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Technical Paper

A Numerical Methodology for the Multi-Objective Optimization of an Automotive DI Diesel Engine

Nowadays, an automotive DI Diesel engine is demanded to provide an adequate power output together with limit-complying NOx and soot emissions so that the development of a specific combustion concept is the result of a trade-off between conflicting objectives. In other words, the development of a low-emission DI diesel combustion concept could be mathematically represented as a multi-objective optimization problem. In recent years, genetic algorithm and CFD simulations were successfully applied to this kind of problem. However, combining GA optimization with actual CFD-3D combustion simulations can be too onerous since a large number of simulations is usually required, resulting in a high computational cost and, thus, limiting the suitability of this method for industrial processes.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for Real-Time Simulation

This paper presents a 14 degrees of freedom vehicle model. Despite numerous software are nowadays commercially available, the model presented in this paper has been built starting from a blank sheet because the goal of the authors was to realize a model suitable for real-time simulation, compatible with the computational power of typical electronic control units, for on-board applications. In order to achieve this objective a complete vehicle dynamics simulation model has been developed in Matlab/Simulink environment: having a complete knowledge of the model's structure, it is possible to adapt its complexity to the computational power of the hardware used to run the simulation, a crucial feature to achieve real-time execution in actual ECUs.
Technical Paper

Virtual GDI Engine as a Tool for Model-Based Calibration

Recent and forthcoming fuel consumption reduction requirements and exhaust emissions regulations are forcing the development of innovative and particularly complex intake-engine-exhaust layouts. In the case of Spark Ignition (SI) engines, the necessity to further reduce fuel consumption has led to the adoption of direct injection systems, displacement downsizing, and challenging intake-exhaust configurations, such as multi-stage turbocharging or turbo-assist solutions. Further, the most recent turbo-GDI engines may be equipped with other fuel-reduction oriented technologies, such as Variable Valve Timing (VVT) systems, devices for actively control tumble/swirl in-cylinder flow components, and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems. Such degree of flexibility has a main drawback: the exponentially increasing effort required for optimal engine control calibration.
Journal Article

Benchmarking Hybrid Concepts: On-Line vs. Off-Line Fuel Economy Optimization for Different Hybrid Architectures

The recent advance in the development of various hybrid vehicle technologies comes along with the need of establishing optimal energy management strategies, in order to minimize both fuel economy and pollutant emissions, while taking into account an increasing number of state and control variables, depending on the adopted hybrid architecture. One of the objectives of this research was to establish benchmarking performance, in terms of fuel economy, for real time on-board management strategies, such as ECMS (Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy), whose structure has been implemented in a SIMULINK model for different hybrid vehicle concepts.
Technical Paper

Multicycle Simulation of the Mixture Formation Process of a PFI Gasoline Engine

The mixture composition heavily influences the combustion process of Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. The local mixture air-index at the spark plug is closely related to combustion instabilities and the cycle-by-cycle Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) Coefficient of Variation (CoV) well correlates with the variability of the flame kernel development. The needs of reducing the engine emissions and consumption push the engine manufactures to implement techniques providing a better control of the mixture quality in terms of homogeneity and variability. Simulating the mixture formation of a PFI engine by means of CFD techniques is a critical issue, since involved phenomena are highly heterogeneous and a two phase flow must be considered. The aim of the paper is to present a multi-cycle methodology for the simulation of the injection and the mixture formation processes of high performance PFI engine, based on the validation of all the main physical sub-models involved.
Technical Paper

Water Injection Applicability to Gasoline Engines: Thermodynamic Analysis

The vehicle WLTP and RDE homologation test cycles are pushing the engine technology toward the implementation of different solutions aimed to the exhaust gases emission reduction. The tightening of the policy on the Auxiliary Emission Strategy (A.E.S.), including those for the engine component protection, faces the Spark Ignited (S.I.) engines with the need to replace the fuel enrichment as a means to cool down both unburnt mixture and exhaust gases to accomplish with the inlet temperature turbine (TiT) limit. Among the whole technology solutions conceived to make SI engine operating at lambda 1.0 on the whole operation map, the water injection is one of the valuable candidates. Despite the fact that the water injection has been exploited in the past, the renewed interest in it requires a deep investigation in order to outcome its potential as well as its limits.
Technical Paper

Review of Combustion Indexes Remote Sensing Applied to Different Combustion Types

This paper summarizes the main studies carried out by the authors for the development of indexes for remote combustion sensing applicable to different combustion types, i.e. conventional gasoline and diesel combustions, diesel PCCI and dual fuel gasoline-diesel RCCI. It is well-known that the continuous development of modern Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) management systems is mainly aimed at complying with upcoming increasingly stringent regulations throughout the world, both for pollutants and CO2 emissions. Performing an efficient combustion control is crucial for efficiency increase and pollutant emissions reduction. Over the past years, the authors of this paper have developed several techniques to estimate the most important combustion indexes for combustion control, without using additional cylinder pressure sensors but only using the engine speed sensor (always available on board) and accelerometers (usually available on-board for gasoline engines).
Journal Article

A Control-Oriented Knock Intensity Estimator

The performance optimization of modern Spark Ignition engines is limited by knock occurrence: heavily downsized engines often are forced to work in the Knock-Limited Spark Advance (KLSA) range. Knock control systems monitor the combustion process, allowing to achieve a proper compromise between performance and reliability. Combustion monitoring is usually carried out by means of accelerometers or ion sensing systems, but recently the use of cylinder pressure sensors is also becoming frequent in motorsport applications. On the other hand, cylinder pressure signals are often available in the calibration stage, where SA feedback-control based on the pressure signal can be used to avoid damages to the engine during automatic calibration. A predictive real-time combustion model could help optimizing engine performance, without exceeding the allowed knock severity.
Technical Paper

3D Large Scale Simulation of the High-Speed Liquid Jet Atomization

In this paper three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulations (i.e., LES) by using a PLIC-VOF method have been adopted to investigate the atomization process of round liquid jets issuing from automotive multi-hole injector-like nozzles. LES method is used to compute directly the effect of the large flow structure, being the smallest one modelled. A mesh having a cell size of 4 μm was used in order to derive a statistics of the detached liquid structures, i.e. droplets and ligaments. The latter have been identified by using an algorithm coded by authors. Cavitation modeling has not been included in the present computations. Two different mean injection nozzle flow velocities of 50 m/s and 270 m/s, corresponding to two mean nozzle flow Reynolds numbers of 1600 and 8700, respectively, have been considered in the calculations as representative of laminar and turbulent nozzle flow conditions.
Technical Paper

Parallel Computation of Mesh Motion for CFD of IC Engines

The burden of creating meshes increases the cost of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and slows the rate at which new engine geometries can be investigated. Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) with moving valves and piston present a special challenge, often requiring numerous different target meshes or case-specific codes for adapting the mesh. The goal of the present paper is to facilitate remeshing by calculating vertex motion, in parallel, for hybrid tetrahedral and hexahedral meshes. The calculated vertex motion is intended to maintain good mesh quality and reduce the need for interpolation to a new mesh. The demonstrated approach uses Laplacian-based smoothing for hexahedral cells and optimization-based smoothing for tetrahedral cells. Further, planar and cylindrical surfaces in the engine geometry are automatically recognized. As the engine volume changes shape, vertices may slide along the planar and cylindrical surfaces.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for In-Cylinder Flow Field Evaluation in a Low Stroke-to-Bore SI Engine

This paper presents a methodology for the 3D CFD simulation of the intake and compression processes of four stroke internal combustion engines.The main feature of this approach is to provide very accurate initial conditions by means of a cost-effective initialization step. Calculations are applied to a low stroke-to-bore SI engine, operated at full load and maximum engine speed. It is demonstrated that initial conditions for this kind of engines have an important influence on flow field development, particularly in terms of mean velocities close to the firing TDC. Simulation results are used to discuss the choice of a set of parameters for the flow field characterization of low stroke-to-bore engines, as well as to provide an insight into the flow patterns during the overlapping period.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Diesel Fuel Spray Breakup by Using a Hybrid Model

Diesel engine CFD simulation is challenged by the need to improve the accuracy in the spray modeling due to the strong influence played by spray dynamics on evaporation rate, flow field, combustion process and emissions. This paper aims to present a hybrid model able to describe both primary and secondary breakup of high-dense high-pressure sprays. According to this approach, the model proposed by Huh and Gosman is used to compute the atomization of the liquid jet (primary breakup) while a modified version of the TAB model of O'Rourke and Amsden is used for the secondary breakup. The atomization model considers the jet turbulence at the nozzle exit and the growth of unstable wave on the jet surface. In order to validate the hybrid model, a free non-evaporating high-pressure-driven spray at engine like conditions has been simulated. The accuracy of the breakup time evaluation has been improved by tuning the TAB constant Ck according to the Pilch's experimental correlations.
Technical Paper

Effects of Initial Conditions in Multidimensional Combustion Simulations of HSDI Diesel Engines

The effects of numerical methodology in defining the initial conditions and simulating the compression stroke in D.I. diesel engine CFD computations are studied. Lumped and pointwise approaches were adopted in assigning the initial conditions at IVC. The lumped approach was coupled with a two-dimensional calculation of the compression stroke. The pointwise methodology was based on the results of an unsteady calculation of the intake stroke performed by using the STAR-CD code in the realistic engine and port geometry. Full engine and 60 deg. sector meshes were used in the compression stroke calculations in order to check the accuracy of the commonly applied axi-symmetric fluid dynamics assumption. Analysis of the evolution of the main fluid dynamics parameters revealed that local conditions at the time of injection strongly depend on the numerical procedure adopted.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation on the EGR System of a New Automotive Diesel Engine

In this paper an integrated experimental and numerical approach is applied to optimize a new 2.5l, four valve, turbocharged DI Diesel engine, developed by VM Motori. The study is focused on the EGR system. For this engine, the traditional dynamometer bench tests provided 3-D maps for brake specific fuel consumption and emissions as a function of engine speed and brake mean effective pressure. Particularly, a set of operating conditions has been considered which, according to the present European legislation, are fundamental for emissions. For these conditions, the influence of the amount of EGR has been experimentally evaluated. A computational model for the engine cycle simulation at full load has been built by using the WAVE code. The model has been set up against experiments, since an excellent agreement has been reached for all the relevant thermo-fluid-dynamic parameters. The simulation model has been used to gain a better insight on the EGR system operations.
Technical Paper

Setup of a 1D Model for Simulating Dynamic Behaviour of External Gear Pumps

External gear pumps are widely used in many different applications because of their relatively low costs and high performances, especially in terms of volumetric and mechanical efficiency. The main weaknesses of external gear pumps can be summarized as follows: 1 Sudden increase or decrease of pressure inside volumes between teeth, which could lead respectively to noise emissions and to cavitation onset; 2 Necessity of limiting power losses and increasing volumetric efficiency, obtainable by reducing leakage flows between components; 3 Need of maintaining an ad-hoc minimum lubrication film thickness. In recent years many efforts, in terms of mathematical models and experimental tests, were done in order to limit energy losses and noise emissions. With the aim of deeply studying dynamic behaviour of external gear pumps and addressing their design, a 1D model was developed by means AMESim® code.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Numerical Methodology for Large Eddy Simulation of ICE Wall Bounded Non-Reactive Flows

The increasing of the overall engine performance requires the investigation of the unsteady engine phenomena affecting intake air flow and the air-fuel mixing process. The “standard” RANS methodology often doesn't allow one to achieve a qualitative and quantitative accurate prediction of these phenomena. The aim of this paper is to show the potential and the limits of LES numerical technique in the simulation of actual IC engine flows and to assess the influence of some basic parameters on the LES simulation results. The paper introduces the use of a merit parameter suggested by Pope for evaluating the quality of the LES solution. The CFD code used is Fluent v6.2 and two basic test cases have been simulated. The first one is the flow over a backward facing step in order to perform a preliminary parametric numerical analysis. A one-equation dynamic subgrid-scales turbulence model is used.
Technical Paper

Fast Prototyping of a Racing Diesel Engine Control System

This paper shows how Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques have been applied to design and implement an engine control system for a common rail diesel engine. The project aim is to setup a high performance engine in order to participate to the Italian Tractor Pulling Championship (Prostock category). The original engine is a John Deere 6081 Tier2 model, already equipped with a common rail system. Engine performance is substantially determined by the control system, which is in charge of limiting engine speed, boost pressure and Air to Fuel Ratio (AFR). Given that typically the information and equipment needed to change control parameters are not accessible to customers, the first step of the project has been to replace the original control system, while maintaining injectors and pumps. This solution can guarantee the best performance, but it requires time to design the new control system, both in terms of hardware and software.
Technical Paper

Setup of a 1D Model for Simulating Dynamic Behaviour of Motorcycle Forks

Shock absorbers and damper systems are important parts of automobiles and motorcycles because they have effects on safety, ride comfort, and handling. In particular, for vehicle safety, shock absorber system plays a fundamental role in maintaining the contact between tire and road. Generally, to assure the best trade-off between safety and ride comfort, a fine experimental tuning on all shock absorber components is necessary. Inside a common damper system the presence of several conjugated actions made by springs, oil and pressurized air requires a significant experimental support and a great number of prototypes and test. Aimed to reduce the design and tuning phases of a damper system, it is necessary to join these phases together with a numerical modelling phase. The aim of this paper is to present the development of a mono-dimensional (1D) model for simulating dynamic behaviour of damper system.
Technical Paper

Statistical Analysis of Indicating Parameters for Knock Detection Purposes

Specific power and efficiency of gasoline engines are influenced by factors such as compression ratio and Spark Advance (SA) regulation. These factors influence the combustion development over the crank angle: the trade-off between performance and the risk of irreversible damages is still a key element in the design of both high-performance (racing) and low-consumption engines. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem, with the objective of defining a damage-related and operating conditions-independent index. The methodology is based on the combined analysis of indicating parameters, such as Cumulated Heat Release (CHR), Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) and 50% Mass Fraction Burned (MFB50), and typical knock detection parameters, estimated by means of the in-cylinder pressure sensor signal. Knocking combustions have several consequences, therefore they can be detected in many ways.
Journal Article

A Numerical Model for Flash Boiling of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Fuel Injector Nozzles

Fuels are formulated by a variety of different components characterized by chemical and physical properties spanning a wide range of values. Changing the ratio between the mixture component molar fractions, it is possible to fulfill different requirements. One of the main properties that can be strongly affected by mixture composition is the volatility that represents the fuel tendency to vaporize. For example, changing the mixture ratio between alcohols and hydrocarbons, it is possible to vary the mixture saturation pressure, therefore the fuel vaporization ratio during the injection process. This paper presents a 1D numerical model to simulate the superheated injection process of a gasoline-ethanol mixture through real nozzle geometries. In order to test the influence of the mixture properties on flash atomization and flash evaporation, the simulation is repeated for different mixtures characterized by different gasoline-ethanol ratio.