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Impact of Biodiesel on Particle Emissions and DPF Regeneration Management in a Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2012-06-18
Biofuel usage is increasingly expanding thanks to its significant contribution to a well-to-wheel (WTW) reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In addition, stringent emission standards make mandatory the use of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for the particulate emissions control. The different physical properties and chemical composition of biofuels impact the overall engine behaviour. In particular, the PM emissions and the related DPF regeneration strategy are clearly affected by biofuel usage due mainly to its higher oxygen content and lower low heating value (LHV). More specifically, the PM emissions and the related DPF regeneration strategy are clearly affected by biofuel usage due mainly to its higher oxygen content and lower low heating value, respectively. The particle emissions, in fact, are lower mainly because of the higher oxygen content. Subsequently less frequent regenerations are required.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effect of Boost Pressure and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Rate on Nitrogen Oxide and Particulate Matter Emissions in Diesel Engines

2013-09-08
2013-24-0017
In recent years, due to the growing problem of environmental pollution and climate change internal combustion engine stroke volume size has been reduced. The use of down-sized engines provides benefit for reducing emissions and fuel consumption especially at the inner city driving conditions. However, when the engine demands additional power, utilizing a turbocharging system is required. This study is a joint work of Istituto Motori CNR with Automotive Laboratory of Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Istanbul Technical University (ITU) and the objective of this study was devoted to increase the understanding of various engine operating conditions on emissions, especially at low load. The trade-off between Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions in a Diesel engine has been examined depending on turbocharging rates and the rate of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) applied.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Characterization of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends from a GDI Multi-Hole Injector by Means of Multi-Component Approach

2013-09-08
2013-24-0002
This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation of the spray structure development for pure gasoline fuel and two different ethanol-gasoline blends (10% and 85% ethanol). A numerical methodology has been developed to improve the prediction of the pure and blends fuel spray. The fuel sprays have been simulated by means of a 3D-CFD code, adopting a multi-component approach for the fuel simulations. The vaporization behavior of the real fuel has been improved testing blends of 7 hydrocarbons and a reduced multi-component model has been defined in order to reduce the computational cost of the CFD simulations. Particular care has been also dedicated to the modeling of the atomization and secondary breakup processes occurring to the GDI sprays. The multi-hole jets have been simulated by means of a new atomization approach combined with the Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor hybrid model.
Journal Article

Real Time Emissive Behaviour of a Bi-Fuel Euro 4 SI Car in Naples Urban Area

2013-09-08
2013-24-0173
An experimental campaign was carried out to evaluate the influence of CNG and gasoline on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a bi-fuel passenger car over on-road tests performed in the city of Naples. The chosen route is very traffic congested during the daytime of experimental measurements. An on-board analyzer was used to measure CO, CO2, NOx tailpipe concentrations and the exhaust flow rate. Throughout a carbon balance on the exhaust pollutants, the fuel consumption was estimated. The exact spatial position was acquired by a GPS which allowed to calculate vehicle speed and the traffic condition was monitored by a video camera. Whole trip realized by the vehicle was subdivided in succession of kinematic sequences and the vehicle emissions and fuel consumption were analyzed and presented as value on each kinematic sequence. Moreover, throughout a multivariate statistical analysis of sequences, the driving cycles characterizing the use of vehicle were identified.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Combustion Process in a Small Optically Accessible Two Stroke SI Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0131
The improvement in engines efficiency and reduction of emissions is the permanent aim of engine industry in order to meet European standards regulation. To optimize small internal combustion engines it is necessary to improve the basic knowledge of thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during the combustion. This paper describes the combustion process in an optically accessible two-stroke spark-ignition engine used in a commercial 43 cm3 chainsaw. Two different feeding systems were tested: standard and CWI one. The engine head was modified in order to allow the visualization of the combustion using endoscopic system coupled with a high spatial resolution ICCD camera. Flame front propagation was evaluated through an image processing procedure. The image visualization and chemiluminence allowed to follow the combustion process from the spark ignition to the exhaust phase at high engine speed. All the optical data were correlated with engine parameters and exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ethanol-gasoline Blended Fuels on Cold Start Emissions of a Four-stroke Motorcycle. Methodology and Results

2013-09-08
2013-24-0117
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ethanol-gasoline mixtures on cold emissive behavior of commercial motorcycles. For the newly sold motorcycles, equipped with a three-way catalyst and electronic mixture control, CO and HC cold additional emissions, if compared with those exhausted in hot conditions, represent an important proportion of total emissions. On the other hand, ethanol is known as potential alcohol alternative fuel for spark ignition engines, which can be blended with gasoline to increase oxygen content and then to decrease emissions. From this explanations, a research on cold start emissions of motorcycles using ethanol-gasoline mixtures was conducted.
Technical Paper

Modeling Pressure Oscillations under Knocking Conditions: A Partial Differential Wave Equation Approach

2010-10-25
2010-01-2185
In this work the authors present a model to simulate the in-cylinder pressure oscillations due to knock. Pressure oscillations are predicted by the explicit integration of a Partial Differential Wave Equation (PDWE) similar, in its structure, to the so-called “Equation of Telegraphy”. This equation differs mainly from the classical wave formulation for the presence of a loss term. The general solution of such equation is obtained by the Fourier method of variables separation. The integration space is a cylindrical acoustic cavity whose volume is evaluated at the knock onset. The integration constants are derived from the boundary and initial conditions. A novel approach is proposed to derive the initial condition for the derivative of the oscillating component of pressure. It descends, conceptually, from the integration of the linearized relation between the derivative of pressure versus time and the expansion velocity of burned gas.
Technical Paper

Idle Speed Control of GDI-SI Engines via ECU-1D Engine Co-Simulation

2010-10-25
2010-01-2220
Idle Speed Control plays a crucial role to reduce fuel consumption that turns in both a direct economic benefit for customers and CO\d reduction particularly important to tackle the progressive global environmental warming. Typically, control strategies available in the automotive literature solve the idle speed control problem acting both on the throttle position and the spark advance, while the Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR), that strongly affects the indicated engine torque, is kept at the stoichiometric value for the sake of emission reduction. Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines, working lean and equipped with proper mechanisms to reduce NOx emissions, overcome this limitation allowing the AFR to be used for the idle speed regulation.
Technical Paper

The Full Cycle HD Diesel Engine Simulations Using KIVA-4 Code

2010-10-25
2010-01-2234
With the advent of the KIVA-4 code which employs an unstructured mesh to represent the engine geometry, the gap in flexibility between commercial and research modeling software becomes more narrow. In this study, we tried to perform a full cycle simulation of a 4-stroke HD diesel engine represented by a highly boosted research IF (Isotta Fraschini) engine using the KIVA-4 code. The engine mesh including the combustion chamber, intake and exhaust valves and helical manifolds was constructed using optional O-Grids catching a complex geometry of the engine parts with the help of the ANSYS ICEM CFD software. The KIVA-4 mesh input was obtained by a homemade mesh converter which can read STAR-CD and CFX outputs. The simulations were performed on a full 360 deg mesh consisting of 300,000 unstructured hexahedral cells at BDC. The physical properties of the liquid fuel were taken corresponding to those of real diesel #2 oil.
Technical Paper

Combustion Process Investigation in a Small SI Engine using Optical Diagnostics

2010-10-25
2010-01-2262
Nowadays an elevated number of two, three and four wheels vehicles circulating in the world-wide urban areas is equipped with Port Fuel Injection Spark Ignition (PFI SI) engines. Their technological level is high, but a further optimization is still possible, especially at low engine speed and high load. To this purpose, the scientific community is now focused on deepening the understanding of thermo fluid dynamic phenomena that takes place in this kind of engine: the final purpose is to find key points for the reduction in engine specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions without a decrease in performance. In this work, the combustion process was investigated in an optically accessible single cylinder PFI SI engine. It was equipped with the head, injection device and exhaust line of a commercial small engine for two-wheel vehicles, it had the same geometrical characteristics in terms of bore, stroke and compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Injection Pressure on the Combustion Performance and Emissions of Small GDI Engine Fuelled with Bio-Ethanol

2011-06-09
2011-37-0007
Non-intrusive measurements were carried out in an optical spark ignition GDI engine in order to characterize the chemical and physical processes involved using gasoline and bio-ethanol fuel. In particular, an optical 4 strokes small single cylinder engine for two wheel vehicles was used. It was equipped with an elongated piston with a wide sapphire window in the head and quartz cylinder. Exhaust emissions and engine performances were evaluated during the imaging and spectral measurements in order to investigate the spray characteristics and flame propagation with high spatial and temporal resolution. Several engine conditions based on homogeneous charge mixture conditions were investigated considering the effect of injection pressure and ethanol fuel too. The simultaneous use of the high injection pressure and bio-ethanol showed to be a valid answer to reduction of pollutants without worsening the performances.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of Nanoparticles Emissions in a Port Fuel Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0208
In the recent years, growing attention has been focused on internal combustion engines, considered as the main sources of Particulate Matter (PM) in urban air. Small particles are associated to fine dust formation in the atmosphere and to pulmonary diseases. The legislation proposes a stronger restriction in terms of particulate mass concentrations for both Diesel and gasoline engines and a limitation on number concentration. Unfortunately, the experimental evaluation of particles number and size is a hard task as they are strongly affected by the dilution conditions, due to condensation and nucleation phenomena, which may occur during the sampling. Even if a considerable amount of basic research on particulate matter emitted by engines has been carried out, the mechanisms governing particle formation are still not fully understood, neither for Diesel nor for gasoline engines.
Technical Paper

Particle Size Distributions from a DI High Performance SI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline-Ethanol Blended Fuels

2011-09-11
2011-24-0211
This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation on the combustion characteristics and exhaust particulate emissions of a GDI high performance engine, fuelled with blends of bio-ethanol and European gasoline fuel. The engine is a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, 1750 cm₃ displacement, and turbocharged. The engine was operated at fixed speed and load, namely 1500 rpm and 110 Nm, and fuelled with gasoline (E0), ethanol (E100) and two blends 50% v/v (E50) and 85% v/v (E85) of ethanol in gasoline. Two fuel injection strategies were investigated: homogeneous charge and stratified charge combustion mode. The study mainly focuses on the effects of fuel injection strategy and ethanol upon the emissions of particulate matter (PM), in terms of mass, number concentration and size distribution.
Journal Article

Non-Intrusive Investigation in a Small GDI Optical Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and Ethanol

2011-04-12
2011-01-0140
The aim of this paper is the experimental investigation of the effect of direct fuel injection on the combustion process and pollutant formation in a spark ignition (SI) two-wheel engine. The engine is a 250cc single cylinder, four-stroke spark-ignition firstly equipped with a four-valve PFI head and then with GDI one operating with European commercial gasoline and Bio-ethanol. It is equipped with a wide sapphire window in the bottom of the chamber and quartz cylinder. In the combustion chamber, optical techniques based on 2D-digital imaging were used to follow the injection and flame propagation and spectroscopic measurements were carried out in order to evaluate the main radical species. Radical species such as OH and CH were detected and used to follow the chemical phenomena related to the fuel quality. Measurements were carried out at different engine speeds and combustion strategies based on different injection pressures.
Journal Article

Impact of RME and GTL Fuel on Combustion and Emissions of a “Torque-Controlled” Diesel Automotive Engines

2010-05-05
2010-01-1477
The present paper describes some results of a research project aimed at studying the impact of alternative fuels blends on the emissions and fuel consumption of an Euro 5 automotive diesel engine. Two alternative fuels were chosen for the experiments: RME and GTL. The tests were done in the three most important operating conditions for the engine emission calibration. Moreover, the NOx-PM trade-off by means of EGR sweep was performed in the same operating conditions, in order to evaluate the engine EGR tolerability when burning low sooting fuels as the RME. The investigations put in evidence that the impact of the alternative fuels on modern diesel engines remains significant. This also depends on the interaction between the alternative fuel characteristics and the engine-management strategies, as described in detail in the paper.
Journal Article

The Evaluation of a New Kinematic Emissions Model on Real and Simulated Driving Cycles

2010-05-05
2010-01-1564
The evaluation of vehicles real emissions circulating in urban areas is a basic activity for planning and management of implemented traffic measures aiming at emission control and air quality improvement. National, region, and city emission inventories require overall average emission estimation based on modeling technique with a few input parameters such as fleet composition and mission profile, represented by average speed. But in the field of emission modeling an important open issue is the very expensive costs of experimental campaigns needed to obtain driving cycle statistically representative of driving behavior, also if only in a specific link of a network. A possible approach to deal with this problem is represented by the use of traffic microscopic simulation models which are capable to simulate individual car motion on the basis of traffic conditions, road characteristics and management rules.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of the Effect on the Combustion Process of Butanol-Gasoline Blend in a PFI SI Boosted Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0057
The addition of alcohol to conventional hydrocarbon fuels for a spark-ignition engine can increase the fuel octane rating and the power for a given engine displacement and compression ratio. In this work, the influence of butanol addition to gasoline was investigated. The experiments were performed in an optical ported fuel injection single-cylinder SI engine with an external boosting device. The engine was equipped with the head of a commercial SI turbocharged engine having the same geometrical specifications (bore, stroke and compression ratio). The effect of a blend of 20% of n-butanol and 80% of gasoline (BU20) on in-cylinder combustion process was investigated by cycle-resolved visualization. The engine worked at low speed, medium boosting and wide open throttle. Changes in spark timing and fuel injection phasing were considered. Comparisons between the flame luminosity and the combustion pressure data were performed.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Effect of Low Cetane Number Fuels on a Light Duty CI Engine: Preliminary Experimental Characterization in PCCI Operating Condition

2011-09-11
2011-24-0053
The goal of this paper is to acquire insight into the influence of cetane number (CN) and fuel oxygen on overall engine performance in the Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. From literature, it is known that low reactive (i.e., low CN) fuels increase the ignition delay (ID) and therefore the degree of mixing prior to auto-ignition. With respect to fuel oxygen, it is known that this has a favorable impact on soot emissions by means of carbon sequestration. This makes the use of low CN oxygen fuels an interesting route to improve the applicability of PCCI combustion in diesel engines. In earlier studies, performed on a heavy-duty engine, cyclic oxygenates were found to consistently outperform their straight and branched counterparts with respect to curbing soot. This was attributed to a considerably lower CN.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of Premixed Low-Temperature Combustion of Lighter Fuel Blends in Compression Ignition Engines

2011-09-11
2011-24-0045
Optical imaging and UV-visible detection of in-cylinder combustion phenomena were made in a single cylinder optically accessed high swirl multi-jets compression ignition engine operating with two different fuels and two EGR levels. A commercial diesel fuel and a lighter fuel blend of diesel (80%) and gasoline (20%), named G20, were tested for two injection pressures (70 and 140 MPa) and injection timings in the range 11 CAD BTDC to 5 CAD ATDC. The blend G20 has a lower cetane number, is more volatile and more resistant to the auto-ignition than diesel yielding an effect on the ignition delay and on the combustion performance. Instantaneous fuel injection rate, in-cylinder combustion pressure, NOx and smoke engine out emissions were measured. Taking into account the particular configuration of the engine, the efficiency was estimated by determining the area under the working engine cycle.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analyses for the Characterization of the Cyclic Dispersion and Knock Occurrence in a Small-Size SI Engine

2010-09-28
2010-32-0069
In this paper, an experimental and numerical analysis of combustion process and knock occurrence in a small displacement spark-ignition engine is presented. A wide experimental campaign is preliminarily carried out in order to fully characterize the engine behavior in different operating conditions. In particular, the acquisition of a large number of consecutive pressure cycle is realized to analyze the Cyclic Variability (CV) effects in terms of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) Coefficient of Variation (CoV). The spark advance is also changed up to incipient knocking conditions, basing on a proper definition of a knock index. The latter is estimated through the decomposition and the FFT analysis of the instantaneous pressure cycles. Contemporary, a quasi-dimensional combustion and knock model, included within a whole engine one-dimensional (1D) modeling framework, are developed. Combustion and knock models are extended to include the CV effects, too.
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