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Technical Paper

The Effect of Diesel Sulfur Content and Oxidation Catalysts on Transient Emissions at High Altitude from a 1995 Detroit Diesel Series 50 Urban Bus Engine

1996-10-01
961974
Regulated emissions (THC, CO, NOx, and PM) and particulate SOF and sulfate fractions were determined for a 1995 Detroit Diesel Series 50 urban bus engine at varying fuel sulfur levels, with and without catalytic converters. When tested on EPA certification fuel without an oxidation catalyst this engine does not appear to meet the 1994 emissions standards for heavy duty trucks, when operating at high altitude. An ultra-low (5 ppm) sulfur diesel base stock with 23% aromatics and 42.4 cetane number was used to examine the effect of fuel sulfur. Sulfur was adjusted above the 5 ppm level to 50, 100, 200, 315 and 500 ppm using tert-butyl disulfide. Current EPA regulations limit the sulfur content to 500 ppm for on highway fuel. A low Pt diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was tested with all fuels and a high Pt diesel oxidation catalyst was tested with the 5 and 50 ppm sulfur fuels.
Technical Paper

CRC Carbonyl Emissions Analysis Round Robin Program - Phase II

1997-05-01
971609
A second carbonyl round robin was conducted to enable participating laboratories doing routine analysis of carbonyls in vehicle exhaust emissions to assess their analytical capabilities. Three sets of solutions in acetonitrile containing varying number and amounts of standard DNPH-carbonyls were prepared. The parent carbonyls are known components of vehicle exhaust emissions. The samples were designed to challenge the capabilities of the participants to separate, identify and quantify all the components. The fourteen participating laboratories included automotive, contract, petroleum and regulatory organizations. All participants were able to separate and identify the C3 carbonyls; a few were not able to separate MEK from butyraldehyde and methacrolein from butyraldehyde; and many were not able to separate adequately the isomers of tolualdehyde. Inadequate separation and lack of appropriate standards resulted in a few misidentifications.
Technical Paper

Effects of Steady-State and Transient Operation on Exhaust Emissions from Nonroad and Highway Diesel Engines

1998-09-14
982044
Six heavy-duty diesel engines were tested for exhaust emissions on the ISO 8-mode nonroad steady-state duty cycle and the U.S. FTP highway transient test cycle. Two of these engines were baseline nonroad engines, two were Tier 1 nonroad engines, and two were highway engines. One of the Tier 1 nonroad engines and both of the highway engines were also tested on three transient cycles developed for nonroad engines. In addition, published data were collected from an additional twenty diesel engines that were tested on the 8-mode as well as at least one transient test cycle. Data showed that HC and PM emissions from diesel engines are very sensitive to transient operation while NOx emissions are much less so. Although one of the nonroad transient duty cycles showed lower PM than the steady-state duty cycles, all four of the other cycles showed much higher PM emissions than the steady-state cycle.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effect of Differing Filter Face Velocities on Particulate Mass Weight from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

1996-02-01
960253
Due to continuing reductions in EPA's emission standard values for exhaust particulate emissions, industry production has shifted towards engines that produce very low amounts of particulate emissions. Thus, it is very possible that future engines will challenge the error range of the current instrumentation and procedures used to measure particulate emissions by being designed to produce extremely low levels of particulates. When low particulate emitting engines are sampled at low flowrates, the resulting filter loadings may violate the minimum filter loading recommendation in the Heavy Duty Federal Test Procedure [1]. Conversely, higher flow rates may be an inappropriate option for increasing filter loading due to the possibility of stripping volatile organic compounds from the particulate sample or otherwise artificially reducing the accumulated mass [2].
Technical Paper

Can Auto Technicians be Trained to Repair IM240 Emission Failures?

1996-02-01
960091
Eleven experienced commercial automotive technicians were recruited and trained to repair IM240 emission failures using a specially developed 30 hour course. The training course emphasized the use of an oscilloscope and a flow chart and wave form strategy to repair vehicles. Each technicians' performance was evaluated based on the repair of three or four in-use Arizona IM240 failures. Pre-training and post-training written tests were also administered. Results from this limited study were encouraging. After the technician training, HC and CO emission levels were reduced by 69% and NOx by 58%. More importantly, most of the technicians learned some new and useful diagnostic and equipment skills which they can immediately apply to their businesses. They also became more motivated to tackle the challenge of repairing vehicles to low transient emissions, and aware of the existence and use of new sophisticated diagnostic tools such as oscilloscopes.
Technical Paper

Alternative Techniques for Detecting Excessive Evaporative Emissions During I/M Tests

1996-10-01
962093
A modified constant volume sampling (CVS) system has been used to sample fugitive hydrocarbon (HC) emissions to determine whether such systems can help identify excess vehicular HC sources, such as leaking gas caps. The approach was successful in distinguishing tightly sealed, marginally leaking and grossly leaking caps. The technique may be useful in motor vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) facilities as a less intrusive alternative to techniques requiring pressurization of the fuel system.
Technical Paper

A Method for Comparing Transient NOx Emissions With Weighted Steady State Test Results

1998-02-23
980408
This paper describes a method used to compare the emissions from transient operation of an engine with the emissions from steady state operating modes of the engine. Weightings were assigned to each mode based on the transient cycle under evaluation. The method of assigning the weightings for each mode took into account several factors, including the distance between each second of the transient cycle's speed-and-torque point requests (in a speed vs. torque coordinate system) and the given mode. Two transient cycles were chosen. The transient cycles were taken from actual in-use data collected on nonroad engines during in-field operation. The steady state modes selected were based on both International Standard Organization (ISO) test modes, as well as, augmentation based on contour plots of the emissions from nonroad diesel engines. Twenty-four (24) steady-state modes were used. The transient cycle's speed-and-torque points are used to weight each steady state mode in the method.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Heat Storage Technology for Quick Engine Warm-Up

1992-10-01
922244
The Schatz Heat Battery stores excess heat energy from the engine cooling system during vehicle operation. This excess energy may be returned to the coolant upon the ensuing cold start, shortening the engine warm-up period and decreasing cold start related emissions of unburned fuel and carbon monoxide (CO). A Heat Battery was evaluated on a test vehicle to determine its effect on unburned fuel emissions, CO emissions, and fuel economy over the cold start portion (Bag 1) of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) at 24°C and -7°C ambient conditions. The Heat Battery was mounted in a vehicle fueled alternately with indolene clear (unleaded gasoline) and M85 high methanol blend fuels. Several Heat Battery/coolant flow configurations were evaluated to determine which would result in lowest cold start emissions.
Technical Paper

Identifying Excess Emitters with a Remote Sensing Device: A Preliminary Analysis

1991-08-01
911672
There has been considerable interest in applying remote measuring methods to sample in-use vehicle emissions, and to characterize fleet emission behavior. A Remote Sensing Device (RSD) was used to measure on-road carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from approximately 350 in-use vehicles that had undergone transient mass emission testing at a centralized I/M lane. On-road hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were also measured by the RSD on about 50 of these vehicles. Analysis of the data indicates that the RSD identified a comparable number of the high CO emitters as the two speed I/M test only when an RSD cutpoint much more stringent than current practice was used. Both RSD and I/M had significant errors of omission in identifying High CO Emitters based on the mass emission test. The test data were also used to study the ability of the RSD to characterize fleet CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Catalysts for Methanol Vehicles

1987-11-01
872052
A Methanol catalyst test program has been conducted in two phases. The purpose of Phase I was to determine whether a base metal or lightly-loaded noble metal catalyst could reduce Methanol engine exhaust emissions with an efficiency comparable to conventional gasoline engine catalytic converters. The goal of Phase II was the reduction of aldehyde and unburned fuel emissions to very low levels by the use of noble metal catalysts with catalyst loadings higher than those in Phase I. Catalysts tested in Phase I were evaluated as three-way converters as well as under simulated oxidation catalyst conditions. Phase II catalysts were tested as three-way converters only. For Phase I, the most consistently efficient catalysts over the range of pollutants measured were platinum/rhodium configurations. None of the catalysts tested in Phase I were able to meet a NOx level of 1 gram per mile when operated in the oxidation mode.
Technical Paper

Resistive Materials Applied to Quick Light-off Catalysts

1989-02-01
890799
The application of resistive materials as part of an exhaust emission control system is presented and discussed. The importance of cold start emissions is emphasized, and results are presented from experiments conducted with two different conductive materials. Most of the testing was conducted using methanol as the fuel, although some tests were run using gasoline-fueled vehicles.
Technical Paper

Sulfuric Acid Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

1976-02-01
760034
This paper discusses the systems used by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA to measure and analyze automotive sulfuric acid emissions. This system involves mixing the entire vehicle exhaust with dilution air in a dilution tunnel. Sulfuric acid samples are collected by passing a small portion of the dilute exhaust through Fluoropore filters. The sulfuric acid content of the filters is determined by an automated barium chloranilate method. This paper also discusses test results from a number of advanced prototype vehicles including two stratified charge cars, a Dresser carburetor vehicle, three dual catalyst cars, and a 3-way catalyst car.
Technical Paper

The Environmental Implications of Manganese as an Alternate Antiknock

1975-02-01
750926
Methylcyclopentadienylmanganese tricarbonyl (MMT) while originally marketed in the late 50's and early 60's as a secondary antiknock to leaded fuels, is presently being marketed as a primary antiknock targeted for the EPA required lead-free gasoline grade tailored for use in catalyst-equipped vehicles. This paper reviews and discusses new information related to the effect of manganese gasoline additives on the performance of catalysts, regulated emissions, and several currently unregulated emissions. In addition, estimates of human exposures to automotive-generated manganese particulate and the toxicological characteristics of manganese are discussed as they related to an assessment of the potential public health consequences should manganese additives come into widespread use. EPA's position regarding the use of manganese additives is presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Trucks Tested on a Road Course and by Dynamometer

1975-02-01
750901
This is a summary compilation and analysis of exhaust-emission results and operating parameters from forty-five heavy-duty gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles tested over a 7.24-mile road course known as the San Antonio Road Route (SARR); and, for correlative purposes, on a chassis dynamometer.(2) Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed using the Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) technique similar to that used in emission testing of light-duty vehicles. On the road course, all equipment and instrumentation were located on the vehicle while electrical power was supplied by a trailer-mounted generator. In addition to exhaust emissions, operating parameters such as vehicle speed, engine speed, manifold vacuum, and transmission gear were simultaneously measured and recorded on magnetic tape. The forty-five vehicles tested represent various model years, GVW ratings, and engine types and sizes.
Technical Paper

Automotive Hydrocarbon Emission Patterns in the Measurement of Nonmethane Hydrocarbon Emission Rates

1977-02-01
770144
The advent of emission control technology has resulted in significant changes in both the total mass and detailed patterns of hydrocarbons emitted from automobiles. Emission rates of 56 hydrocarbons from 22 motor vehicles, including catalyst and noncatalyst configurations, were determined for the Federal Urban Driving Cycle. An increased relative abundance of methane is indicated for vehicles equipped with oxidation catalysts. In view of the photochemically non-reactive nature of methane, simple and economic procedures for determination of vehicle nonmethane hydrocarbon emission rates are evaluated. In general the procedures evaluated require independent total hydrocarbon and methane analysis, with the nonmethane hydrocarbon level calculated by difference. The procedures are evaluated by comparison of indicated nonmethane hydrocarbon emission rates with rates obtained by summation of individual compound rates determined by advanced gas chromatographic procedures.
Technical Paper

A Quality Control Technique for Correlating Exhaust Gas Analysis Systems

1977-02-01
770138
A simple, inexpensive, critical flow blender has been developed for filling a tedlar bag with controllable concentrations of HC, NOx, CO2, and CO gases at levels encountered in automobile emissions testing. According to a daily schedule, a technician takes the bag to all analyzer sites in the laboratory for analysis. The concentrations indicated by each site are compared to the overall averages. The results are stored in a computerized data base from which control charts, statistical analyses, and interpretations of significant differences among test sites can be made. The precision, accuracy, and statistical interpretations of the data are discussed.
Technical Paper

Light Duty Automotive Fuel Economy …Trends through 1981

1981-02-01
810386
EPA new-model fuel economy figures are presented for passenger vehicles and light duty trucks (those with GVW ratings up to 8500 lbs). The 1981 models are emphasized, with some comparisons to prior years included. Reader familiarity with the EPA tests, data bases, and analytical methods is assumed. Principal two-way analyses include comparisons of domestic vs. import, gasoline vs. Diesel, and Federal (49-state) vs. California vehicles. Sales fractions for a number of vehicle and engine emission control design features are included. The principal finding is that increased use of newer vehicle and emission control technologies in 1981 has accompanied significant fuel economy gains in spite of the tougher 1981 emission standards.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from In-Use Passenger Cars Equipped with Three-Way Catalysts

1980-06-01
800823
This paper presents the results of an exhaust emission testing program conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The test vehicles were 1978–1980 passenger cars of various makes and models. Each of the 686 vehicles tested was equipped with a three-way catalyst system and was certified to California standards. The purpose of the program was to gather information on current systems in customer use for projections on the ability of the three-way system to meet emission standards of the future. The results indicate that these systems are capable of achieving low emission levels although high levels are also possible due to defects, deterioration, or tampering.
Technical Paper

Emission Patterns of Diesel-Powered Passenger Cars - Part II

1977-02-01
770168
An experimental program was conducted to characterize the gaseous and particulate emissions from a 1975 Peugeot 504D light duty diesel-powered vehicle. The vehicle was tested over the 1975 Federal Test Procedure, Highway Fuel Economy Test, and Sulfate Emissions Test driving cycles using four different fuels covering a fair range of composition, density, and sulfur content. In addition to fuel economy and regulated gaseous emission measurements of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen, emission measurements were also obtained for non-regulated pollutants including sulfur dioxide, sulfates, aldehydes, benzo[a]pyrene, carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen cyanide, nonreactive hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The results are discussed in terms of emission trends due to either fuel type or driving cycle influence.
Technical Paper

Toxicologically Acceptable Levels of Methanol and Formaldehyde Emissions from Methanol-Fueled Vehicles

1984-10-01
841357
The increased interest in use of methanol makes it important to determine what levels of methanol and formaldehyde emissions may be acceptable. This paper reviews the available health data for methanol and formaldehyde to define what approximate ranges of concentrations, termed ranges of concern, could be acceptable from a toxicological viewpoint. Air quality models are then used to predict the in-use fleet average exhaust emission levels in localized situations (heavily impacted by mobile sources) corresponding to these ranges of concern. Using predicted fleet compositions, approximate target emission levels are given for the light-duty portion of the fleet which could yield these fleet averages. Finally, there is a brief summary of available methanol and formaldehyde emissions data from neat methanol-fueled vehicles which are compared to the target levels.
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