Unregulated Emissions of Euro I, II and III Gasoline Cars
Unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carbonylic compounds, benzene and particulate matter (PM) were quantified in exhausts of a vehicle fleet representative of in use gasoline cars. Emission factors were obtained during both cold and hot start driving cycles (from urban to motorway driving conditions). Carbonylic compounds were sampled by DNPH cartridges and analyzed by HPLC. Benzene and other light hydrocarbons were collected in bags and then analyzed by GC-FID. PAHs were trapped in XAD-2 cartridges and then analyzed by GC-MS. PM was sampled by using the gravimetric procedure required for diesel cars. The effect of technology is significant with respect to regulated and unregulated emissions but different emissive behavior was found by varying the driving cycles. Cold start has a major influence on hydrocarbon emissions (included unregulated ones). This experimental work was carried out within the framework of the EU Artemis project.