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Teardown-Based Cost Assessment for Use in Setting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards

2012-06-18
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contracted with FEV, Inc. to estimate the per-vehicle cost of employing selected advanced efficiency-improving technologies in light-duty motor vehicles. The development of transparent, reliable cost analyses that are accessible to all interested stakeholders has played a crucial role in establishing feasible and cost effective standards to improve fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The FEV team, together with engineering staff from EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, and FEV's subcontractor, Munro & Associates, developed a robust costing methodology based on tearing down, to the piece part level, relevant systems, sub-systems, and assemblies from vehicles ?with and without? the technologies being evaluated.
Journal Article

Teardown-Based Cost Assessment for Use in Setting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards

2012-04-16
2012-01-1343
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contracted with FEV, Inc. to estimate the per-vehicle cost of employing selected advanced efficiency-improving technologies in light-duty motor vehicles. The development of transparent, reliable cost analyses that are accessible to all interested stakeholders has played a crucial role in establishing feasible and cost effective standards to improve fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The FEV team, together with engineering staff from EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, and FEV's subcontractor, Munro & Associates, developed a robust costing methodology based on tearing down, to the piece part level, relevant systems, sub-systems, and assemblies from vehicles “with and without” the technologies being evaluated.
Technical Paper

Investigation into the Vehicle Exhaust Emissions of High Percentage Ethanol Blends

1995-02-01
950777
Six in-use vehicles were tested on a baseline gasoline and nine gasoline/ethanol blends to determine the effect of ethanol content in fuels on automotive exhaust emissions and fuel economy. The baseline gasoline was representative of average summer gasoline and served as the base from which the other fuels were blended. For the majority of the vehicles, total hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide exhaust emissions as well as fuel economy decreased while NOx and acetaldehyde exhaust emissions increased as the ethanol content in the test fuel increased. Formaldehyde and carbon dioxide emissions were relatively unaffected by the addition of ethanol. The emission responses to the increased fuel oxygen levels were consistent with what would be expected from leaning-out the air/fuel ratio for a spark ignition engine. The results are shown graphically and a linear regression is performed utilizing the method of least squares to investigate statistically significant trends in the data.
Journal Article

Determination of PEMS Measurement Allowances for Gaseous Emissions Regulated Under the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine In-Use Testing Program Part 3 – Results and Validation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0938
Beginning in 2007, heavy-duty engine manufacturers in the U.S. have been responsible for verifying the compliance on in-use vehicles with Not-to-Exceed (NTE) standards under the Heavy-Duty In-Use Testing Program (HDIUT). This in-use testing is conducted using Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) which are installed on the vehicles to measure emissions during real-world operation. A key component of the HDIUT program is the generation of measurement allowances which account for the relative accuracy of PEMS as compared to more conventional, laboratory based measurement techniques. A program to determine these measurement allowances for gaseous emissions was jointly funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California Air Resources Board (CARB), and various member companies of the Engine Manufacturer's Association (EMA).
Technical Paper

Emissions from Catalyst Cars Beyond 50 000 Miles and the Implications for the Federal Motor Vehicle Control Program

1978-02-01
780027
High mileage vehicles (in excess of 50,000 miles) contribute more than half of all vehicular emissions. With the new catalytic converter equipped cars, the proportional contribution of these vehicles may be even higher than for pre-catalyst vehicles. Thus a substantial portion of motor vehicle related air pollution may be caused by vehicles not subject to the manufacturer directed provisions of the Clean Air Act. This paper presents a modeling effort based on hypotheses and some preliminary data, and suggests some alternatives to combat this potential problem.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Controls Development of 48 V Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0413
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool (ALPHA) was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The ALPHA desktop application was developed using MATLAB/Simulink. The ALPHA tool was used to evaluate technology effectiveness and off-cycle technologies such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies of conventional, non-hybrid vehicles for the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ).
Technical Paper

Light Duty Automotive Fuel Economy… Trends thru 1983

1983-02-01
830544
This, the eleventh in a series of Papers on EPA fuel economy trends, emphasizes the current Model Year (1983) as usual, but also gives increased emphasis to trends in vehicle technology, including catalyst and transmission subclasses. Final “CAFE”* production volumes and MPG figures have been used to update the data bases through the 1980 Model Year, and an analytic method used in the past to allocate year-to-year fleet MPG changes to specific causes, such as weight mix shifts, has been reinstituted. Conclusions are presented on the relation between fuel economy and emission standards, catalyst types, and transmission types.
Technical Paper

Inspection/Maintenance in the 1990's

1987-08-01
870621
In the 1990's there will be a different mix of vehicle technologies than existed in the late 1970's when inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programs were first mandated. These changes include the widespread use of “closed-loop” computer control of engine parameters and fuel injection. Several studies by EPA are examined to determine the effect of these changes on existing I/M programs and to investigate new methods of vehicle inspection. The report discusses the effectiveness of a standard idle emission test versus other inspection methods, the role of proper preconditioning, self-diagnostic trouble code checks as a method to identify high emitting vehicles, uncertainties in predicting tampering and misfueling rates for the future, problems with decentralized programs, and the effectiveness of I/M repairs in reducing vehicle emissions as measured on the Federal Test Procedure.
Technical Paper

Light Duty Automotive Trends Through 1986

1986-04-01
860366
This, the fourteenth in this series of papers, examines trends in fuel economy, technology usage and estimated 0 to 60 MPH acceleration time for model year 1986 passenger cars. Comparisons with previous year's data are made for the fleet as a whole and using three measures of vehicle/engine size: number of cylinders, EPA car class, and inertia weight class. Emphasis on vehicle performance and fuel metering has been expanded and analysis of individual manufacturers has been deemphasized; comparisons of the Domestic, European, and Japanese market sectors are given increased emphasis.
Technical Paper

Sulfuric Acid Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

1976-02-01
760034
This paper discusses the systems used by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA to measure and analyze automotive sulfuric acid emissions. This system involves mixing the entire vehicle exhaust with dilution air in a dilution tunnel. Sulfuric acid samples are collected by passing a small portion of the dilute exhaust through Fluoropore filters. The sulfuric acid content of the filters is determined by an automated barium chloranilate method. This paper also discusses test results from a number of advanced prototype vehicles including two stratified charge cars, a Dresser carburetor vehicle, three dual catalyst cars, and a 3-way catalyst car.
Journal Article

Benchmarking a 2016 Honda Civic 1.5-Liter L15B7 Turbocharged Engine and Evaluating the Future Efficiency Potential of Turbocharged Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0319
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty (LD) automotive technologies to support the setting of appropriate national greenhouse gas (GHG) standards and to evaluate the impact of new technologies on in-use emissions, a 2016 Honda Civic with a 4-cylinder 1.5-liter L15B7 turbocharged engine and continuously variable transmission (CVT) was benchmarked. The test method involved installing the engine and its CVT in an engine-dynamometer test cell with the engine wiring harness tethered to its vehicle parked outside the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, and onboard diagnostics (OBD)/Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded.
Journal Article

Modeling and Validation of 48V Mild Hybrid Lithium-Ion Battery Pack

2018-04-03
2018-01-0433
As part of the midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed simulation models for studying the effectiveness of 48V mild hybrid electric vehicle (MHEV) technology for reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles. Simulation and modeling of this technology requires a suitable model of the battery. This article presents the development and validation of a 48V lithium-ion battery model that will be integrated into EPA’s Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model and that can also be used within Gamma Technologies, LLC (Westmont, IL) GT-DRIVE™ vehicle simulations. The battery model is a standard equivalent circuit model with the two-time constant resistance-capacitance (RC) blocks.
Technical Paper

Performance of Sequential Port Fuel Injection on a High Compression Ratio Neat Methanol Engine

1987-11-01
872070
A Sequential fuel injection system was fitted to a 2 liter Nissan NAPS-Z engine that had been modified for neat methanol operation. The specific modifications for high compression operation with neat methanol are described, and baseline brake thermal efficiency and engine out emissions are established. Sequential injection operation on neat methanol included varying the beginning of injection between 50°BTDC and 250°ATDC over an equivalence ratio of 0.6 to 0.9. Efficiency and emission results with the Sequential system are compared to those from the base system and from selected references. For the low speed, steady state conditions used in this program, the Sequential system did not show any general improvement in efficiency or emissions. This result is directionally opposite to that observed in one reference. The apparent cause for the divergent results is the absence of mechanisms in this experiment to prevent mixing along the cylinder axis.
Technical Paper

Detection of Catalyst Failure On-Vehicle Using the Dual Oxygen Sensor Method

1991-02-01
910561
On-vehicle proof-of-concept testing was conducted to evaluate the ability of the dual oxygen sensor catalyst evaluation method to identify serious losses in catalyst efficiency under actual vehicle operating conditions. The dual oxygen sensor method, which utilizes a comparison between an upstream oxygen sensor and an oxygen sensor placed downstream of the catalyst, was initially studied by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under steady-state operating conditions on an engine dynamometer and reported in Clemmens, et al. (1).* At the time that study was released, questions were raised as to whether the technological concepts developed on a test fixture could be transferred to a vehicle operating under normal transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Portable Emissions Measurement for Retrofit Applications – The Beijing Bus Retrofit Experience

2008-06-23
2008-01-1825
In 2005, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) embarked on a mission to help the city of Beijing, China, clean its air. Working with the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau (BEPB), the effort was a pilot diesel retrofit demonstration program involving three basic retrofit technologies to reduce particulate matter (PM). The three basic technologies were the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), the flowthrough diesel particulate filter (FT-DPF), and the wallflow diesel particulate filter (WF-DPF). The specific retrofit systems selected for the project were verified through the California Air Resources Board (CARB) or the EPA verification protocol [1]. These technologies are generally verified for PM reductions of 20-40 percent for DOCs, 40-50 percent for the FT-DPF, and 85 percent or more for the high efficiency WF-DPF.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Condition on FTP Emissions and In-Use Repairability

1992-02-01
920822
Twenty in-use vehicles that had failed the I/M test in the State of Michigan were inspected for engine mechanical condition as well as the state of the emission control system. Mass emission tests were conducted before and after repairs to the emission control system. The internal engine condition (i.e., high or low levels of cylinder leakage, or compression difference) showed little effect on the ability of the repaired vehicles to achieve moderate mass emission levels. Nine of the twenty vehicles were recruited after three years, and with the exception of tampering, the original emission control system repairs proved to be durable.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Heat Storage Technology for Quick Engine Warm-Up

1992-10-01
922244
The Schatz Heat Battery stores excess heat energy from the engine cooling system during vehicle operation. This excess energy may be returned to the coolant upon the ensuing cold start, shortening the engine warm-up period and decreasing cold start related emissions of unburned fuel and carbon monoxide (CO). A Heat Battery was evaluated on a test vehicle to determine its effect on unburned fuel emissions, CO emissions, and fuel economy over the cold start portion (Bag 1) of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) at 24°C and -7°C ambient conditions. The Heat Battery was mounted in a vehicle fueled alternately with indolene clear (unleaded gasoline) and M85 high methanol blend fuels. Several Heat Battery/coolant flow configurations were evaluated to determine which would result in lowest cold start emissions.
Technical Paper

Light Duty Automotive Fuel Economy …Trends through 1981

1981-02-01
810386
EPA new-model fuel economy figures are presented for passenger vehicles and light duty trucks (those with GVW ratings up to 8500 lbs). The 1981 models are emphasized, with some comparisons to prior years included. Reader familiarity with the EPA tests, data bases, and analytical methods is assumed. Principal two-way analyses include comparisons of domestic vs. import, gasoline vs. Diesel, and Federal (49-state) vs. California vehicles. Sales fractions for a number of vehicle and engine emission control design features are included. The principal finding is that increased use of newer vehicle and emission control technologies in 1981 has accompanied significant fuel economy gains in spite of the tougher 1981 emission standards.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy of In-Use Passenger Cars: Laboratory and Road

1981-06-01
810780
This report describes an evaluation of fuel economy of in-use passenger cars conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency during 1980. A total of 440 vehicles from the 1975-1980 model years were obtained from private owners in several cities. Each vehicle was tested according to the Federal Test Procedure and the Highway Fuel Economy Test. After the laboratory testing, the owners were asked to record their next four fuel purchases on a reply postcard. The results from the survey were analyzed and compared with the test results, estimates by the owner, and the values published in EPA's Gas Mileage Guide.
Technical Paper

Life-cycle Management in the Automotive Supply Chain: Results of a Survey of Saturn Tier I Suppliers

2000-04-26
2000-01-1463
Saturn Corporation and its suppliers are partnering with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Design for the Environment (DfE) Program and the University of Tennessee (UT) Center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies (CCPCT) in a project to develop a model for life-cycle management (LCM). This paper presents key findings from the first phase of the project, a survey by Saturn of its suppliers to determine their interests and needs for a supply chain LCM project, and identifies framework strategies for successful LCM.
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