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Technical Paper

Performance of Sequential Port Fuel Injection on a High Compression Ratio Neat Methanol Engine

1987-11-01
872070
A Sequential fuel injection system was fitted to a 2 liter Nissan NAPS-Z engine that had been modified for neat methanol operation. The specific modifications for high compression operation with neat methanol are described, and baseline brake thermal efficiency and engine out emissions are established. Sequential injection operation on neat methanol included varying the beginning of injection between 50°BTDC and 250°ATDC over an equivalence ratio of 0.6 to 0.9. Efficiency and emission results with the Sequential system are compared to those from the base system and from selected references. For the low speed, steady state conditions used in this program, the Sequential system did not show any general improvement in efficiency or emissions. This result is directionally opposite to that observed in one reference. The apparent cause for the divergent results is the absence of mechanisms in this experiment to prevent mixing along the cylinder axis.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Condition on FTP Emissions and In-Use Repairability

1992-02-01
920822
Twenty in-use vehicles that had failed the I/M test in the State of Michigan were inspected for engine mechanical condition as well as the state of the emission control system. Mass emission tests were conducted before and after repairs to the emission control system. The internal engine condition (i.e., high or low levels of cylinder leakage, or compression difference) showed little effect on the ability of the repaired vehicles to achieve moderate mass emission levels. Nine of the twenty vehicles were recruited after three years, and with the exception of tampering, the original emission control system repairs proved to be durable.
Technical Paper

Light Duty Automotive Trends Through 1986

1986-04-01
860366
This, the fourteenth in this series of papers, examines trends in fuel economy, technology usage and estimated 0 to 60 MPH acceleration time for model year 1986 passenger cars. Comparisons with previous year's data are made for the fleet as a whole and using three measures of vehicle/engine size: number of cylinders, EPA car class, and inertia weight class. Emphasis on vehicle performance and fuel metering has been expanded and analysis of individual manufacturers has been deemphasized; comparisons of the Domestic, European, and Japanese market sectors are given increased emphasis.
Technical Paper

Light Duty Automotive Fuel Economy … Trends thru 1985

1985-05-01
850550
This, the thirteenth in a series of papers on trends in EPA fuel economy, covers both passenger cars and light trucks and concentrates on the current model year, 1985. It differs from previous papers in two ways: 1) Model years 1975, 1980 and 1985 are highlighted, with the model years in between these rarely discussed; 2) The progress of the industry, as a whole, in improving fuel economy since 1975 is emphasized, and individual manufacturer data are de-emphasized. Conclusions are presented on the trends in fuel economy of the car and light truck fleets; the Domestic, European and Japanese market sectors; and various vehicle classes.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Catalyst Cars Beyond 50 000 Miles and the Implications for the Federal Motor Vehicle Control Program

1978-02-01
780027
High mileage vehicles (in excess of 50,000 miles) contribute more than half of all vehicular emissions. With the new catalytic converter equipped cars, the proportional contribution of these vehicles may be even higher than for pre-catalyst vehicles. Thus a substantial portion of motor vehicle related air pollution may be caused by vehicles not subject to the manufacturer directed provisions of the Clean Air Act. This paper presents a modeling effort based on hypotheses and some preliminary data, and suggests some alternatives to combat this potential problem.
Technical Paper

Alternative Vehicle Power Sources: Towards a Life Cycle Inventory

2000-04-26
2000-01-1478
Three alternatives to internal combustion vehicles currently being researched, developed, and commercialized are electric, hybrid electric, and fuel-cell vehicles. A total life-cycle inventory for an alternative vehicle must include factors such as the impacts of car body materials, tires, and paints. However, these issues are shared with gasoline-powered vehicles; the most significant difference between these vehicles is the power source. This paper focuses on the most distinct and challenging aspect of alternative-fuel vehicles, the power sources. The life-cycle impacts of battery systems for electric and hybrid vehicles are assessed. Less data is publicly available on the fuel cell; however, we offer a preliminary discussion of the environmental issues unique to fuel cells. For each of these alternative vehicles, a primary environmental hurdle is the consumption of materials specific to the power sources.
Technical Paper

Life-cycle Management in the Automotive Supply Chain: Results of a Survey of Saturn Tier I Suppliers

2000-04-26
2000-01-1463
Saturn Corporation and its suppliers are partnering with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Design for the Environment (DfE) Program and the University of Tennessee (UT) Center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies (CCPCT) in a project to develop a model for life-cycle management (LCM). This paper presents key findings from the first phase of the project, a survey by Saturn of its suppliers to determine their interests and needs for a supply chain LCM project, and identifies framework strategies for successful LCM.
Journal Article

Determination of PEMS Measurement Allowances for Gaseous Emissions Regulated Under the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine In-Use Testing Program Part 3 – Results and Validation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0938
Beginning in 2007, heavy-duty engine manufacturers in the U.S. have been responsible for verifying the compliance on in-use vehicles with Not-to-Exceed (NTE) standards under the Heavy-Duty In-Use Testing Program (HDIUT). This in-use testing is conducted using Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) which are installed on the vehicles to measure emissions during real-world operation. A key component of the HDIUT program is the generation of measurement allowances which account for the relative accuracy of PEMS as compared to more conventional, laboratory based measurement techniques. A program to determine these measurement allowances for gaseous emissions was jointly funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California Air Resources Board (CARB), and various member companies of the Engine Manufacturer's Association (EMA).
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