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Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions of Euro I, II and III Gasoline Cars

Unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carbonylic compounds, benzene and particulate matter (PM) were quantified in exhausts of a vehicle fleet representative of in use gasoline cars. Emission factors were obtained during both cold and hot start driving cycles (from urban to motorway driving conditions). Carbonylic compounds were sampled by DNPH cartridges and analyzed by HPLC. Benzene and other light hydrocarbons were collected in bags and then analyzed by GC-FID. PAHs were trapped in XAD-2 cartridges and then analyzed by GC-MS. PM was sampled by using the gravimetric procedure required for diesel cars. The effect of technology is significant with respect to regulated and unregulated emissions but different emissive behavior was found by varying the driving cycles. Cold start has a major influence on hydrocarbon emissions (included unregulated ones). This experimental work was carried out within the framework of the EU Artemis project.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Fuel Composition on Particulate Emissions of DI Diesel Engines

The effect of different fuel parameters on emissions is difficult to understand, the response depending upon different engine technologies. In addition the isolation of some of the fuel variables is often very hard. The present paper discusses the main results obtained testing a matrix of 14 fuels designed for obtain large variations of cetane number, sulphur and aromatic contents of Diesel oil. The aromatic structure of fuels and its effect on particulate emissions was also investigated. A linear regression analysis was performed in order to isolate the main controlling factors on particulate emissions. Finally the influence of aromatic contents of fuel on unregulated emissions was also assessed.
Technical Paper

Regulated and Unregulated Emissions Reduction with Retrofit Catalytic After-Treatment on Small Two Stroke S.I. Engine

The contribution to environmental pollution due to mopeds and motorcycles equipped with 2-stroke engines is very high. Then European regulations will impose in the next future severe limits on pollutant emissions of such vehicles. Up to 40% of the charge at high load and low speed can be lost during scavenging, therefore exhaust hydrocarbon speciation is similar to fuel composition, i.e. with a comparable content of benzene. The use of rich air-fuel mixtures, necessary to reduce cyclic variations and improve driveability during transients, determines also high carbon monoxide emissions. On the other hand NOx emissions are very low in all operating conditions, due to the rich mixtures and the high residual gas fraction. An effective solution to reduce emissions from current two-stroke engines for two wheelers in a short time could be retrofitting circulating vehicles with a catalyst for exhaust after-treatment.
Technical Paper

Regulated and Benzene Emissions of In-Use Two-Stroke Mopeds and Motorcycles

The attention on emissions of two-wheelers has been poor in the past, but today in countries with a large two-wheeler population it gives a significant contribution to aggregate emissions. In this paper the results obtained on a fleet composed by 22 two-stroke motorcycles (including mopeds) are presented. Sixteen in-use mopeds and six 125 cm3 motorcycles have been tested over ECE 47 and ECE 40 driving cycles respectively. Regulated emissions (CO, HC, NOx), carbon dioxide, benzene and fuel consumption have been evaluated by fueling motorcycles with two different gasoline formulations. One gasoline was a commercial Italian leaded gasoline with 1% benzene content; the other was a lower benzene and aromatics content gasoline. Benzene emissions decreased according to benzene content of gasoline.