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Teardown-Based Cost Assessment for Use in Setting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contracted with FEV, Inc. to estimate the per-vehicle cost of employing selected advanced efficiency-improving technologies in light-duty motor vehicles. The development of transparent, reliable cost analyses that are accessible to all interested stakeholders has played a crucial role in establishing feasible and cost effective standards to improve fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The FEV team, together with engineering staff from EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, and FEV's subcontractor, Munro & Associates, developed a robust costing methodology based on tearing down, to the piece part level, relevant systems, sub-systems, and assemblies from vehicles ?with and without? the technologies being evaluated.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of the Thermal Efficiency of 1977 and 1978 Model Year Vehicles Under Chassis Dynamometer Conditions

Comparison of vehicle thermal efficiency and engine load factor for 1977 and 1978 model year certification vehicles shows low correlation. At any load factor, the spread in thermal efficiencies was on the order of 2 to 1. These facts suggest that, with existing technologies, vehicle manufacturers can realize a significant improvement in fuel economy through better matching of engines (specific fuel consumption), transmissions and final drive ratios to vehicle power requirements.
Technical Paper

Inspection/Maintenance in the 1990's

In the 1990's there will be a different mix of vehicle technologies than existed in the late 1970's when inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programs were first mandated. These changes include the widespread use of “closed-loop” computer control of engine parameters and fuel injection. Several studies by EPA are examined to determine the effect of these changes on existing I/M programs and to investigate new methods of vehicle inspection. The report discusses the effectiveness of a standard idle emission test versus other inspection methods, the role of proper preconditioning, self-diagnostic trouble code checks as a method to identify high emitting vehicles, uncertainties in predicting tampering and misfueling rates for the future, problems with decentralized programs, and the effectiveness of I/M repairs in reducing vehicle emissions as measured on the Federal Test Procedure.
Journal Article

Benchmarking a 2016 Honda Civic 1.5-Liter L15B7 Turbocharged Engine and Evaluating the Future Efficiency Potential of Turbocharged Engines

As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty (LD) automotive technologies to support the setting of appropriate national greenhouse gas (GHG) standards and to evaluate the impact of new technologies on in-use emissions, a 2016 Honda Civic with a 4-cylinder 1.5-liter L15B7 turbocharged engine and continuously variable transmission (CVT) was benchmarked. The test method involved installing the engine and its CVT in an engine-dynamometer test cell with the engine wiring harness tethered to its vehicle parked outside the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, and onboard diagnostics (OBD)/Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded.
Technical Paper

Detection of Catalyst Failure On-Vehicle Using the Dual Oxygen Sensor Method

On-vehicle proof-of-concept testing was conducted to evaluate the ability of the dual oxygen sensor catalyst evaluation method to identify serious losses in catalyst efficiency under actual vehicle operating conditions. The dual oxygen sensor method, which utilizes a comparison between an upstream oxygen sensor and an oxygen sensor placed downstream of the catalyst, was initially studied by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under steady-state operating conditions on an engine dynamometer and reported in Clemmens, et al. (1).* At the time that study was released, questions were raised as to whether the technological concepts developed on a test fixture could be transferred to a vehicle operating under normal transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Recommended I/M Short Test Procedures for the 1990's: Six Alternatives

This report describes in detail new test procedures designed to minimize test variability, and the resulting false failures of new technology vehicles. There are currently six promulgated test procedures. The new procedures differ from the current ones in that they include controlled preconditioning, second chance testing, and sampling and score selecting algorithms. These are intended to minimize the variability in testing conditions and thereby reduce false failures of clean vehicles. High emitting vehicles which have been escaping detection with the current test procedures may continue to do so under the new ones. It is EPA's hope that these new procedures will improve the possibility of using more stringent cutpoints and non-idle test modes in the future to detect these high emitters by eliminating the additional false failures that would otherwise occur by instituting such measures under current procedures.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Condition on FTP Emissions and In-Use Repairability

Twenty in-use vehicles that had failed the I/M test in the State of Michigan were inspected for engine mechanical condition as well as the state of the emission control system. Mass emission tests were conducted before and after repairs to the emission control system. The internal engine condition (i.e., high or low levels of cylinder leakage, or compression difference) showed little effect on the ability of the repaired vehicles to achieve moderate mass emission levels. Nine of the twenty vehicles were recruited after three years, and with the exception of tampering, the original emission control system repairs proved to be durable.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy of In-Use Passenger Cars: Laboratory and Road

This report describes an evaluation of fuel economy of in-use passenger cars conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency during 1980. A total of 440 vehicles from the 1975-1980 model years were obtained from private owners in several cities. Each vehicle was tested according to the Federal Test Procedure and the Highway Fuel Economy Test. After the laboratory testing, the owners were asked to record their next four fuel purchases on a reply postcard. The results from the survey were analyzed and compared with the test results, estimates by the owner, and the values published in EPA's Gas Mileage Guide.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Real-World Fuel Economy on Heavy Duty Vehicles using a Portable Emissions Measurement System

Current SAE practices for evaluating potential improvements in fuel economy on heavy-duty vehicles rely on gravimetric measurements of fuel tanks. However, the recent evolution of portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) offers an alternative means of evaluating real-world fuel economy that may be faster and more cost effective. This paper provides a direct comparison of these two methods based on a recent EPA study conducted at Southwest Research Institute. More than 228 on-road tests were performed on two pairs of class 8 tractor-trailers according to SAE test procedure J1321 in an assessment of various chassis components designed to reduce drag losses on the vehicle. During these tests, SEMTECH-D™ portable emissions measurement systems from Sensor's, Incorporated were operating in each of the vehicles to evaluate emissions and to provide a redundant measure of fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvements and NOx Reduction by Reduction of Parasitic Losses: Effect of Engine Design

Reducing aerodynamic drag and tire rolling resistance in trucks using cooled EGR engines meeting EPA 2004 emissions standards has been observed to result in increases in fuel economy and decreases in NOx emissions. We report here on tests conducted using vehicles equipped a non-EGR engine meeting EPA 2004 emission standards and an electronically-controlled engine meeting EPA 1998 emissions standards. The effects of trailer fairings and single-wide tires on fuel economy and NOx emissions were tested using SAE test procedure J1321. NOx emissions were measured using a portable emissions monitoring system (PEMS). Fuel consumption was estimated by a carbon balance on PEMS output and by the gravimetric method specified by test procedure J1321. Fuel consumption decreased and fuel economy increased by a maximum of about 10 percent, and NOx emissions decreased by a maximum of 20 percent relative to baseline.
Technical Paper

Effect of Single Wide Tires and Trailer Aerodynamics on Fuel Economy and NOx Emissions of Class 8 Line-Haul Tractor-Trailers

We hypothesize that components designed to improve fuel economy by reducing power requirements should also result in a decrease in emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Fuel economy and NOx emissions of a pair of class 8 tractor-trailers were measured on a test track to evaluate the effects of single wide tires and trailer aerodynamic devices. Fuel economy was measured using a modified version of SAE test procedure J1321. NOx emissions were measured using a portable emissions monitoring system (PEMS). Fuel consumption was estimated by a carbon balance on PEMS output and correlated to fuel meter measurements. Tests were conducted using drive cycles simulating highway operations at 55 mph and 65 mph and suburban stop-and-go traffic. The tests showed a negative correlation (significant at p < 0.05) between fuel economy and NOx emissions. Single wide tires and trailer aerodynamic devices resulted in increased fuel economy and decreased NOx emissions relative to the baseline tests.
Technical Paper

Can Auto Technicians be Trained to Repair IM240 Emission Failures?

Eleven experienced commercial automotive technicians were recruited and trained to repair IM240 emission failures using a specially developed 30 hour course. The training course emphasized the use of an oscilloscope and a flow chart and wave form strategy to repair vehicles. Each technicians' performance was evaluated based on the repair of three or four in-use Arizona IM240 failures. Pre-training and post-training written tests were also administered. Results from this limited study were encouraging. After the technician training, HC and CO emission levels were reduced by 69% and NOx by 58%. More importantly, most of the technicians learned some new and useful diagnostic and equipment skills which they can immediately apply to their businesses. They also became more motivated to tackle the challenge of repairing vehicles to low transient emissions, and aware of the existence and use of new sophisticated diagnostic tools such as oscilloscopes.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effect of Differing Filter Face Velocities on Particulate Mass Weight from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

Due to continuing reductions in EPA's emission standard values for exhaust particulate emissions, industry production has shifted towards engines that produce very low amounts of particulate emissions. Thus, it is very possible that future engines will challenge the error range of the current instrumentation and procedures used to measure particulate emissions by being designed to produce extremely low levels of particulates. When low particulate emitting engines are sampled at low flowrates, the resulting filter loadings may violate the minimum filter loading recommendation in the Heavy Duty Federal Test Procedure [1]. Conversely, higher flow rates may be an inappropriate option for increasing filter loading due to the possibility of stripping volatile organic compounds from the particulate sample or otherwise artificially reducing the accumulated mass [2].
Technical Paper

Identifying Excess Emitters with a Remote Sensing Device: A Preliminary Analysis

There has been considerable interest in applying remote measuring methods to sample in-use vehicle emissions, and to characterize fleet emission behavior. A Remote Sensing Device (RSD) was used to measure on-road carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from approximately 350 in-use vehicles that had undergone transient mass emission testing at a centralized I/M lane. On-road hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were also measured by the RSD on about 50 of these vehicles. Analysis of the data indicates that the RSD identified a comparable number of the high CO emitters as the two speed I/M test only when an RSD cutpoint much more stringent than current practice was used. Both RSD and I/M had significant errors of omission in identifying High CO Emitters based on the mass emission test. The test data were also used to study the ability of the RSD to characterize fleet CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Compound Injection to Assure the Performance of Motor Vehicle Emissions Sampling Systems

There are many sources of variability when sampling motor vehicle emissions, including intermittant losses to “wetted” sampling system surfaces if water condensation occurs and thermal decomposition if sampling system surfaces get excessively hot. The risk of losses varies during typical transient speed emissions tests and depends upon many variables such as temperature, pressure, exhaust dilution ratio, dilution air humidity, fuel composition, and emissions composition. Procedures are described for injection of known concentrations of compounds of interest into transient motor vehicle exhaust for the purpose of characterizing losses between the vehicle tailpipe and emissions analyzer.
Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Evaluation of Potential Aerodynamic Drag Reductions from Trailer Aerodynamic Component Combinations

The use of devices to reduce aerodynamic drag on large trailers and save fuel in long-haul, over-the-road freight operations has spurred innovation and prompted some trucking fleets to use them in combinations to achieve even greater gains in fuel-efficiency. This paper examines aerodynamic performance and potential drag reduction benefits of using trailer aerodynamic components in combinations based upon wind tunnel test data. Representations of SmartWay-verified trailer aerodynamic components were tested on a one-eighth scale model of a class 8 sleeper tractor and a fifty three foot, van trailer model. The open-jet wind tunnel employed a rolling floor to reduce floor boundary layer interference. The drag impacts of aerodynamic packages are evaluated for both van and refrigerated trailers. Additionally, the interactions between individual aerodynamic devices is investigated.
Technical Paper

Performance of Partial Flow Sampling Systems Relative to Full Flow CVS for Determination of Particulate Emissions under Steady-State and Transient Diesel Engine Operation

The use of a partial flow sampling system (PFSS) to measure nonroad steady-state diesel engine particulate matter (PM) emissions is a technique for certification approved by a number of regulatory agencies around the world including the US EPA. Recently, there have been proposals to change future nonroad tests to include testing over a nonroad transient cycle. PFSS units that can quantify PM over the transient cycle have also been discussed. The full flow constant volume sampling (CVS) technique has been the standard method for collecting PM under transient engine operation. It is expensive and requires large facilities as compared to a typical PFSS. Despite the need for a cheaper alternative to the CVS, there has been a concern regarding how well the PM measured using a PFSS compared to that measured by the CVS. In this study, three PFSS units, including AVL SPC, Horiba MDLT, and Sierra BG-2 were investigated in parallel with a full flow CVS.
Technical Paper

CRC Carbonyl Emissions Analysis Round Robin Program - Phase II

A second carbonyl round robin was conducted to enable participating laboratories doing routine analysis of carbonyls in vehicle exhaust emissions to assess their analytical capabilities. Three sets of solutions in acetonitrile containing varying number and amounts of standard DNPH-carbonyls were prepared. The parent carbonyls are known components of vehicle exhaust emissions. The samples were designed to challenge the capabilities of the participants to separate, identify and quantify all the components. The fourteen participating laboratories included automotive, contract, petroleum and regulatory organizations. All participants were able to separate and identify the C3 carbonyls; a few were not able to separate MEK from butyraldehyde and methacrolein from butyraldehyde; and many were not able to separate adequately the isomers of tolualdehyde. Inadequate separation and lack of appropriate standards resulted in a few misidentifications.
Technical Paper

Alternative Techniques for Detecting Excessive Evaporative Emissions During I/M Tests

A modified constant volume sampling (CVS) system has been used to sample fugitive hydrocarbon (HC) emissions to determine whether such systems can help identify excess vehicular HC sources, such as leaking gas caps. The approach was successful in distinguishing tightly sealed, marginally leaking and grossly leaking caps. The technique may be useful in motor vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) facilities as a less intrusive alternative to techniques requiring pressurization of the fuel system.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Trucks Tested on a Road Course and by Dynamometer

This is a summary compilation and analysis of exhaust-emission results and operating parameters from forty-five heavy-duty gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles tested over a 7.24-mile road course known as the San Antonio Road Route (SARR); and, for correlative purposes, on a chassis dynamometer.(2) Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed using the Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) technique similar to that used in emission testing of light-duty vehicles. On the road course, all equipment and instrumentation were located on the vehicle while electrical power was supplied by a trailer-mounted generator. In addition to exhaust emissions, operating parameters such as vehicle speed, engine speed, manifold vacuum, and transmission gear were simultaneously measured and recorded on magnetic tape. The forty-five vehicles tested represent various model years, GVW ratings, and engine types and sizes.