FEM and a lumped-parameter model of HDM is carried out.
Technical Paper

Study of the Injection Control Valve in a New Electronic Diesel Fuel System

At first, the dynamic electromagnetic characteristics of a pulsed solenoid valve is analyzed by experiments. The fast valve response is obtained by material modifications. Then, the intelligent solenoid driving method is discussed. The new techniques of the “active” PWM and the “d2i/dt2” detection are developed for feedback control of the solenoid holding current and the valve closure timing. Finally, the control and diagnosis method for the valve closure duration is investigated. A sensing mechanism utilizing momentary camshaft speed fluctuations of fuel injection pump is presented, which provides the basis for feedback control and diagnosis of the valve closure duration and diesel fuel injection process.
Technical Paper

Study of Turbulent Entrainment Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model for HCNG Engines with Variable Ignition Timings

Presently, urban transportation highly depends on the fossil fuels, but its rapid fluctuating economic issues and environmental consequences impose the variegation of energy sources. Hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG) engines offer the potential of higher brake thermal efficiency with low emissions, which also satisfies the strict pollutant emission standards. The two-zone turbulent entrainment quasi-dimensional combustion model is developed to predict the combustion process of spark-ignited hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas-fueled engines. The fundamentals of thermodynamic process, turbulent flame propagation model and other sub-models like laminar burning velocity, adiabatic temperature and ignition lag model are introduced for the better accuracy. The experiments have been conducted for three different fuels; pure CNG, 20% HCNG, and 40% HCNG blends under MAP of 105 kPa for various excess air ratios (λ) and ignition timing (θi).
Technical Paper

Control System Design for Variable Nozzle Turbocharger

The electronic control system of the variable nozzle turbocharger (VNT) was designed. The actuator is the electro-hydraulic servo proportional solenoid. The signals of the engine pedal position sensor, the engine speed sensor, the boost pressure sensor, the intake air temperature sensor, and the ambient pressure sensor are sampled and filtered. The engine working condition is estimated. The control algorithm was designed as the closed-loop feedback digital PI control together with the open-loop feed forward control. The gain-scheduled PI control method is applied to improve the robustness. The control system was calibrated at the turbocharger test bench and the engine test bench. The results indicate the designed control system has good performance for the boost pressure control under the steady and transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Study of the Control Strategy of the Plateau Self-adapted Turbocharging System for Diesel Engine

A plateau self-adapted turbocharging system based on variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) technology is proposed to solve the problem of diesel engine operating at plateau. The control strategy of the plateau self-adapted turbocharging system is studied using a GT-Power engine model. The control strategy is based on the optimization of the VGT nozzle vane position at various engine operating conditions and various altitudes. Simulation results show that by optimizing the matching and controlling the VGT, the performance of the engine matched with VGT can be improved significantly compared with the one matched with FGT (fixed geometry turbocharger) at various altitudes. Surge and overspeed phenomena of the turbocharger can also be avoided.
Technical Paper

Integrated System Simulation for Turbocharged IC Engines

An integrated simulation platform for turbocharged internal combustion engines has been developed. Multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes are integrated into the system to model the turbocharging circuit, gas circuit, in-cylinder circuit, coolant and oil circuits. As the turbocharger is a critical factor for the IC engine, a turbocharger through-flow model based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations has been developed and added in the integrated platform. Compared with the traditional MAP method, the through-flow model can solve the problems of transient matching and lack of numerous experimental maps during the pre-prototype engine design. Partial systems in the integrated platform, such as the in-cylinder flow and combustion circuit, can be modeled by 3-D CFD codes for the investigation of the detailed flow patterns.
Technical Paper

Mixing Effects of Early Injection in Diesel Spray Using LES Model with Different Subgrid Scale Models

Early injection timing is an effective measure of pre-mixture formation for diesel low-temperature combustion. Three algebraic subgrid models (Smagorinsky model, dynamic Smagorinsky model and WALE model) and one-equation kinetic energy turbulent model using modified TAB breakup model (MTAB model) have been implemented into KIVA3V code to make a detailed large eddy simulation of the atomization and evaporation processes of early injection timing in a constant volume chamber and a Ford high-speed direct-injection diesel engine. The results show that the predictive vapor mass fraction and liquid penetration using LES is in good agreement with the experiment results. In combustion chamber, the sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy and viscosity using LES are less than with the RANS models, and following the increasing time, the sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy and viscosity also increase and are concentrated on the spray area.
Technical Paper

Head Protection Characteristics of Windshield During Pedestrian-Vehicle Accident

The windshield is one of the most critical vehicle components in terms of pedestrian safety; however, it has not been thoroughly and systematically investigated through combined experimental and theoretical analysis. Firstly, this paper carries out quasi-static experiments on Material Testing System (MTS) and dynamic experiments on Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) and new tests data are obtained. Results indicate that Polyvinyl butyral (PVB)-laminated glass behaves nonlinearly and rate-dependently under various strain rates, from 1x10-⁵s-₁~6x10₃ s-₁. Thus, a constitutive model covering all strain rates is proposed to describe the constitutive behavior of PVB-laminated glass and it fits well with the experimental data. Further, the constitutive relation is embedded into the 3D finite element model of windshield. With the definition of four governing factors and two evaluation indicators, the head protection characteristics of windshield are numerically studied.
Technical Paper

Research on Steady and Transient Performance of an HCCI Engine with Gasoline Direct Injection

In this paper, a hybrid combustion mode in four-stroke gasoline direct injection engines was studied. Switching cam profiles and injection strategies simultaneously was adopted to obtain a rapid and smooth switch between SI mode and HCCI mode. Based on the continuous pressure traces and corresponding emissions, HCCI steady operation, HCCI transient process (combustion phase adjustment, SI-HCCI, HCCI-SI, HCCI cold start) were studied. In HCCI mode, HCCI combustion phase can be adjusted rapidly by changing the split injection ratio. The HCCI control strategies had been demonstrated in a Chery GDI2.0 engine. The HCCI engine simulation results show that, oxygen and active radicals are stored due to negative valve overlap and split fuel injection under learn burn condition. This reduces the HCCI sensitivity on inlet boundary conditions, such as intake charge and intake temperature. The engine can be run from 1500rpm to 4000rpm in HCCI mode without spark ignition.
Technical Paper

Development of the Main Controller of Compressed Natural Gas Engine Based on the 32-Digit PowerPC561

To realize the precise control of injection and ignition of compressed natural gas engine, the 32-Digit PowerPC561 was selected as the single-chip microcomputer for the compressed natural gas engine. The signal processing module, controller module and power driver module of the engine control system were introduced successively. In the injection valve drive circuit, a new design method realized the ‘Peak&Hold’ drive current wave shape, which reduced the software work of injection development. In the ignition module circuit, the feedback of the time of ignition persistence and preliminary coil close period were successfully realized. The Engine Control Unit (ECU) has flexible control functions, which fulfill the requirements of engine control system.
Technical Paper

Relative Impact of Chemical and Physical Properties of the Oil-Fuel Droplet on Pre-Ignition and Super-Knock in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

A conceptual approach to help understand and simulate droplet induced pre-ignition is presented. The complex phenomenon of oil-fuel droplet induced pre-ignition has been decomposed to its elementary processes. This approach helps identify the key fluid properties and engine parameters that affect the pre-ignition phenomenon, and could be used to control LSPI. Based on the conceptual model, a 3D CFD engine simulation has been developed which is able to realistically model all of the elementary processes involved in droplet induced pre-ignition. The simulation was successfully able to predict droplet induced pre-ignition at conditions where the phenomenon has been experimentally observed. The simulation has been able to help explain the observation of pre-ignition advancement relative to injection timing as experimentally observed in a previous study [6].
Technical Paper

Analysis of Energy Consumption on Typical Main Cylinder Booster Based Brake-by-Wire System

The traditional vacuum booster is gradually replaced by Brake-by-Wire system (BBW) in modern passenger car, especially Electric Vehicle (EV). Some mechanical and hydraulic components are replaced by electronic components in Brake-by-Wire system. Using BBW system in modern passenger vehicles can not only improve the automotive safety performance, reliability and stability, but also promote vehicle maneuverability, comfort, fuel economy and environmental protection. Although vehicle's braking performance is greatly improved by using BBW, the system will inevitably consume some energy of the vehicle power supply, thus introducing unexpected drawback in comparison with the traditional vacuum assist braking system, since it doesn't need any electric power. Therefore, the analysis of energy consumption on typical main cylinder booster based BBW system under typical driving cycles will contribute to advanced design of current advanced braking system.
Technical Paper

Glow Plug Assisted Compression Ignition (GA-CI) in Cold Conditions

Low temperature combustion (LTC) is an advanced combustion mode, which can achieve low emissions of NOx and PM simultaneously, and keep relatively high thermal efficiency at the same time. However, one of the major challenges for LTC is the cold condition. In cold conditions, stable compression ignition is hard to realize, while thermal efficiency and emissions deteriorate, especially for gasoline or fuel with high octane number. This study presents using pressure sensor glow plugs (PSG) to realize Glow plug assisted compression ignition (GA-CI) at cold conditions. Further, a glow plug control unit (GPCU) is developed, a closed-loop power feedback control algorithm is introduced based on GPCU. In the experiment, engine coolant temperature is swept. Experimental results show that GA-CI has earlier combustion phases, larger combustion duration and higher in-cylinder pressure. And misfire is avoided, cycle-to-cycle variations are greatly reduced.
Technical Paper

Liquid Stream in the Rotary Valve of the Hydraulic Power Steering Gear

Generally, noise will occur during steering with the hydraulic power steering system (hereinafter HPS). The noise producing in the rotary valve takes up a big proportion of the total one. To study the noise in the control valve, 2-D meshes of the flow field between the sleeve and the rotor were set up and a general CFD code-Fluent was used to analyze the flow inside the valve. The areas where the noise may be occurred were shown and some suggestions to silence the noise were given.
Technical Paper

Determination of Aeration of Oil in High Pressure Chamber of Hydraulic Lash Adjuster in Valve Train

Use of a hydraulic lash adjuster (HLA) in the valve train has some problems as well as several advantages. One of the problems is less stiffness of valve train, which may be further reduced when aeration of the oil in the oil circuit occurs. The much lower stiffness will lead to malfunction, noise and damage with the valve train. So the aeration of oil in HLA high pressure chamber must be considered in modeling and simulation of the valve train. Since air dissolved capacity in the oil varies with pressure, aeration (undissolved air content) in the high pressure chamber is different from that in the oil circuit. So far, only the air content in the oil circuit has been measured, and few reports have been found on determining the aeration in HLA of an operating valve train. Based on knowledge that HLA collapse is caused by compressibility and leakage of oil, a method of determining the aeration of the oil in the high pressure chamber is introduced.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of a Hydraulic Engine Mount with Lumped Model Based on Finite Element Analysis

Hydraulic Engine Mount (HEM) is now widely used as a highly effective vibration isolator in automotive powertrain. A lumped parameter model is a traditional model for modeling the dynamic characteristics of HEM, in which the system parameters are usually obtained by experiments. In this paper, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method and nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) are used to determine the system parameters. A Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) FEA technique is used to estimate the parameters of volumetric compliances, equivalent piston area, inertia and resistance of the fluid in the inertia track and decoupler of a HEM. A nonlinear FEA method is applied to determine the dynamic stiffness of rubber spring of the HEM. The system parameters predicated by FEA are compared favorably with experimental data and/or analytical solutions.
Technical Paper

Coordinating Control Oriented Research on Algorithm of Engine Torque Estimation for Parallel Hybrid Electric Powertrain System

The internal combustion engine and motor should be controlled coordinately to meet the demand of smooth power transfer and good drivability especially during transient conditions for parallel hybrid powertrain system. This paper presents the essential technology of how to estimate the engine torque by the measurement and processing of instantaneous crankshaft speed. One multi-injection gasoline engine and one turbocharged diesel engine are selected to manifest the algorithm of engine torque estimation and the experiments show fairly good results for both engines. Consequently an engine torque sensor can be easily calibrated and applied to feedback engine torque in coordinating control.
Technical Paper

Improving Combustion and Emission Characteristics in Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Engine by Using Pistons Enhancing Turbulence

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), because of its low cost, high H/C ratio, and high octane number, has great potential in automotive industry, especially for heavy-duty commercial vehicles. However, relative slow flame speed of natural gas leads to long combustion duration and low thermal efficiency and tends to cause knock combustion at high load, which will aggravate engine thermal load and reliability. Enhancing turbulence intensity in combustion chamber is an effective way to accelerate flame propagation speed and improve combustion performance. In this study, the flow simulations of several piston bowls with different inner-convex forms were carried out using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D-CFD) software CONVERGE. The numerical results showed the piston bowls with inner-convex could disturb the charge swirl motion and enhance turbulence of different intensity. A hexagram geometry bowl was proved to have the best function in strengthening turbulence intensity.
Journal Article

Research on Temperature and Strain Rate Dependent Viscoelastic Response of Polyvinyl Butaral Film

The mechanical behavior of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film plays an important role in windshield crashworthiness and pedestrian protection and should be depth study. In this article, the uniaxial tension tests of PVB film at various strain rates (0.001 s-1, 0.01 s-1, 0.1 s-1, 1 s-1) and temperatures (-10°C, 0°C, 10°C, 23°C, 40°C, 55°C, 70°C) are conducted to investigate its mechanical behavior. Then, temperature and strain rate dependent viscoelastic characteristics of PVB are systematically studied. The results show that PVB is a kind of temperature and strain rate sensitive thermal viscoelastic material. Temperature increase and strain rate decrease have the same influence on mechanical properties of PVB. Besides, the mechanical characteristics of PVB change non-linearly with temperature and strain rate. Finally, two thermal viscoelastic constitutive model (ZWT model and DSGZ model) are suggested to describe the tension behavior of PVB film at various strain rates and temperatures.
Journal Article

Experimental Studies on Viscoelasticity of Film Materials in Laminated Glass Sheets

Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film and SentryGlas® Plus (SGP) film have been widely used in automotive windshield and architecture curtain serving as protective interlayer materials. Viscoelasticity is the unique property of such film materials, which can contribute to improving impact resistance and energy absorbing characteristics of laminated glass. In this study, the uniaxial tensile creep and stress relaxation tests are conducted to investigate the viscoelasticity of PVB and SGP films used in laminated glass. Firstly, tensile creep and stress relaxation tests of PVB film (0.76mm) and SGP film with three thickness (0.89mm, 1.14mm and 1.52mm) are conducted using Instron universal testing machine to obtain creep and stress relaxation curves. Afterwards, both viscoelastic models (Burgers model, Maxwell-Weichert model) and empirical equations (Findley power law, Kohlrausch equation) are applied to simulate the creep and stress relaxation results.