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Teardown-Based Cost Assessment for Use in Setting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contracted with FEV, Inc. to estimate the per-vehicle cost of employing selected advanced efficiency-improving technologies in light-duty motor vehicles. The development of transparent, reliable cost analyses that are accessible to all interested stakeholders has played a crucial role in establishing feasible and cost effective standards to improve fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The FEV team, together with engineering staff from EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, and FEV's subcontractor, Munro & Associates, developed a robust costing methodology based on tearing down, to the piece part level, relevant systems, sub-systems, and assemblies from vehicles ?with and without? the technologies being evaluated.
Technical Paper

42 Catalytic Reduction of Marine Sterndrive Engine Emissions

A 2001 General Motors 4.3 liter V-6 marine engine was baseline emissions tested and then equipped with catalysts. Emission reduction effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were also explored. Because of a U.S. Coast Guard requirement that inboard engine surface temperatures be kept below 200°F, the engine's exhaust system, including the catalysts, was water-cooled. Engine emissions were measured using the ISO-8178-E4 5-mode steady-state test for recreational marine engines. In baseline configuration, the engine produced 16.6 g HC+NOx/kW-hr, and 111 g CO/kW-hr. In closed-loop control with catalysts, HC+NOx emissions were reduced by 75 percent to 4.1 g/kW-hr, and CO emissions were reduced by 36 percent to 70 g/kW-hr of CO. The catalyzed engine was then installed in a Sea Ray 190 boat, and tested for water reversion on both fresh and salt water using National Marine Manufacturers Association procedures.
Technical Paper

Tier 2 Intermediate Useful Life (50,000 Miles) and 4000 Mile Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

Due to its high efficiency and superior durability the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the U.S. is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies such as high-pressure common-rail fuel systems, low sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber catalysts (NAC), and diesel particle filters (DPFs) allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S.
Technical Paper

On-road Testing and Characterization of Fuel Economy of Light-Duty Vehicles

The potential discrepancy between the fuel economy shown on new vehicle labels and that achieved by consumers has been receiving increased attention of late. EPA has not modified its labeling procedures since 1985. It is likely possible that driving patterns in the U.S. have changed since that time. One possible modification to the labeling procedures is to incorporate the fuel economy measured over the emission certification tests not currently used in deriving the fuel economy label (i.e., the US06 high speed and aggressive driving test, the SC03 air conditioning test and the cold temperature test). This paper focuses on the US06 cycle and the possible incorporation of aggressive driving into the fuel economy label. As part of its development of the successor to the MOBILE emissions model, the Motor Vehicle Emission Modeling System (MOVES), EPA has developed a physically-based model of emissions and fuel consumption which accounts for different driving patterns.
Technical Paper

Portable Emissions Measurement for Retrofit Applications – The Beijing Bus Retrofit Experience

In 2005, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) embarked on a mission to help the city of Beijing, China, clean its air. Working with the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau (BEPB), the effort was a pilot diesel retrofit demonstration program involving three basic retrofit technologies to reduce particulate matter (PM). The three basic technologies were the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), the flowthrough diesel particulate filter (FT-DPF), and the wallflow diesel particulate filter (WF-DPF). The specific retrofit systems selected for the project were verified through the California Air Resources Board (CARB) or the EPA verification protocol [1]. These technologies are generally verified for PM reductions of 20-40 percent for DOCs, 40-50 percent for the FT-DPF, and 85 percent or more for the high efficiency WF-DPF.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Controls Development of 48 V Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool (ALPHA) was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The ALPHA desktop application was developed using MATLAB/Simulink. The ALPHA tool was used to evaluate technology effectiveness and off-cycle technologies such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies of conventional, non-hybrid vehicles for the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ).
Technical Paper

Trends in Alternate Measures of Vehicle Fuel Economy

This paper develops and discusses the 1978-85 time trends in alternative measures of vehicle fuel economy. Nine alternative measures are presented ranging from ton-miles per gallon to menu-weighted performance adjusted miles per gallon. For each alternative measure, trends for important groups of manufacturers are presented. Ail of the trends in alternative measures are compared to the percent improvement implied by the original 1978 and 1985 passenger car average fuel economy standards (AFES).
Technical Paper

Performance of Sequential Port Fuel Injection on a High Compression Ratio Neat Methanol Engine

A Sequential fuel injection system was fitted to a 2 liter Nissan NAPS-Z engine that had been modified for neat methanol operation. The specific modifications for high compression operation with neat methanol are described, and baseline brake thermal efficiency and engine out emissions are established. Sequential injection operation on neat methanol included varying the beginning of injection between 50°BTDC and 250°ATDC over an equivalence ratio of 0.6 to 0.9. Efficiency and emission results with the Sequential system are compared to those from the base system and from selected references. For the low speed, steady state conditions used in this program, the Sequential system did not show any general improvement in efficiency or emissions. This result is directionally opposite to that observed in one reference. The apparent cause for the divergent results is the absence of mechanisms in this experiment to prevent mixing along the cylinder axis.
Technical Paper

Catalysts for Methanol Vehicles

A Methanol catalyst test program has been conducted in two phases. The purpose of Phase I was to determine whether a base metal or lightly-loaded noble metal catalyst could reduce Methanol engine exhaust emissions with an efficiency comparable to conventional gasoline engine catalytic converters. The goal of Phase II was the reduction of aldehyde and unburned fuel emissions to very low levels by the use of noble metal catalysts with catalyst loadings higher than those in Phase I. Catalysts tested in Phase I were evaluated as three-way converters as well as under simulated oxidation catalyst conditions. Phase II catalysts were tested as three-way converters only. For Phase I, the most consistently efficient catalysts over the range of pollutants measured were platinum/rhodium configurations. None of the catalysts tested in Phase I were able to meet a NOx level of 1 gram per mile when operated in the oxidation mode.
Technical Paper

Resistive Materials Applied to Quick Light-off Catalysts

The application of resistive materials as part of an exhaust emission control system is presented and discussed. The importance of cold start emissions is emphasized, and results are presented from experiments conducted with two different conductive materials. Most of the testing was conducted using methanol as the fuel, although some tests were run using gasoline-fueled vehicles.
Journal Article

Disassembly of Small Engine Catalytic Converters and Analysis of Washcoat Material for Platinum Group Metals by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Enforcement Investigations Center (NEIC) has developed a test method for the analysis of washcoat material in small engine catalytic converters. Each small engine catalytic converter contains a metallic monolith. Each metallic monolith is removed from its outer casing, manually disassembled, and then separated into washcoat and substrate. The washcoat material is analyzed for platinum group metals (PGMs) using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. Results from the XRF analysis are used to calculate PGM ratios in the washcoat. During monolith disassembly, care is taken to minimize loss of washcoat or substrate, but some material is inevitably lost. The recovered washcoat mass does not necessarily equal the quantity of washcoat that was present in the intact catalytic converter.
Journal Article

Teardown-Based Cost Assessment for Use in Setting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contracted with FEV, Inc. to estimate the per-vehicle cost of employing selected advanced efficiency-improving technologies in light-duty motor vehicles. The development of transparent, reliable cost analyses that are accessible to all interested stakeholders has played a crucial role in establishing feasible and cost effective standards to improve fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The FEV team, together with engineering staff from EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, and FEV's subcontractor, Munro & Associates, developed a robust costing methodology based on tearing down, to the piece part level, relevant systems, sub-systems, and assemblies from vehicles “with and without” the technologies being evaluated.
Technical Paper

Operating Characteristics of Zirconia Galvanic Cells (Lambda Sensors) in Automotive Closed-Loop Emission Control Systems

Simple tests were performed to investigate the operating characteristics of zirconia galvanic cells (lambda sensors) in automotive closed loop “three-way” emission control systems. Commercially available cells were exposed to typical gaseous components of exhaust gas mixtures. The voltages generated by the cells were at their maximum values when hydrogen, and, in some instances, carbon monoxide, was available for reaction with atmospheric oxygen that migrated through the cells' ceramic thimbles in ionic form. This dependence of galvanic activity on the availability of these particular reducing agents indicated that the cells were voltaic devices which operated as oxidation/reduction reaction cells, rather than simple oxygen concentration cells.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Passenger Car Equipped with a Direct Injection Neat Methanol Engine

The cyclic and steady-state vehicle emissions, fuel economy, performance, and cold start behavior of an automobile equipped with a direct injection methanol engine are compared with those of three other comparable vehicles. One of the comparable vehicles was powered by a gasoline-fueled engine, and the other two were Diesels. One of the Diesel-powered vehicles was naturally aspirated and the other was turbocharged. All evaluations were made using the same road load horsepower and equivalent test weight. All the evaluations were conducted at low mileage. The emissions of the methanol vehicle are compared to California low emission vehicle standards, and to the emissions of another methanol vehicle.
Technical Paper

Performance of Partial Flow Sampling Systems Relative to Full Flow CVS for Determination of Particulate Emissions under Steady-State and Transient Diesel Engine Operation

The use of a partial flow sampling system (PFSS) to measure nonroad steady-state diesel engine particulate matter (PM) emissions is a technique for certification approved by a number of regulatory agencies around the world including the US EPA. Recently, there have been proposals to change future nonroad tests to include testing over a nonroad transient cycle. PFSS units that can quantify PM over the transient cycle have also been discussed. The full flow constant volume sampling (CVS) technique has been the standard method for collecting PM under transient engine operation. It is expensive and requires large facilities as compared to a typical PFSS. Despite the need for a cheaper alternative to the CVS, there has been a concern regarding how well the PM measured using a PFSS compared to that measured by the CVS. In this study, three PFSS units, including AVL SPC, Horiba MDLT, and Sierra BG-2 were investigated in parallel with a full flow CVS.
Technical Paper

R-152a Refrigeration System for Mobile Air Conditioning

In recent years, climate protection has become as important as ozone layer protection was in the late 1980's and early 1990s. Concerns about global warming and climate change have culminated in the Kyoto Protocol, a treaty requiring its signatories to limit their total emission of greenhouse gases to pre-1990 levels by 2008. The inclusion of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as one of the controlled substances in the Kyoto Protocol has increased global scrutiny of the global warming impact of HFC-134a (called R-134a when used as a refrigerant), the current mobile air conditioning refrigerant. Industry's first response was to begin improving current R-134a systems to reduce leakage, reduce charge, and increase system energy efficiency, which in turn reduces tailpipe CO2 emissions. An additional option would be to replace the current R-134a with a refrigerant of lower global warming impact. This paper documents the use of another HFC, R-152a, in a mobile A/C system.
Technical Paper

Light Duty Automotive Fuel Economy … Trends through 1982

EPA Fuel economy figures are presented for model year 1982 cars and light duty trucks. Comparisons with the MPG figures of prior years are included. Sales penetrations of various vehicle, engine, and emission control design features are given, and domestic cars' MPG characteristics are compared to that of imports', gasoline vehicle MPG is compared to Diesel MPG, and 49-states MPG is compared to California MPG. Usage of newer vehicle technologies is continuing to increase, leading to continued growth in fuel economy capability in spite of stringent emission standards.
Technical Paper

Toxicologically Acceptable Levels of Methanol and Formaldehyde Emissions from Methanol-Fueled Vehicles

The increased interest in use of methanol makes it important to determine what levels of methanol and formaldehyde emissions may be acceptable. This paper reviews the available health data for methanol and formaldehyde to define what approximate ranges of concentrations, termed ranges of concern, could be acceptable from a toxicological viewpoint. Air quality models are then used to predict the in-use fleet average exhaust emission levels in localized situations (heavily impacted by mobile sources) corresponding to these ranges of concern. Using predicted fleet compositions, approximate target emission levels are given for the light-duty portion of the fleet which could yield these fleet averages. Finally, there is a brief summary of available methanol and formaldehyde emissions data from neat methanol-fueled vehicles which are compared to the target levels.
Technical Paper

In-Use Emissions of 1980 and 1981 Passenger Cars: Results of EPA Testing

This paper presents the results of several emission testing programs conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The test vehicles were primarily 1980 and 1981 passenger cars which were obtained at random from private owners. Some 1982 models were also tested. The 1328 vehicles were selected from the Los Angeles area as well as from a number of other low-altitude locations. The test sequence included the Federal Test Procedure, the Highway Fuel Economy Test and several short cycle tests. The primary purpose of the program was to gather information on current vehicles which could be used in calculations and projections of air quality and aid development of programs to improve it. The results of the program indicate that these vehicles are capable of maintaining low emission levels although high levels are also possible due to defects, deterioration, or tampering. Inspection/Maintenance programs are a feasible and effective means for correcting high levels when they occur.