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Technical Paper

Parametric Reduced-Order Models of Battery Pack Vibration Including Structural Variation and Pre-Stress Effects

The goal of this work is to develop an efficient numerical modeling method for the vibration of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery packs to support probabilistic forced response simulations and fatigue life predictions. There are two important sources of variations in HEV battery packs that affect their structural dynamic response. One source is the uncertain level of pre-stress due to bolts or welds used for joining cells within a pack. The other source is small structural variations among the cells of a battery pack. The structural dynamics of HEV battery packs are known to feature very high modal density in many frequency bands. That is because packs are composed of nominally identical cells. The high modal density combined with small, random structural variations among the cells can lead to drastic variations in the dynamic response compared with those of the ideal nominal system.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Optimal Strategies for Vehicle Supported Military Microgrids

Vehicles with power exporting capability are microgrids since they possess electrical power generation, onboard loads, energy storage, and the ability to interconnect. The unique load and silent watch requirements of some military vehicles make them particularly well-suited to augment stationary power grids to increase power resiliency and capability. Connecting multiple vehicles in a peer-to-peer arrangement or to a stationary grid requires scalable power management strategies to accommodate the possibly large numbers of assets. This paper describes a military ground vehicle power management scheme for vehicle-to-grid applications. The particular focus is overall fuel consumption reduction of the mixed asset inventory of military vehicles with diesel generators typically used in small unit outposts.
Technical Paper

Cooling Parasitic Considerations for Optimal Sizing and Power Split Strategy for Military Robot Powered by Hydrogen Fuel Cells

Military vehicles are typically armored, hence the open surface area for heat rejection is limited. Hence, the cooling parasitic load for a given heat rejection can be considerably higher and important to consider upfront in the system design. Since PEMFCs operate at low temp, the required cooling flow is larger to account for the smaller delta temperature to the air. This research aims to address the combined problem of optimal sizing of the lithium ion battery and PEM Fuel Cell stack along with development of the scalable power split strategy for small a PackBot robot. We will apply scalable physics-based models of the fuel cell stack and balance of plant that includes a realistic and scalable parasitic load from cooling integrated with existing scalable models of the lithium ion battery. This model allows the combined optimization that captures the dominant trends relevant to component sizing and system performance.
Technical Paper

Electrical Modeling and Simulation with Matlab/Simulink and Graphical User Interface Software

This paper describes modeling and simulation technologies used to simulate the electrical systems of Army vehicles using Matlab/Simulink coupled with graphical user interface software. The models were built using Mathworks' Matlab/Simulink software in conjunction with the SimPowerSystems Toolbox, a toolkit provided by Mathworks that provides models of basic electrical components such as capacitors and inductors, in addition to more advanced components such as diodes and IGBT's. The current results of this ongoing effort are presented and discussed.
Journal Article

A Thermal Bus for Vehicle Cooling Applications - Design and Analysis

Designing an efficient cooling system with low power consumption is of high interest in the automotive engineering community. Heat generated due to the propulsion system and the on-board electronics in ground vehicles must be dissipated to avoid exceeding component temperature limits. In addition, proper thermal management will offer improved system durability and efficiency while providing a flexible, modular, and reduced weight structure. Traditional cooling systems are effective but they typically require high energy consumption which provides motivation for a paradigm shift. This study will examine the integration of passive heat rejection pathways in ground vehicle cooling systems using a “thermal bus”. Potential solutions include heat pipes and composite fibers with high thermal properties and light weight properties to move heat from the source to ambient surroundings.
Journal Article

Optimal Power Management of Vehicle Sourced Military Outposts

This paper considers optimal power management during the establishment of an expeditionary outpost using battery and vehicle assets for electrical generation. The first step in creating a new outpost is implementing the physical protection and barrier system. Afterwards, facilities that provide communications, fires, meals, and moral boosts are implemented that steadily increase the electrical load while dynamic events, such as patrols, can cause abrupt changes in the electrical load profile. Being able to create a fully functioning outpost within 72 hours is a typical objective where the electrical power generation starts with batteries, transitions to gasoline generators and is eventually replaced by diesel generators as the outpost matures. Vehicles with power export capability are an attractive supplement to this electrical power evolution since they are usually on site, would reduce the amount of material for outpost creation, and provide a modular approach to outpost build-up.