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Technical Paper

Highly Homogeneous Compression Ignition in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Biodiesel

2007-07-23
2007-01-2020
Highly homogeneous compression ignition is difficult to achieve in a direct injection diesel engine. The difficulty of achieving adequate fuel vaporization and the problems of fuel spray wall impingement are the main factors. Limitation of the maximum operating load results from high rates of pressure rise that occur in this combustion regime. The levels of HC and CO emissions are raised substantially when compared with conventional combustion and remain a significant emission factor. In this study, two methods of achieving highly homogeneous combustion in a direct injection diesel engine were investigated, Nissan MK type and early injection. The effects of fuel injection pressure, injection timing, EGR level, EGR cooler efficiency and compression ratio were examined using a conventional 4 cylinder 2.0L common rail diesel engine with 18.4:1 and 14.4:1 compression ratios.
Technical Paper

Investigation into Partially Premixed Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled Gasoline and Diesel with a Mixture of

2007-10-29
2007-01-4058
Partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engines operating with a low temperature highly homogeneous charge have been demonstrated previously using conventional diesel fuel. The short ignition delay of conventional diesel fuel requires high fuel injection pressures to achieve adequate premixing along with high levels of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) to achieve low NOx emissions. Low load operating regions are typified by substantial emissions of CO and HC and there exists an upper operating load limitation due to very high rates of in-cylinder gas pressure rise. In this study mixtures of gasoline and diesel fuel were investigated using a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine. It was found that an increased proportion of gasoline fuel reduced smoke emissions at higher operating loads through an increase in charge premixing resulting from an increase in ignition delay and higher fuel volatility.
Technical Paper

Event-Based Mean-Value Modeling of DI Diesel Engines for Controller Design

2001-03-05
2001-01-1242
Models often use time rather than strokes (crank-angle) as the independent variable to describe engine dynamics despite the fact that the dynamics of an internal combustion engine are intrinsically linked to the combustion events. In this paper, two models are developed in parallel in which not only the independent variable is changed but the notion of mass flows as well: flows are in [g/s] for the time-based model and in [g/st] for the event-based model. Both models are of the same computational complexity and show the same accuracy in validation. The investigation of the model properties shows that variations in the flow-related parameters are reduced by a factor of two to five for the event-based model. However, those of the crankshaft dynamics are increased. It is concluded that the model should be chosen in context of the control system to be designed.
Technical Paper

A Fourier Analysis Based Synthetic Method for In-cylinder Pressure Estimation

2006-10-16
2006-01-3425
The cylinder pressure signal, as an instantaneous and direct measure of the engine operation, contains valuable information for closed loop engine control and offers very useful engine monitoring and control capabilities. The estimation technique for cylinder pressure has been investigated for many years. Based on the Frequency Analysis Method, a synthetic estimation method is proposed in this paper to estimate pressure. Methods that are successful in obtaining a more accurate estimated cylinder pressure over a wider range of crankshaft angle are reported. Quantitative results obtained from application of the method are also given.
Technical Paper

A Simple Diesel Engine Air-Path Model to Predict the Cylinder Charge During Transients: Strategies for Reducing Transient Emissions Spikes

2006-10-16
2006-01-3373
Simple air-path models for modern (VGT/EGR equipped) diesel engines are in common use, and have been reported in the literature. This paper addresses some of the shortcomings of control-oriented models to allow better prediction of the cylinder charge properties. A fast response CO2 analyzer is used to validate the model by comparing the recorded and predicted CO2 concentrations in both the intake port and exhaust manifold of one of the cylinders. Data showing the recorded NOx emissions and exhaust gas opacity during a step change in engine load illustrate the spikes in both NOx and smoke seen during transient conditions. The predicted cylinder charge properties from the model are examined and compared with the measured NOx and opacity. Together, the emissions data and charge properties paint a consistent picture of the phenomena occurring during the transient. Alternative strategies for the fueling and cylinder charge during these load transients are investigated and discussed.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of HCCI Using a Single Cylinder Four-stroke SI Engine with Modified Valve Timing

2000-10-16
2000-01-2870
A standard port fuel injected, unthrottled single cylinder four-stroke SI engine, with a compression ratio of 10.3:1, and using standard gasoline fuel, has been adapted to operate in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode, by modifying the valve timing. It has been found that over a speed range of between 1300 and 2000 rpm, and lambda values of between 0.95 and 1.1, stable operation is achieved without spark ignition. The internal EGR rate was estimated to be about 60%, and emissions of NOX were typically 0.25 g/kWh. Practical implementation of this HCCI concept will require variable valve timing, which will also enable reversion to standard SI operation for maximum power.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Changing Fuel Path Dynamics in Twin-Independent Variable Camshaft Timing Engines

2002-10-21
2002-01-2752
The effect of a variable camshaft timing (VCT) disturbance on air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) signal is investigated for a twin-independent (TI) VCT engine. Different types of VCT disturbances on AFR signal are investigated. Gaseous fuel experiments are performed in addition to conventional petrol fuel experiments to show that not all the transient VCT disturbances acting on AFR are due to changes in air path dynamics. Experiments show that varying exhaust valve closing (EVC) timing has a significant effect on the air path dynamics and is an important cause of transient AFR deviations. However varying EVC does not affect the fuel puddle significantly. On the other hand varying inlet valve opening (IVO) timing has a strong effect on the fuel puddle size and is also an important cause of transient AFR deviations. Thus for superior transient AFR control in TI-VCT engines, it is essential to model not only the effects of valve timings on air path dynamics but also on the fuel path dynamics.
Technical Paper

Parameterization and Transient Validation of a Variable Geometry Turbocharger for Mean-Value Modeling at Low and Medium Speed-Load Points

2002-10-21
2002-01-2729
The parameterization of variable geometry turbochargers for mean-value modeling is typically based on compressor and turbine flow and efficiency maps provided by the supplier. At low turbocharger speeds, and hence low airflows, the heat exchange via the turbocharger housing affects the temperature-based measurements of the efficiencies. Therefore, the low-speed operating regime of the turbocharger is excluded from the supplied maps and mean-value models mainly rely on extrapolation into this region, which is regularly met in emission drive cycles, and hence of significance. This paper presents experimental data from a 2.0-liter turbocharged common-rail diesel engine. While the flow maps extend from the high-speed region in a natural way, the efficiency maps are severely affected by the heat transfer effect. It is argued that this effect should be included in the mean-value model.
Technical Paper

Fast Response CO2 Sensor for Automotive Exhaust Gas Analysis

1999-10-25
1999-01-3477
A fast response sensor for measuring carbon dioxide concentration has been developed for laboratory research and tested on a spark ignition engine. The sensor uses the well known infra-red absorption technique with a miniaturized detection system and short capillary sampling tubes, giving a time constant of approximately 5 milliseconds; this is sufficiently fast to observe changes in CO2 levels on a cycle-by-cycle basis under normal operating conditions. The sensor is easily located in the exhaust system and operates continuously. The sensor was tested on a standard production four cylinder spark-ignition engine to observe changes in CO2 concentration in exhaust gas under steady state and transient operating conditions. The processed sensor signal was compared to a standard air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) sensor in the exhaust stream and the results are presented here. The high frequency response CO2 measurements give new insights into both engine and catalyst transient operation.
Journal Article

Analysis of In-Cylinder Hydrocarbons in a Multi-Cylinder Gasoline HCCI Engine Using Gas Chromatography

2009-11-02
2009-01-2698
Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has been studied widely in the past decade. However, in HCCI engines using negative valve overlap (NVO), there is still uncertainty as to whether the effect of pilot injection during NVO on the start of combustion is primarily due to heat release of the pilot fuel during NVO or whether it is due to pilot fuel reformation. This paper presents data taken on a 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection, spark ignition/HCCI engine with a dual cam system, capable of recompressing residual gas. Engine in-cylinder samples are extracted at various points during the engine cycle through a high-speed sampling system and directly analysed with a gas chromatograph and flame ionisation detector. Engine parameter sweeps are performed for different pilot injection timings and quantities at a medium load point.
Journal Article

Measuring the Impact of Engine Oils and Fuels on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Downsized Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1219
One of the limits on the maximum fuel efficiency benefit to be gained from turbocharged, downsized gasoline engines is the occurrence of low speed pre-ignition (LSPI). LSPI may lead to high pressures and extreme knock (megaknock or superknock) which can cause severe engine damage. Though the mechanism leading to megaknock is not completely resolved, LSPI is thought to arise from local auto-ignition of areas in the cylinder which are rich in low ignition delay “contaminants” such as engine oil and/or heavy ends of gasoline. These contaminants are introduced to the combustion chamber at various points in the engine cycle (e.g. entering from the top land crevice during blow-down or washed from the cylinder walls during DI wall impingement). This paper describes a method for testing the propensity of different contaminants to cause a local pre-ignition in a gasoline engine. During one cycle, a small amount of contaminant is injected into one cylinder of a 4 cylinder engine.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuelled Partially Premixed Compression Ignition in a Light Duty Multi Cylinder Engine: A Study of Low Load and Low Speed Operation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1791
The objective of this study was to examine the operating characteristics of a light duty multi cylinder compression ignition engine with regular gasoline fuel at low engine speed and load. The effects of fuel stratification by means of multiple injections as well as the sensitivity of auto-ignition and burn rate to intake pressure and temperature are presented. The measurements used in this study included gaseous emissions, filter smoke opacity and in-cylinder indicated information. It was found that stable, low emission operation was possible with raised intake manifold pressure and temperature, and that fuel stratification can lead to an increase in stability and a reduced reliance on increased temperature and pressure. It was also found that the auto-ignition delay sensitivity of gasoline to intake temperature and pressure was low within the operating window considered in this study.
Technical Paper

The Fast FID as a Velocimeter for Flow Measurements in an Automotive Catalyst

1998-02-01
980879
The gas velocity through an automotive catalyst has been determined by measuring the time of flight of a pulse of propane injected at the inlet plane of the catalyst. The arrival time at the exit plane was detected by a fast flame ionization detector. By synchronizing and delaying the injection of propane with respect to the engine crankshaft position, the fluctuations of the exhaust gas velocity during the engine cycle were investigated. A number of tests at different engine load and speed points were carried out. The results show a complex velocity/time characteristic, including flow reversals. The technique is shown to be a viable option for flow measurement in this harsh environment.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Engine Dynamics Model Based In-Cylinder Pressure Estimation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0896
The information provided by the in-cylinder pressure signal is of great importance for modern engine management systems. The obtained information is implemented to improve the control and diagnostics of the combustion process in order to meet the stringent emission regulations and to improve vehicle reliability and drivability. The work presented in this paper covers the experimental study and proposes a comprehensive and practical solution for the estimation of the in-cylinder pressure from the crankshaft speed fluctuation. Also, the paper emphasizes the feasibility and practicality aspects of the estimation techniques, for the real-time online application. In this study an engine dynamics model based estimation method is proposed. A discrete-time transformed form of a rigid-body crankshaft dynamics model is constructed based on the kinetic energy theorem, as the basis expression for total torque estimation.
Technical Paper

Impact of Lubricant Composition on Low-speed Pre-Ignition

2014-04-01
2014-01-1213
One of the limits on the maximum fuel efficiency benefit to be gained from turbocharged, downsized gasoline engines is the occurrence of pre-ignitions at low engine speed. These pre-ignitions may lead to high pressures and extreme knock (megaknock or superknock) which can cause severe engine damage. Though the mechanism leading to megaknock is not completely resolved, pre-ignitions are thought to arise from local autoignition of areas in the cylinder which are rich in low ignition delay “contaminants” such as engine oil and/or heavy ends of gasoline. These contaminants are introduced to the combustion chamber at various points in the engine cycle (e.g. entering from the top land crevice during blow-down or washed from the cylinder walls during DI wall impingement).
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