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Technical Paper

The Measurement of Exhaust Emissions from Oxygenated Fuel Blends by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

1995-02-01
950220
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been used to measure the exhaust emissions from vehicles during standard driving tests. Comparisons with conventional analyzers for modal tests have been made for the regulated species such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total hydrocarbon (THC). The concentrations of methane, methanol and formaldehyde were also measured at one second time intervals during several driving tests. The average concentration values for these species were compared to the bag samples for several tests. Modal concentration curves were also calculated for MTBE, ETBE and several other species of interest. The results indicate FT-IR can be used for making modal measurements on the regulated species and non-regulated species in vehicle exhaust emissions. Several studies were performed to evaluate the long-term stability and sensitivity of FT-IR in actual test situations.
Technical Paper

Testing of Catalytic Exhaust Emission Control Systems Under Simulated Locomotive Exhaust Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1313
Exhaust emissions were evaluated for four different catalytic exhaust emission control systems. Each system utilized a diesel oxidation catalyst, a metal-substrate partial-flow diesel particulate filter, an iron-exchanged or copper-exchanged Y-zeolite catalyst for urea selective catalytic reduction, and an ammonia slip catalyst. A 5.9-liter diesel truck engine was modified to match the exhaust conditions of a four-stroke diesel locomotive engine meeting the current Tier 2 locomotive emissions standards. NOx emissions, CO₂ emissions and exhaust temperatures were matched to the eight locomotive "throttle notch" power settings while exhaust mass flow was maintained near a constant fraction of locomotive exhaust mass flow for each "throttle notch" position. Regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions were measured over a steady-state test cycle for each of the four systems at low hours and following accelerated thermal aging and accelerated oil ash accumulation.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Emerging Technologies on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1423
Low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LP- EGR) combined with higher compression ratio, is a technology package that has been a focus of research to increase engine thermal efficiency of downsized, turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. Research shows that the addition of LP-EGR reduces the propensity to knock that is experienced at higher compression ratios [1]. To investigate the interaction and compatibility between increased compression ratio and LP-EGR, a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI engine was modified to run with LP-EGR at a higher compression ratio (12:1 versus 10.5:1) via a piston change. This paper presents the results of the baseline testing on an engine run with a prototype controller and initially tuned to mimic an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) baseline control strategy running on premium fuel (92.8 anti-knock index).
Technical Paper

Characterization of GHG Reduction Technologies in the Existing Fleet

2018-04-03
2018-01-1268
By almost any definition, technology has penetrated the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet significantly in conjunction with the increased stringency of fuel economy and GHG emissions regulations. The physical presence of advanced technology components provides one indication of the efforts taken to reduce emissions, but that alone does not provide a complete measure of the benefits of a particular technology application. Differences in the design of components, the materials used, the presence of other technologies, and the calibration of controls can impact the performance of technologies in any particular implementation. The effectiveness of a technology for reducing emissions will also be influenced by the extent to which the technologies are applied towards changes in vehicle operating characteristics such as improved acceleration, or customer features that may offset mass reduction from the use of lightweight materials.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Transmission Gear Count, Ratio Progression, and Final Drive Ratio on Fuel Economy and Performance Using ALPHA

2016-04-05
2016-01-1143
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles [1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. The ALPHA model has been updated from the previous version to include more realistic vehicle behavior and now includes internal auditing of all energy flows in the model [2]. As a result of the model refinements and in preparation for the mid-term evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 LD GHG emissions standards, the model is being revalidated with newly acquired vehicle data. This paper presents an analysis of the effects of varying the absolute and relative gear ratios of a given transmission on carbon emissions and performance.
Technical Paper

Modeling of a Conventional Mid-Size Car with CVT Using ALPHA and Comparable Powertrain Technologies

2016-04-05
2016-01-1141
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles [1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. The ALPHA model has been updated from the previous version to include more realistic vehicle behavior and now includes internal auditing of all energy flows in the model [2]. As a result of the model refinements and in preparation for the mid-term evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 LD GHG emissions standards, the model is being revalidated with newly acquired vehicle data.
Technical Paper

Potential Fuel Economy Improvements from the Implementation of cEGR and CDA on an Atkinson Cycle Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-1016
EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its technology assessments supporting the Midterm Evaluation of EPA’s 2017-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle greenhouse gas emissions assessments. As part of an Atkinson cycle engine technology assessment of applications in light-duty vehicles, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) and cylinder deactivation (CDA) were evaluated. The base engine was a production gasoline 2.0L four-cylinder engine with 75 degrees of intake cam phase authority and a 14:1 geometric compression ratio. An open ECU and cEGR hardware were installed on the engine so that the CO2 reduction effectiveness could be evaluated. Additionally, two cylinders were deactivated to determine what CO2 benefits could be achieved. Once a steady state calibration was complete, two-cycle (FTP and HwFET) CO2 reduction estimates were made using fuel weighted operating modes and a full vehicle model (ALPHA) cycle simulation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Technology Adoption Rates in New Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-0781
This paper examines the pace at which manufacturers have added certain powertrain technology into new vehicles from model year 1975 to the present. Based on data from the EPA's Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends database [1], the analysis will focus on several key technologies that have either reached a high level of penetration in light duty vehicles, or whose use in the new vehicle fleet has been growing in recent years. The findings indicate that individual manufacturers have, at times, implemented new technology across major portions of their new vehicle offerings in only a few model years. This is an important clarification to prior EPA analysis that indicated much longer adoption times for the industry as a whole. This new analysis suggests a technology penetration paradigm where individual manufacturers have a much shorter technology penetration cycle than the overall industry, due to “sequencing” by individual manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Reformulated Gasoline Effects on Exhaust Emissions: Phase II: Continued Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Oxygenate Content, Oxygenate Type, Volatility, Sulfur, Olefins and Distillation Parameters

1994-10-01
941974
This study is the second in a series of three EPA studies to investigate the effect of fuel reformulations and modifications on exhaust emissions. Both the first and second study in this series of studies were used to support the development of EPA's complex model for the certification of reformulated gasolines. Phase I of the study tested eight fuels on forty vehicles. This study, termed Phase II, tested twelve fuels on a separate fleet of 39 light-duty vehicles. The Phase II fuel parameters studied included Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP), the 50% and 90% evaporated distillation temperatures (T50 and T90), sulfur content, aromatics content, olefin content, oxygenate type and oxygen content. Measured exhaust emissions included total hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde.
Technical Paper

Reformulated Gasoline Effects on Exhaust Emissions: Phase I: Initial Investigation of Oxygenate, Volatility, Distillation and Sulfur Effects

1994-10-01
941973
This study was the first of three EPA studies to investigate the effect of gasoline fuel parameters on hydrocarbon, nonmethane hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxides, benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde exhaust emissions of 1990 model year or equivalent vehicles. The fuel parameters tested in this program were oxygen concentration, Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP), ninety percent evaporative distillation temperature (T90), and sulfur concentration. Sulfur concentration was found to have the greatest effect on hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions. Increasing oxygen concentration and RVP reduction was found to reduce hydrocarbon emission more for high-emitting than normal-emitting vehicles. Oxygenate concentration was found to have a significant effect on aldehyde emissions.
Technical Paper

An HCCI Engine: Power Plant for a Hybrid Vehicle

2004-03-08
2004-01-0933
Homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines offer a great potential in achieving high thermal efficiency and extremely low NOx at the same time. However, control of combustion phasing over a wide speed and load range has been a challenge, especially during transient operations. This paper describes work conducted at the National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, which explores the potential use of an HCCI engine as a power plant for a hybrid vehicle. A four-cylinder, 1.9 L commercial diesel engine was modified to operate with port-injected regular grade gasoline in HCCI mode. The combustion phasing is controlled by a combination of boost, EGR and thermal management as a function of engine speed and load. As a stand-alone unit, the engine has demonstrated a wide operation range with efficiency like that of a diesel engine and NOx below 0.2 g/kWh. At room temperature, the engine starts in SI mode and then transitions to HCCI in about 25 seconds.
Journal Article

Vehicle Component Benchmarking Using a Chassis Dynamometer

2015-04-14
2015-01-0589
The benchmarking study described in this paper uses data from chassis dynamometer testing to determine the efficiency and operation of vehicle driveline components. A robust test procedure was created that can be followed with no a priori knowledge of component performance, nor additional instrumentation installed in the vehicle. To develop the procedure, a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu was tested on a chassis dynamometer. Dynamometer data, emissions data, and data from the vehicle controller area network (CAN) bus were used to construct efficiency maps for the engine and transmission. These maps were compared to maps of the same components produced from standalone component benchmarking, resulting in a good match between results from in-vehicle and standalone testing. The benchmarking methodology was extended to a 2013 Mercedes E350 diesel vehicle. Dynamometer, emissions, and CAN data were used to construct efficiency maps and operation strategies for the engine and transmission.
Technical Paper

Energy Management Options for an Electric Vehicle with Hydraulic Regeneration System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0868
Energy security and climate change challenges provide a strong impetus for investigating Electric Vehicle (EV) concepts. EVs link two major infrastructures, the transportation and the electric power grid. This provides a chance to bring other sources of energy into transportation, displace petroleum and, with the right mix of power generation sources, reduce CO₂ emissions. The main obstacles for introducing a large numbers of EVs are cost, battery weight, and vehicle range. Battery health is also a factor, both directly and indirectly, by introducing limits on depth of discharge. This paper considers a low-cost path for extending the range of a small urban EV by integrating a parallel hydraulic system for harvesting and reusing braking energy. The idea behind the concept is to avoid replacement of lead-acid or small Li-Ion batteries with a very expensive Li-Ion pack, and instead use a low-cost hydraulic system to achieve comparable range improvements.
Journal Article

Fleet-Level Modeling of Real World Factors Influencing Greenhouse Gas Emission Simulation in ALPHA

2017-03-28
2017-01-0899
The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of internal energy flows in the model. In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, ALPHA has been updated utilizing newly acquired data from model year 2013-2016 engines and vehicles. Simulations conducted with ALPHA provide data on the effectiveness of various GHG reduction technologies, and reveal synergies that exist between technologies. The ALPHA model has been validated against a variety of vehicles with different powertrain configurations and GHG reduction technologies.
Technical Paper

Complex Systems Method Applied to Identify Carbon Dioxide Emission Reductions for Light-Duty Vehicles for the 2020-2025 Timeframe

2012-04-16
2012-01-0360
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration, and the California Air Resources Board have recently released proposed new regulations for greenhouse gas emissions and fuel economy for light-duty vehicles and trucks in model years 2017-2025. These proposed regulations intend to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase fleet fuel economy from current levels. At the fleet level, these rules the proposed regulations represent a 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by new vehicles in 2025 compared to current fleet levels. At the same time, global growth, especially in developing economies, should continue to drive demand for crude oil and may lead to further fuel price increases. Both of these trends will therefore require light duty vehicles (LDV) to significantly improve their greenhouse gas emissions over the next 5-15 years to meet regulatory requirements and customer demand.
Technical Paper

Testing and Benchmarking a 2014 GM Silverado 6L80 Six Speed Automatic Transmission

2017-11-17
2017-01-5020
As part of its midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 light-duty greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been acquiring fuel efficiency data from testing of recent engines and vehicles. The benchmarking data are used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model created to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles. For complete powertrain modeling, ALPHA needs both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission efficiency maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has previously relied on contractors to provide full characterization of transmission efficiency maps. To add to its benchmarking resources, EPA developed a streamlined more cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to broadly characterize transmissions within ALPHA.
Technical Paper

Real-World Emission Modeling and Validations Using PEMS and GPS Vehicle Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0757
Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) are used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to measure gaseous and particulate mass emissions from vehicles in normal, in-use, on-the-road operation to support many of its programs, including assessing mobile source emissions compliance, emissions factor assessment for in-use fleet modeling, and collection of in-use vehicle operational data to support vehicle simulation modeling programs. This paper discusses EPA’s use of Global Positioning System (GPS) measured altitude data and electronically logged vehicle speed data to provide real-world road grade data for use as an input into the Gamma Technologies GT-DRIVE+ vehicle model. The GPS measured altitudes and the CAN vehicle speed data were filtered and smoothed to calculate the road grades by using open-source Python code and associated packages.
Journal Article

Determination of the R Factor for Fuel Economy Calculations Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels over Two Test Cycles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1572
During the 1980s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) incorporated the R factor into fuel economy calculations in order to address concerns about the impacts of test fuel property variations on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) compliance, which is determined using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) cycles. The R factor is defined as the ratio of the percent change in fuel economy to the percent change in volumetric heating value for tests conducted using two differing fuels. At the time the R-factor was devised, tests using representative vehicles initially indicated that an appropriate value for the R factor was 0.6. Reassessing the R factor has recently come under renewed interest after EPA's March 2013 proposal to adjust the properties of certification gasoline to contain significant amounts of ethanol.
Technical Paper

Downsized Boosted Engine Benchmarking and Results

2015-04-14
2015-01-1266
Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel economy (FE) standards for MYs 2012-2025 are requiring vehicle powertrains to become much more efficient. One key technology strategy that vehicle manufacturers are using to help comply with GHG and FE standards is to replace naturally aspirated engines with smaller displacement “downsized” boosted engines. In order to understand and measure the effects of this technology, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) benchmarked a 2013 Ford Escape with an EcoBoost® 1.6L engine. This paper describes a “tethered” engine dyno benchmarking method used to develop a fuel efficiency map for the 1.6L EcoBoost® engine. The engine was mounted in a dyno test cell and tethered with a lengthened engine wire harness to a complete 2013 Ford Escape vehicle outside the test cell. This method allowed engine mapping with the stock ECU and calibrations.
Journal Article

Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from a Modern Diesel Engine Equipped with Selective Catalytic Reduction Filters

2013-04-08
2013-01-1778
Exhaust emissions of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (CDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa CDD/F homologues, twelve WHO 2005 chlorinated biphenyls (CB) congeners, mono-nona CB homologues, and nineteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a model year 2008 Cummins ISB engine equipped with aftertreatment including a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and wall flow copper or iron urea selective catalytic reduction filter (SCRF) were investigated. These systems differ from a traditional flow through urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst because they place copper or iron catalyst sites in close proximity to filter-trapped particulate matter. These conditions could favor de novo synthesis of dioxins and furans. The results were compared to previously published results of modern diesel engines equipped with a DOC, catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) and flow through urea SCR catalyst.
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