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Teardown-Based Cost Assessment for Use in Setting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contracted with FEV, Inc. to estimate the per-vehicle cost of employing selected advanced efficiency-improving technologies in light-duty motor vehicles. The development of transparent, reliable cost analyses that are accessible to all interested stakeholders has played a crucial role in establishing feasible and cost effective standards to improve fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The FEV team, together with engineering staff from EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, and FEV's subcontractor, Munro & Associates, developed a robust costing methodology based on tearing down, to the piece part level, relevant systems, sub-systems, and assemblies from vehicles ?with and without? the technologies being evaluated.
Technical Paper

42 Catalytic Reduction of Marine Sterndrive Engine Emissions

A 2001 General Motors 4.3 liter V-6 marine engine was baseline emissions tested and then equipped with catalysts. Emission reduction effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were also explored. Because of a U.S. Coast Guard requirement that inboard engine surface temperatures be kept below 200°F, the engine's exhaust system, including the catalysts, was water-cooled. Engine emissions were measured using the ISO-8178-E4 5-mode steady-state test for recreational marine engines. In baseline configuration, the engine produced 16.6 g HC+NOx/kW-hr, and 111 g CO/kW-hr. In closed-loop control with catalysts, HC+NOx emissions were reduced by 75 percent to 4.1 g/kW-hr, and CO emissions were reduced by 36 percent to 70 g/kW-hr of CO. The catalyzed engine was then installed in a Sea Ray 190 boat, and tested for water reversion on both fresh and salt water using National Marine Manufacturers Association procedures.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Real-World Fuel Economy on Heavy Duty Vehicles using a Portable Emissions Measurement System

Current SAE practices for evaluating potential improvements in fuel economy on heavy-duty vehicles rely on gravimetric measurements of fuel tanks. However, the recent evolution of portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) offers an alternative means of evaluating real-world fuel economy that may be faster and more cost effective. This paper provides a direct comparison of these two methods based on a recent EPA study conducted at Southwest Research Institute. More than 228 on-road tests were performed on two pairs of class 8 tractor-trailers according to SAE test procedure J1321 in an assessment of various chassis components designed to reduce drag losses on the vehicle. During these tests, SEMTECH-D™ portable emissions measurement systems from Sensor's, Incorporated were operating in each of the vehicles to evaluate emissions and to provide a redundant measure of fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvements and NOx Reduction by Reduction of Parasitic Losses: Effect of Engine Design

Reducing aerodynamic drag and tire rolling resistance in trucks using cooled EGR engines meeting EPA 2004 emissions standards has been observed to result in increases in fuel economy and decreases in NOx emissions. We report here on tests conducted using vehicles equipped a non-EGR engine meeting EPA 2004 emission standards and an electronically-controlled engine meeting EPA 1998 emissions standards. The effects of trailer fairings and single-wide tires on fuel economy and NOx emissions were tested using SAE test procedure J1321. NOx emissions were measured using a portable emissions monitoring system (PEMS). Fuel consumption was estimated by a carbon balance on PEMS output and by the gravimetric method specified by test procedure J1321. Fuel consumption decreased and fuel economy increased by a maximum of about 10 percent, and NOx emissions decreased by a maximum of 20 percent relative to baseline.
Technical Paper

Tier 2 Intermediate Useful Life (50,000 Miles) and 4000 Mile Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

Due to its high efficiency and superior durability the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the U.S. is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies such as high-pressure common-rail fuel systems, low sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber catalysts (NAC), and diesel particle filters (DPFs) allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S.
Technical Paper

Effect of Single Wide Tires and Trailer Aerodynamics on Fuel Economy and NOx Emissions of Class 8 Line-Haul Tractor-Trailers

We hypothesize that components designed to improve fuel economy by reducing power requirements should also result in a decrease in emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Fuel economy and NOx emissions of a pair of class 8 tractor-trailers were measured on a test track to evaluate the effects of single wide tires and trailer aerodynamic devices. Fuel economy was measured using a modified version of SAE test procedure J1321. NOx emissions were measured using a portable emissions monitoring system (PEMS). Fuel consumption was estimated by a carbon balance on PEMS output and correlated to fuel meter measurements. Tests were conducted using drive cycles simulating highway operations at 55 mph and 65 mph and suburban stop-and-go traffic. The tests showed a negative correlation (significant at p < 0.05) between fuel economy and NOx emissions. Single wide tires and trailer aerodynamic devices resulted in increased fuel economy and decreased NOx emissions relative to the baseline tests.
Technical Paper

On-road Testing and Characterization of Fuel Economy of Light-Duty Vehicles

The potential discrepancy between the fuel economy shown on new vehicle labels and that achieved by consumers has been receiving increased attention of late. EPA has not modified its labeling procedures since 1985. It is likely possible that driving patterns in the U.S. have changed since that time. One possible modification to the labeling procedures is to incorporate the fuel economy measured over the emission certification tests not currently used in deriving the fuel economy label (i.e., the US06 high speed and aggressive driving test, the SC03 air conditioning test and the cold temperature test). This paper focuses on the US06 cycle and the possible incorporation of aggressive driving into the fuel economy label. As part of its development of the successor to the MOBILE emissions model, the Motor Vehicle Emission Modeling System (MOVES), EPA has developed a physically-based model of emissions and fuel consumption which accounts for different driving patterns.
Journal Article

Alternative Heavy-Duty Engine Test Procedure for Full Vehicle Certification

In 2015 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) proposed a new steady-state engine dynamometer test procedure by which heavy-duty engine manufacturers would be required to create engine fuel rate versus engine speed and torque “maps”.[1] These maps would then be used within the agencies' Greenhouse Gas Emission Model (GEM)[2] for full vehicle certification to the agencies' proposed heavy-duty fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards. This paper presents an alternative to the agencies' proposal, where an engine is tested over the same duty cycles simulated in GEM. This paper explains how a range of vehicle configurations could be specified for GEM to generate engine duty cycles that would then be used for engine testing.
Journal Article

Development of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Heavy- and Medium-Duty Vehicle Compliance

In designing a regulatory vehicle simulation program for determining greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption, it is necessary to estimate the performance of technologies, verify compliance with the regulatory standards, and estimate the overall benefits of the program. The agencies (EPA/NHTSA) developed the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) to serve these purposes. GEM is currently being used to certify the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of the Phase 1 rulemaking for all heavy-duty vehicles in the United States except pickups and vans, which require a chassis dynamometer test for certification. While the version of the GEM used in Phase 1 contains most of the technical and mathematical features needed to run a vehicle simulation, the model lacks sophistication. For example, Phase 1 GEM only models manual transmissions and it does not include engine torque interruption during gear shifting.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from In-Use Passenger Vehicles Recruited in Three Locations: CRC Project E-24

FTP-UDDS (urban dynamometer driving schedule) exhaust particulate matter (PM) emission rates were determined for 361 light-duty gasoline (LDGV) and 49 diesel passenger vehicles ranging in model year (MY) from 1965 to 1997. LDGVs were recruited into four MY categories. In addition, special effort was made to recruit LDGVs with visible smoke emissions, since these vehicles may be significant contributors to the mobile source PM emission inventory. Both light and heavy-duty diesels where included in the passenger diesel test fleet, which was insufficient in size to separate into the same MY categories as the LDGVs. Vehicles were tested as-received in three areas: Denver, Colorado; San Antonio, Texas; and the South Coast Air Quality Management District, California. The average PM emission rates were 3.3, 79.9, 384 and 558 mg/mi for 1991-97 MY LDGVs, pre-1981 LDGVs, smoking LDGVs and the diesel vehicles, respectively.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Controls Development of 48 V Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool (ALPHA) was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The ALPHA desktop application was developed using MATLAB/Simulink. The ALPHA tool was used to evaluate technology effectiveness and off-cycle technologies such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies of conventional, non-hybrid vehicles for the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ).
Journal Article

Benchmarking a 2016 Honda Civic 1.5-Liter L15B7 Turbocharged Engine and Evaluating the Future Efficiency Potential of Turbocharged Engines

As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty (LD) automotive technologies to support the setting of appropriate national greenhouse gas (GHG) standards and to evaluate the impact of new technologies on in-use emissions, a 2016 Honda Civic with a 4-cylinder 1.5-liter L15B7 turbocharged engine and continuously variable transmission (CVT) was benchmarked. The test method involved installing the engine and its CVT in an engine-dynamometer test cell with the engine wiring harness tethered to its vehicle parked outside the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, and onboard diagnostics (OBD)/Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded.
Technical Paper

EPA HDEWG Program - Statistical Analysis

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) formed a Heavy-Duty Engine Working Group (HDEWG) in the Mobile Sources Technical Advisory Subcommittee in 1995. The goal of the HDEWG was to help define the role of the fuel in meeting the future emissions standards in advanced technology engines (beyond 2004 regulated emissions levels). A three-phase program was developed. This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of the data collected in the Phase II program. Included is a description of the design of the fuel test matrix, and a listing of the regression equations developed to predict emissions as a function of fuel density, cetane number, monoaromatics, and polyaromatics. Also included is a description of selected analyses of the emissions from a smaller set of fuel data that allowed direct comparison of the effects of natural and boosted cetane number.
Technical Paper

Alternative Vehicle Power Sources: Towards a Life Cycle Inventory

Three alternatives to internal combustion vehicles currently being researched, developed, and commercialized are electric, hybrid electric, and fuel-cell vehicles. A total life-cycle inventory for an alternative vehicle must include factors such as the impacts of car body materials, tires, and paints. However, these issues are shared with gasoline-powered vehicles; the most significant difference between these vehicles is the power source. This paper focuses on the most distinct and challenging aspect of alternative-fuel vehicles, the power sources. The life-cycle impacts of battery systems for electric and hybrid vehicles are assessed. Less data is publicly available on the fuel cell; however, we offer a preliminary discussion of the environmental issues unique to fuel cells. For each of these alternative vehicles, a primary environmental hurdle is the consumption of materials specific to the power sources.
Technical Paper

Trends in Alternate Measures of Vehicle Fuel Economy

This paper develops and discusses the 1978-85 time trends in alternative measures of vehicle fuel economy. Nine alternative measures are presented ranging from ton-miles per gallon to menu-weighted performance adjusted miles per gallon. For each alternative measure, trends for important groups of manufacturers are presented. Ail of the trends in alternative measures are compared to the percent improvement implied by the original 1978 and 1985 passenger car average fuel economy standards (AFES).
Technical Paper

Performance of Sequential Port Fuel Injection on a High Compression Ratio Neat Methanol Engine

A Sequential fuel injection system was fitted to a 2 liter Nissan NAPS-Z engine that had been modified for neat methanol operation. The specific modifications for high compression operation with neat methanol are described, and baseline brake thermal efficiency and engine out emissions are established. Sequential injection operation on neat methanol included varying the beginning of injection between 50°BTDC and 250°ATDC over an equivalence ratio of 0.6 to 0.9. Efficiency and emission results with the Sequential system are compared to those from the base system and from selected references. For the low speed, steady state conditions used in this program, the Sequential system did not show any general improvement in efficiency or emissions. This result is directionally opposite to that observed in one reference. The apparent cause for the divergent results is the absence of mechanisms in this experiment to prevent mixing along the cylinder axis.
Technical Paper

Catalysts for Methanol Vehicles

A Methanol catalyst test program has been conducted in two phases. The purpose of Phase I was to determine whether a base metal or lightly-loaded noble metal catalyst could reduce Methanol engine exhaust emissions with an efficiency comparable to conventional gasoline engine catalytic converters. The goal of Phase II was the reduction of aldehyde and unburned fuel emissions to very low levels by the use of noble metal catalysts with catalyst loadings higher than those in Phase I. Catalysts tested in Phase I were evaluated as three-way converters as well as under simulated oxidation catalyst conditions. Phase II catalysts were tested as three-way converters only. For Phase I, the most consistently efficient catalysts over the range of pollutants measured were platinum/rhodium configurations. None of the catalysts tested in Phase I were able to meet a NOx level of 1 gram per mile when operated in the oxidation mode.
Technical Paper

Alternative Techniques for Detecting Excessive Evaporative Emissions During I/M Tests

A modified constant volume sampling (CVS) system has been used to sample fugitive hydrocarbon (HC) emissions to determine whether such systems can help identify excess vehicular HC sources, such as leaking gas caps. The approach was successful in distinguishing tightly sealed, marginally leaking and grossly leaking caps. The technique may be useful in motor vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) facilities as a less intrusive alternative to techniques requiring pressurization of the fuel system.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Diesel Sulfur Content and Oxidation Catalysts on Transient Emissions at High Altitude from a 1995 Detroit Diesel Series 50 Urban Bus Engine

Regulated emissions (THC, CO, NOx, and PM) and particulate SOF and sulfate fractions were determined for a 1995 Detroit Diesel Series 50 urban bus engine at varying fuel sulfur levels, with and without catalytic converters. When tested on EPA certification fuel without an oxidation catalyst this engine does not appear to meet the 1994 emissions standards for heavy duty trucks, when operating at high altitude. An ultra-low (5 ppm) sulfur diesel base stock with 23% aromatics and 42.4 cetane number was used to examine the effect of fuel sulfur. Sulfur was adjusted above the 5 ppm level to 50, 100, 200, 315 and 500 ppm using tert-butyl disulfide. Current EPA regulations limit the sulfur content to 500 ppm for on highway fuel. A low Pt diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was tested with all fuels and a high Pt diesel oxidation catalyst was tested with the 5 and 50 ppm sulfur fuels.
Technical Paper

Resistive Materials Applied to Quick Light-off Catalysts

The application of resistive materials as part of an exhaust emission control system is presented and discussed. The importance of cold start emissions is emphasized, and results are presented from experiments conducted with two different conductive materials. Most of the testing was conducted using methanol as the fuel, although some tests were run using gasoline-fueled vehicles.