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Technical Paper

Catalyst Aging and Effects on Particle Emissions of 2-Stroke Scooters

An active oxidation catalyst is an efficient measure to reduce not only gaseous components (CO, HC), but also particle emissions (mostly oil condensates) of a small 2-stroke engine with lost oil lubrication. Since the 2- and 3-wheelers with 2-stroke propulsion are still a very serious source of air pollution worldwide in many urban areas, it is important to have a look on some consequences of an improperly working catalyst. The present paper shows some results of user-oriented aging of catalyst on the vehicle and results of limited emissions and unlimited (nano)particles during the catalysts screening tests. The works are a part of an international scooter network project, which was performed (2004 to 2007) in the Laboratories for IC-Engines & Exhaust Emission Control of the University of Applied Sciences, Biel, Switzerland with main support of the Swiss Federal Office of Environment (BAFU), Swiss Petrol Union (EV) and Swiss Lubes (VSS).
Technical Paper

Reliability of DPF-Systems: Experience with 6000 Applications of the Swiss Retrofit Fleet

The Swiss 1998 Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC) mandates curtailment of carcinogenic Diesel particle emissions at construction sites [4]. In addition particle traps are compulsory at underground workplaces [3]. In compliance, more than 6,000 Diesel engines were retrofitted with different particle trap systems. Many traps surpassed 99% filtration efficiency, from the beginning, and secondary emissions were mostly prevented. However, trap failure due to mechanical and thermal damage was initially rather high at about 10%. By Y-2000 the failure rate was halved to about 6%. Thanks to focussed improvements, the Y-2003 statistics show yearly failures of “only” about 2%. The Swiss target is to retrofit 15,000 construction machines with traps, fully compliant with environmental directives, having 5,000 operating hours durability and failure rates below 1%. Construction machines have much higher PM-emission factors than trucks, and are operated more intensely than tractors.