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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Water/Methanol Injection as Knock Suppressor to Increase the Fuel Efficiency of a Highly Downsized GDI Engine

A new generation of highly downsized SI engines with specific power output around or above 150 HP/liter is emerging in the sport car market sector. Technologies such as high-boosting, direct injection and downsizing are adopted to increase power density and reduce fuel consumption. To counterbalance the increased risks of pre-ignition, knock or mega-knock, currently made turbocharged SI engines usually operate with high fuel enrichments and delayed (sometimes negative) spark advances. The former is responsible for high fuel consumption levels, while the latter induce an even lower A/F ratio (below 11), to limit the turbine inlet temperature, with huge negative effects on BSFC. A possible solution to increase knock resistance is investigated in the paper by means of 3D-CFD analyses: water/methanol emulsion is port-fuel injected to replace mixture enrichment while preserving, if not improving, indicated mean effective pressure and knock safety margins.
Technical Paper

Wall Impingement Process of a Multi-Hole GDI Spray: Experimental and Numerical Investigation

The Direct Injection (DI) of gasoline in Spark Ignition (SI) engines is very attractive for fuel economy and performance improvements in spark ignition engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) offers the possibility of multi-mode operation, homogeneous and stratified charge, with benefits respect to conventional SI engines as higher compression ratio, zero pumping losses, control of the ignition process at very lean air-fuel mixture and good cold starting. The impingement of liquid fuel on the combustion chamber wall is generally one of the major drawbacks of GDI engines because its increasing of HC emissions and effects on the combustion process; in the wall guided engines an increasing attention is focusing on the fuel film deposits evolution and their role in the soot formation. Hence, the necessity of a detailed understanding of the spray-wall impingement process and its effects on the fuel distribution. The experimental results provide a fundamental data base for CFD predictions.
Technical Paper

Development of a High Performance Engine for a Formula SAE Racer

The paper reviews the theoretical and experimental development of the engine powering the 2011 Formula SAE single seater of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE). The general design criteria followed by the UNIMORE team are discussed and compared to those chosen by other competitors. In particular, the reasons supporting the selection of the engine type (single cylinder by Husqvarna) are explained in details. The adoption of a single cylinder, instead of the more powerful four-in-line, required a much bigger effort for getting an acceptable level of brake power. Therefore, the development was massively supported by CFD simulation (both 1D and 3D) and by experiments. It was found that the most important design areas for the single cylinder are: the intake system, including the restrictor (20 mm), the intake runner and the plenum, and the muffler.