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Technical Paper

Comparison of Duty-Cycle of a Lithium-Ion Battery for Electric Airplane and Electric Vehicle Applications

In this study, the duty-cycle of a commercial lithium-ion battery (LIB) for a typical passenger airplane (Bombardier CRJ200) is obtained and compared to the duty- cycle of the same LIB for electric vehicles. For this purpose, the velocity and altitude of the airplane is monitored during a typical flight and the instantaneous mechanical power of the airplane is obtained by modeling. Based on the airplane required power and the characteristics of the LIB, a battery pack is designed for the airplane. Then, the duty-cycle of a LIB cell in the battery pack is yielded. The duty-cycle of the same LIB for a typical electric vehicle is also obtained from modeling based on the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET), New York City Cycle (NYCC) and United States 2006 (US06) drive-cycles. Finally, the duty-cycle of the LIB for two different applications of electric airplane and electric vehicle is compared. The duty-cycles obtained in this study can be employed to study the lifespan of LIBs.
Technical Paper

Thermal Behavior of Two Commercial Li-Ion Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

In electrified vehicle applications, the heat generated of lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells may significantly affect the vehicle range and state of health (SOH) of the pack. Therefore, a major design task is creation of a battery thermal management system with suitable control and cooling strategies. To this end, the thermal behavior of Li-ion cells at various temperatures and operating conditions should be quantified. In this paper, two different commercial pouch cells for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are studied through comprehensive thermal performance tests. This study employs a fractional factorial design of experiments to reduce the number of tests required to characterize the behavior of fresh cells while minimizing the effects of ageing. At each test point, the effects of ambient temperature and charge/discharge rate on several types of cell efficiencies and surface heat generation are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Electrochemical Analysis of a Graphite/LiFePO4 Li-Ion Cell to Improve Its Durability

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are one of the best candidates as energy storage systems for automobile applications due to their high power and energy densities. However, durability in comparison to other battery chemistries continues to be a key factor in prevention of wide scale adoption by the automotive industry. In order to design more-durable, longer-life, batteries, reliable and predictive battery models are required. In this paper, an effective model for simulating full-size LIBs is employed that can predict the operating voltage of the cell and the distribution of variables such as electrochemical current generation and battery state of charge (SOC). This predictive ability is used to examine the effect of parameters such as current collector thickness and tab location for the purpose of reducing non-uniform voltage and current distribution in the cell. It is identified that reducing the non-uniformities can reduce the ageing effects and increase the battery durability.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Performance Evaluation of Battery Management Technologies

This paper presents the results of research efforts performed to evaluate the performance of rechargeable battery management technologies at low temperatures. Three battery chemistries are considered in this work. These are the Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd), Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) and Lithium-ion (Li-ion). Battery management evaluation kits from two battery manufacturers were acquired and tested. These are the DS2434k, DS2435k and DS2437k from Dallas Semiconductor and the MAX712, MAX846A and MAX2003A from MAXIM Integrated Products. The kits were characterized in a chamber whose temperature was changed and regulated using liquid nitrogen. The temperature of the chamber was varied from 20°C to −180°C. At each temperature, the battery voltage, current, state of charge, temperature and other auxiliary variables as monitored by each chip were recorded. Also, the performance of each kit after a complete cooling and heating cycle is recorded.