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Flexible Real-Time Simulation of Truck and Trailer Configurations

2011-12-05
Real-time simulation of truck and trailer combinations can be applied to hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) systems for developing and testing electronic control units (ECUs). The large number of configuration variations in vehicle and axle types requires the simulation model to be adjustable in a wide range. This paper presents a modular multibody approach for the vehicle dynamics simulation of single track configurations and truck-and-trailer combinations. The equations of motion are expressed by a new formula which is a combination of Jourdain's principle and the articulated body algorithm. With the proposed algorithm, a robust model is achieved that is numerically stable even at handling limits. Moreover, the presented approach is suitable for modular modeling and has been successfully implemented as a basis for various system definitions. As a result, only one simulation model is needed for a large variety of track and trailer types.
Technical Paper

Using Simulation to Verify Diagnosis Algorithms of Electronic Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-1043
In modern vehicles the architecture of electronics is growing more and more complex because both the number of electronic functions – e.g. implemented as software modules – as well as the level of networking between electronic control units (ECUs) is steadily increasing. This complexity leads to greater propagation of failure symptoms, and diagnosing the causes of failure becomes a new challenge. Diagnostics aims at detecting failures such as defect sensors or faulty communication messages. It is subdivided into diagnosis algorithms on an ECU and algorithms running offboard, e.g. on a diagnostic tester. These algorithms have to complement each other in the best possible way. While in the past the diagnosis algorithm was developed late in the development process, nowadays there are efforts to start the development of such algorithms earlier – at least in parallel to developing a new feature itself. This would allow developers to verify the diagnosis algorithms in early design stages.
Technical Paper

Embedded Software Tools Enable Hybrid Vehicle Architecture Design and Optimization

2010-10-19
2010-01-2308
This presentation focuses on several examples of partnerships between tool suppliers and embedded software developers in which state-of-the-art tools are used to optimize a variety of electric and hybrid vehicle architectures. Projects with Automotive OEMs, Tier One Suppliers as well as with academic institutions will be described. Due to the growing complexity in multiple electronic control units (“ECUs”) inter-communicating over numerous network bus systems, combined with the challenge of controlling and maintaining charges for electric motors, vehicle development would be impossible without use of increasingly sophisticated tools. Hybrid drive trains are much more complex than conventional ones, they have at least one degree of freedom more.
Technical Paper

DSP-Based Automotive Sensor Signal Generation for Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

1994-03-01
940185
Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation is a technology where the actual vehicles, engines or other components are replaced by a real-time simulation in a simulation computer, based on a mathematical model. That simulation reads ECU (Electronic Control Unit) output signals which would normally go to actuators. On the other hand the simulation must output the sensor signals which make the ECU ‘think’ it controls a real system. Generating these signals can be very difficult. Signals may be complex, depend on on-line computed variables, and be required to be output at high timing resolution. This paper describes the problems and presents a solution which employs high-performance Digital Signal Processors (DSP) to generate such signals on-line by Direct-Digital-Synthesis (DDS).
Technical Paper

Automated Real-Time Testing of Electronic Control Units

2007-04-16
2007-01-0504
Today, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is common practice as a testing methodology for electronic control units (ECUs). An essential criterion for the efficiency of an HIL system is the availability of powerful test automation having access to all of its hardware and software components (including I/O channels, failure insertion units, bus communication controllers and diagnostic interfaces). The growing complexity of vehicle embedded systems, which are interconnected by bus systems (like CAN, LIN or FlexRay), result in hundreds or even thousands of tests that have to be done to ensure the correct system functionality. This is best achieved by automated testing. Automated testing usually is performed by executing tests on a standard PC, which is interconnected to the HIL system. However, higher demands regarding timing precision are hard to accomplish. As an example, ECU interaction has to be captured and responded to in the range of milliseconds.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Engine Control Units - A Technical Survey

2007-04-16
2007-01-0500
Due to tougher legislation on exhaust emissions reduction and the consumer demand for more power and mobility and less fuel consumption, the functionality in today's engine management systems continues to grow. The electronic engine control units (ECUs) have to perform more control tasks using new sensors and actuators, along with the corresponding self-diagnostics (OBD, on-board diagnosis). All this leads to continuously increasing demands on automated hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test systems. HIL technology has advanced in parallel to the ECUs, and is today an indispensable tool for developing automotive electronics. This paper therefore aims to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the-art survey of HIL test systems for engine controllers. First of all, a brief introduction to the ECU's functionality is given.
Technical Paper

Behavior Modeling Tools in an Architecture-Driven Development Process - From Function Models to AUTOSAR

2007-04-16
2007-01-0507
This paper will first introduce and classify the basic principles of architecture-driven software development and will briefly sketch the presumed development process. This background information is then used to explain extensions which enable current behavior modeling and code generation tools to operate as software component generators. The generation of AUTOSAR software components using dSPACE's production code generator TargetLink is described as an example.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Vibrations and Power Flows Between Two Beams Connected at an Arbitrarily Angle

2005-05-16
2005-01-2334
A frame structure such as vehicle frames is usually the primary load-carrying member and typically plays a dominant role in transmitting vibratory and acoustic energies from excitation sources to a receiver that may be a human body or any other subject sensitive or vulnerable to vibration and noise. Determination of vibratory power flows between beam-like structures has been the subjects of many investigations. However, most of these studies have been confined to some simplified or specific boundary and/or junction conditions. In this investigation, a general analytical method is developed for predicting the vibratory power flows between two beams that are rigidly or non-rigidly coupled together at an arbitrary angle. The cross coupling between the flexural and longitudinal waves at the junction has been taken into account, which becomes necessary when two beams are joined together at an angle.
Technical Paper

Circular-to-Rectangular Duct Flows A Benchmark Experimental Study

1987-10-01
871776
A comprehensive set of total pressure and three-component laser velocimetry (LV) data has been obtained within two circular-to-rectangular transition ducts at low subsonic speeds. This set of reference data was acquired for use in identifying secondary flow mechanisms and for assessing the accuracy of computational procedures for calculating such flows. Data were obtained at the inlet and exit planes of an aspect ratio three (AR3) duct having a length-to-diameter ratio (L/D) of one (1) and an aspect ratio six (AR6) duct having an L/D of three (3). Each duct was unseparated throughout its transition section. Cross-flow vector plots and contour plots of axial velocity, total pressure, static pressure, axial turbulence, and axial vorticity in the exit plane of each duct are presented.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of the Damping Effect of Fibrous Acoustical Treatments

2001-04-30
2001-01-1462
The damping effect that is observed when a fibrous acoustical treatment is applied to a thin metal panel typical of automotive structures has been modeled by using three independent techniques. In the first two methods the fibrous treatment was modeled by using the limp frame formulation proposed by Bolton et al., while the third method makes use of a general poro-elastic model based on the Biot theory. All three methods have been found to provide consistent predictions that are in excellent agreement with one another. An examination of the numerical results shows that the structural damping effect results primarily from the suppression of the nearfield acoustical motion within the fibrous treatment, that motion being closely coupled with the vibration of the base panel. The observed damping effect is similar in magnitude to that provided by constrained layer dampers having the same mass per unit area as the fibrous layer.
Technical Paper

Welding With a High-Power CO2 Laser

1974-02-01
740863
The application of a production-oriented high-power CO2 laser system for the welding of auto underbody components is reported. Sheet metal sections, varying in thickness from 0.060-0.135 in, are welded at speeds up to 500 in/min at 6 kW. An overview of recent developments in laser welding is presented along with a discussion of the laser deep-penetration weld phenomenon. A comparison is made between laser and electron-beam welding performance.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Vehicle Dynamics Controllers – A Technical Survey

2005-04-11
2005-01-1660
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test benches are indispensable for the development of modern vehicle dynamics controllers (VDCs). They can be regarded as a standard methodology today, because of the extremely safety-critical nature of the multi-sensor and multi-actuator systems used in vehicle dynamics control. The required high quality standards can only be ensured by systematic testing within a virtual HIL environment before going into a real car. This paper aims to provide a condensed technical over-view of state-of-the-art HIL test systems for VDCs, which are currently widely used in passenger cars, in the form of ABS and TCS, as well as ESP, or integrated chassis control, which is just coming onto the market. First, a short introduction to the basic functionality of these types of ECUs is given, and the reasons why HIL testing is necessary and especially useful for VDCs are discussed.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Networked Electronics at Ford

2005-04-11
2005-01-1658
The number of electrical and electronic components in modern vehicles is constantly growing. Increasingly, functionalities are being distributed across several electronic control units (ECUs). While suppliers themselves are responsible for ensuring that individual ECUs function properly, only the OEM can test distributed functions. Moreover, with the volume of testing steadily growing, automated sequences are absolutely essential. To test electronic networks in the vehicle, Ford Europe is using platform-based hardware-in-the-loop simulation with integrated failure insertion. The company is setting up a uniform, project-independent procedure, from standardized test definition to automated test sequences on a virtual vehicle, right through to structured evaluation.
Technical Paper

How to Do Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Right

2005-04-11
2005-01-1657
Not only is the number of electronic control units (ECUs) in modern vehicles constantly increasing, the software of the ECUs is also becoming more complex. Both make testing a central task within the development of automotive electronics. Testing ECUs in real vehicles is time-consuming and costly, and comes very late in the automotive development process. It is therefore increasingly being replaced by laboratory tests using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation. While new software functions are still being developed or optimized, other functions are already undergoing certain tests, mostly on module level but also on system and integration level. To achieve the highest quality, testing must be done as early as possible within the development process. This paper describes the various test phases during the development of automotive electronics (from single function testing to network testing of all the ECUs of a vehicle).
Technical Paper

Advances in Rapid Control Prototyping - Results of a Pilot Project for Engine Control -

2005-04-11
2005-01-1350
The technological development in the field of automotive electronics is proceeding at almost break-neck speed. The functions being developed and integrated into cars are growing in complexity and volume. With the increasing number and variety of sensors and actuators, electronics have to handle a greater amount of data, and the acquisition and generation of I/O signals is also growing in complexity, for example, in engine management applications. Moreover, intelligent and complex algorithms need to be processed in a minimum of time. This all intensifies the need for Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP), a proven method of decisively speeding up the model-based software development process of automotive electronic control units (ECUs) [1],[2]. All these demanding tasks, including connecting sensors and actuators to the RCP system, need to be performed within a standard prototyping environment.
Technical Paper

Principles of Computer Process Planning

1976-02-01
760914
An analytic framework for process planning activity has been formulated and incorporated as the basis of a generative computer process planning system. The system uses full geometric design data and produces, under interactive control, detailed operation sheets with dimensioned workpiece drawings. The major elements of the system technology are process decision models, machining analysis and optimization models, a special process planning language, and man-machine communication by interactive graphics.
Technical Paper

Automatic Generation of Production Quality Code for ECUs

1999-03-01
1999-01-1168
This paper describes a new production code generator that meets both the requirements of code developers for efficient and reliable production code, as well as the desire of system engineers to establish a control design process based on simulation models that double as executable specifications for the ECU software. The production code generator supports automatic scaling, generates optimized fixed-point C code for microcontrollers like the Motorola 683xx, Siemens C16x, and Hitachi SH-2, and produces ASAP2 [1] calibration information. Benchmark results show that the autogenerated code can match or even exceed the efficiency of typical handwritten production code. Code quality is assured by design and by systematic, automatic, and extremely comprehensive test procedures.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Systems for Electric Motors in Advanced Powertrain Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0498
Electric drives are growing in importance in automotive applications, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and in the vehicle dynamics area (steering systems, etc.). The challenges of real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation and testing of electric drives are addressed in this paper. In general, three different interface levels between the electric drive and the hardware-inthe-loop system can be distinguished: the signal level (1), the electrical level (2) and the mechanical level (3). These interface levels, as well as modeling and I/O-related aspects of electric drives and power electronics devices, are discussed in detail in the paper. Finally, different solutions based on dSPACE simulator technology are presented, for both hybrid vehicle and steering applications.
Technical Paper

Key Factors for Successful Integration of Automatic Code Generation in Series Production Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-0154
Model-based development and autocoding have become common practice in the automotive industry over the past few years. The industry is using these methods to tackle a situation in which complexity is constantly growing and development times are constantly decreasing, while the safety requirements for the software stay the same or even increase. The debate is no longer whether these methods are useful, but rather on the conditions for achieving optimum results with them. From the experiences made during the last decade this paper shows some of the key factors helping to achieve success when introducing or extending the deployment of automatic code generation in a model-based design process.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Two-Zone NOx Emission Simulation in Diesel Engine Hardware-in-the-Loop Applications

2016-09-27
2016-01-8083
Increasing diagnosis capabilities in modern engine electronic control units (ECUs), especially in the exhaust path, in terms of emission and engine aftertreatment control utilize on-board NOx prediction models. Nowadays it is an established approach at hardware-in-theloop (HIL) test benches to replicate the engine's steady-state NOx emissions on the basis of stationary engine data. However, this method might be unsuitable for internal ECU plausibility checks and ECU test conditions based on dynamic engine operations. Examples of proven methods for modeling the engine behavior in HIL system applications are so-called mean value engine models (MVEMs) and crank-angle-synchronous (in-cylinder) models. Of these two, only the in-cylinder model replicates the engine’s inner combustion process at each time step and can therefore be used for chemical-based emission simulation, because the formation of the relevant gas species is caused by the inner combustion states.
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