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Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Electrostatically Assisted Injection and Combustion of Ethanol-Gasoline Mixtures for Automotive Applications

A single nozzle port fuel injector was modified to apply electrostatic charge to the fuel stream, with the intention of studying electrostatically assisted sprays in a practical, port-injected engine. The modifications were kept external to the injector and involved placing an electrode and insulating liner over the tip of the injector. The performance of the modified injector, which combined pressure driven and electrostatic atomization, was characterized in three phases: the injector sprays themselves were studied, combustion of charged fuel droplets was studied, and the injector was installed and tested on a single cylinder spark ignition engine. In the first phase, Fraunhofer diffraction measurements of droplet size, and particle image velocimetry measurements of droplet velocity were performed. The charge transferred by the sprays was measured using an electrometer, and typical forces exerted on droplets in the sprays were estimated.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Quasi-1D Multi-Component Fuel Droplet Vaporization using Discrete Approach with Experimental Validation

An efficient multi-component fuel droplet vaporization model has been developed in this work using discrete approach. The precise modeling of droplet vaporization process is divided into two parts: vapor-phase and liquid-phase sub-models. Temporal evolution of flow inside the droplet is considered to describe the transient behavior introduced by the slow diffusion process. In order to account for the internal circulation motion, surface regression and finite diffusion without actually resolving the spatial governing equations within the liquid phase, a set of ordinary differential equations is applied to describe the evolution of the non-uniform distributions of universal diffusional variables, i.e. temperature and species mass fraction. The differences between the droplet surface and bulk mean states are modeled by constructing a quasi-1D frame; the effect of the internal circulations is taken into consideration by using the effective diffusivity rather than physical diffusivity.
Journal Article

A Multi-Distribution Functions Droplet Evaporation Model using Continuous Thermodynamics

A finite diffusion method is presented in this paper to model droplet evaporation for complex liquid mixture composed of different homogeneous groups. Multiple components fuel mixture is represented by separate distribution functions to describe the composition of each homogeneous group in the mixture. Only a few parameters are required to describe the mixture. Quasi-steady assumption is applied in the determination of evaporation rates and heat flux to the droplet, and the effects of surface regression, finite diffusion and preferential vaporization of the mixture are included in the liquid phase equations using an effective properties approach. The proposed model was validated by comparing against experimental measurements for single, isolated droplets of n-decane, kerosene, heptane-decane and diesel-butanol. The present model was applied to simulate the evaporation of isolated droplets with composition of typical diesel.
Technical Paper

Spray Visualization and Characterization of a Micro-Variable Circular-Orifice (MVCO) Injector Coupled with a Swirl Adapter for Diesel Reformer Applications

This paper focuses on the spray and atomization characteristics of a Micro-Variable Circular-Orifice (MVCO) fuel injector coupled with a unique swirl adapter. Spray characteristics produced from this configuration, such as spray penetration length, spray velocity and the droplet size distribution were evaluated under different injection pressure and air inlet pressure. Diesel injection pressure ranges from 300 bar to 700 bar at a back pressure of 1bar while compressed air at pressures of 2 bar and 4 bar was supplied to the swirl adapter. High speed Mie scattering images were recorded to capture the spray evolution, as seen from both the front view and the bottom view. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurements were conducted at different locations in the spray for the acquisition of droplet sizes and velocity distributions.