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Technical Paper

Class 8 Trucks Operating On Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel With Particulate Filter Systems: Regulated Emissions

2000-10-16
2000-01-2815
Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles may be reduced through the introduction of clean diesel formulations, and through the use of catalyzed particulate matter filters that can enjoy increased longevity and performance if ultra-low sulfur diesel is used. Twenty over-the-road tractors with Detroit Diesel Series 60 engines were selected for this study. Five trucks were operated on California (CA) specification diesel (CARB), five were operated on ARCO (now BP Amoco) EC diesel (ECD), five were operated on ARCO ECD with a Johnson-Matthey Continuously Regenerating Technology (CRT) filter and five were operated on ARCO ECD with an Engelhard Diesel Particulate Filter (DPX). The truck emissions were characterized using a transportable chassis dynamometer, full-scale dilution tunnel, research grade gas analyzers and filters for particulate matter (PM) mass collection. Two test schedules, the 5 mile route and the city-suburban (heavy vehicle) route (CSR), were employed.
Technical Paper

On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends

1999-04-27
1999-01-2251
Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California #2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state #2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Diesel-Electric Heavy Duty Bus Emissions: Benefits Of Regeneration And Need For State Of Charge Correction

2000-10-16
2000-01-2955
Hybrid diesel electric buses offer the advantage of superior fuel economy through use of regenerative braking and lowered transient emissions by reducing the need of the engine to follow load as closely as in a conventional bus. With the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), five Lockheed Martin-Orion hybrid diesel-electric buses were operated on the West Virginia University Transportable Laboratory in Brooklyn, New York. The buses were exercised through a new cycle, termed the Manhattan cycle, that was representative of today's bus use as well as the accepted Central Business District Cycle and New York Bus Cycle. Emissions data were corrected for the state of charge of the batteries. The emissions can be expressed in units of grams/mile, grams/axle hp-hr and grams/gallon fuel. The role of improved fuel economy in reducing oxides of nitrogen relative to conventional automatic buses is evident in the data.
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