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Technical Paper

Exhaust Particulate Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-1145
Experiments were performed to measure the average and time-resolved particle number emissions and number-weighted particle size distributions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Measurements were made on a late model vehicle equipped with a direct injection spark ignition engine. The vehicle was placed on a chassis dynamometer, which was used to load the engine to road load at five different vehicle speeds ranging from 13 - 90 km/hr. Particle number emissions were measured using a TSI 3020 condensation nucleus counter, and size distributions were measured using a TSI 3934 scanning mobility particle sizer. Average polydisperse number concentration was found to increase from 1.1 × 108 particles/cm3 at 13 km/hr to 2.8 × 108 particles/cm3 at 70 km/hr. Under a closed-loop, stoichiometric homogeneous charge operating mode at 90 km/hr, number emissions fell to 9.3 × 107 particles/cm3 (at all other operating conditions, the engine was in a lean stratified charge operating mode).
Journal Article

Fundamental Aspects of Jet Ignition for Natural Gas Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0097
Large-bore natural gas engines may use pre-chamber ignition. Despite extensive research in engine environments, the exact nature of the jet, as it exits the pre-chamber orifice, is not thoroughly understood and this leads to uncertainty in the design of such systems. In this work, a specially-designed rig comprising a quartz pre-chamber fit with an orifice and a turbulent flowing mixture outside the pre-chamber was used to study the pre-chamber flame, the jet, and the subsequent premixed flame initiation mechanism by OH* and CH* chemiluminescence. Ethylene and methane were used. The experimental results are supplemented by LES and 0D modelling, providing insights into the mass flow rate evolution at the orifice and into the nature of the fluid there. Both LES and experiment suggest that for large orifice diameters, the flow that exits the orifice is composed of a column of hot products surrounded by an annulus of unburnt pre-chamber fluid.
Technical Paper

Highly Homogeneous Compression Ignition in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Biodiesel

2007-07-23
2007-01-2020
Highly homogeneous compression ignition is difficult to achieve in a direct injection diesel engine. The difficulty of achieving adequate fuel vaporization and the problems of fuel spray wall impingement are the main factors. Limitation of the maximum operating load results from high rates of pressure rise that occur in this combustion regime. The levels of HC and CO emissions are raised substantially when compared with conventional combustion and remain a significant emission factor. In this study, two methods of achieving highly homogeneous combustion in a direct injection diesel engine were investigated, Nissan MK type and early injection. The effects of fuel injection pressure, injection timing, EGR level, EGR cooler efficiency and compression ratio were examined using a conventional 4 cylinder 2.0L common rail diesel engine with 18.4:1 and 14.4:1 compression ratios.
Technical Paper

Simulating a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with a DEE/EtOH Blend

2006-04-03
2006-01-1362
We numerically simulate a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine fuelled with a blend of ethanol and diethyl ether by means of a stochastic reactor model (SRM). A 1D CFD code is employed to calculate gas flow through the engine, whilst the SRM accounts for combustion and convective heat transfer. The results of our simulations are compared to experimental measurements obtained using a Caterpillar CAT3401 single-cylinder Diesel engine modified for HCCI operation. We consider emissions of CO, CO2 and unburnt hydrocarbons as functions of the crank angle at 50% heat release. In addition, we establish the dependence of ignition timing, combustion duration, and emissions on the mixture ratio of the two fuel components. Good qualitative agreement is found between our computations and the available experimental data.
Technical Paper

Novel Methods for Characterizing the Mechanical Durability of Automobile Paint Systems

1998-02-23
980977
This paper presents two new methods to quantitatively evaluate the mechanical durability of multi-layered automotive paint systems. The first examines the resistance of the paint system to particle impacts and involves the impact of hard particles against the painted surface, under controlled conditions. The second test examines the resistance of the clearcoat layer in the paint system to surface abrasion, or mar. The test uses a steel sphere which is rotated against the paint surface in the presence of a slurry of fine abrasive particles. These two techniques have been successfully applied to a set of commercial automobile paints, and were found to discriminate well between them and give reproducible, quantitative data. The effects of the bake conditions on both the erosion and abrasion resistance of a full paint system and the abrasion resistance of a range of commercial clearcoats are examined in detail.
Journal Article

Analysis of In-Cylinder Hydrocarbons in a Multi-Cylinder Gasoline HCCI Engine Using Gas Chromatography

2009-11-02
2009-01-2698
Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has been studied widely in the past decade. However, in HCCI engines using negative valve overlap (NVO), there is still uncertainty as to whether the effect of pilot injection during NVO on the start of combustion is primarily due to heat release of the pilot fuel during NVO or whether it is due to pilot fuel reformation. This paper presents data taken on a 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection, spark ignition/HCCI engine with a dual cam system, capable of recompressing residual gas. Engine in-cylinder samples are extracted at various points during the engine cycle through a high-speed sampling system and directly analysed with a gas chromatograph and flame ionisation detector. Engine parameter sweeps are performed for different pilot injection timings and quantities at a medium load point.
Journal Article

Influence of Injection Timing and Piston Bowl Geometry on PCCI Combustion and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1102
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Additives and Dilution Conditions on the Formation and Emission of Exhaust Particulate Matter from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-2018
Experiments were performed to measure the number-weighted particle size distributions emitted from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Measurements were made on a late model vehicle equipped with a direct injection spark ignition engine. The vehicle was placed on a chassis dynamometer, which was used to load the engine to road load at five different vehicle speeds ranging from 15 - 100 km/hr. Dilution of the exhaust aerosol was carried out using a two-stage dilution system in which the first stage dilution occurs as a free jet. Particle size distributions were measured using a TSI 3934 scanning mobility particle sizer. Generally speaking, the presence of the additives did not have a strong, consistent influence on the particle emissions from this engine. The polyether amine demonstrated a reduction in particle number concentration as compared to unadditized base fuel.
Technical Paper

Investigation into Partially Premixed Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled Gasoline and Diesel with a Mixture of

2007-10-29
2007-01-4058
Partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engines operating with a low temperature highly homogeneous charge have been demonstrated previously using conventional diesel fuel. The short ignition delay of conventional diesel fuel requires high fuel injection pressures to achieve adequate premixing along with high levels of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) to achieve low NOx emissions. Low load operating regions are typified by substantial emissions of CO and HC and there exists an upper operating load limitation due to very high rates of in-cylinder gas pressure rise. In this study mixtures of gasoline and diesel fuel were investigated using a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine. It was found that an increased proportion of gasoline fuel reduced smoke emissions at higher operating loads through an increase in charge premixing resulting from an increase in ignition delay and higher fuel volatility.
Technical Paper

Studying the Influence of Direct Injection on PCCI Combustion and Emissions at Engine Idle Condition Using Two Dimensional CFD and Stochastic Reactor Model

2008-04-14
2008-01-0021
A detailed chemical model was implemented in the KIVA-3V two dimensional CFD code to investigate the effects of the spray cone angle and injection timing on the PCCI combustion process and emissions in an optical research diesel engine. A detailed chemical model for Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) consisting of 157 species and 1552 reactions was used to simulate diesel fuel chemistry. The model validation shows good agreement between the predicted and measured pressure and emissions data in the selected cases with various spray angles and injection timings. If the injection is retarded to -50° ATDC, the spray impingement at the edge of the piston corner with 100° injection angle was shown to enhance the mixing of air and fuel. The minimum fuel loss and more widely distributed fuel vapor contribute to improving combustion efficiency and lowering uHC and CO emissions in the engine idle condition.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity of Flamelet Combustion Model to Flame Curvature for IC Engine Application

2017-09-04
2017-24-0038
Engines with reduced emissions and improved efficiency are of high interest for road transport. However, achieving these two goals is challenging and various concepts such as PFI/DI/HCCI/PCCI are explored by engine manufacturers. The computational fluid dynamics is becoming an integral part of modern engine development programme because this method provides access to in-cylinder flow and thermo-chemical processes to develop a closer understanding to tailor tumble and swirling motions to construct green engines. The combustion modelling, its accuracy and robustness play a vital role in this. Out of many modelling methods proposed in the past flamelet based methods are quite attractive for SI engine application. In this study, FlaRe (Flamelets revised for physical consistencies) approach is used to simulate premixed combustion inside a gasoline PFI single-cylinder, four-stroke SI engine. This approach includes a parameter representing the effects of flame curvature on the burning rate.
Technical Paper

Study of Cycle-By-Cycle Air-to-Fuel Ratio Determined from the Exhaust Gas Composition and a Novel Fast Response Device Based on a Wide Band Lambda Sensor

2008-10-06
2008-01-2439
This paper describes cyclic Air/Fuel ratio (AFR) measurements carried out with a novel device (fUEGO) based on a production Universal Exhaust Gas Oxygen sensor, but modified to give an improved frequency response. The results are compared to AFR calculated from a fast CO/CO2 analyser and a fast response flame ionization detector (FID). The direct comparison of the two different methods for determining the cyclic AFR reveals that the electrochemical device is in reasonable agreement with the more complex carbon balance method and can provide reliable cyclic AFR measurements with a reduced requirement for equipment and data post processing. The fUEGO however is sensitive to elevated levels of uHC's (unburned hydrocarbons) during misfires or partial burns and readings during such situations usually show deviations compared to the carbon balance method.
Technical Paper

Study of Steady State and Transient EGR Behaviour of a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2438
It is well known that accurate EGR control is paramount to controlling engine out emissions during steady state and transient operation of a diesel engine. The direct measurement of EGR is however non-trivial and especially difficult in engines with no external EGR control where the intake manifold CO2 levels can be measured more readily. This work studies the EGR behaviour in a medium duty diesel engine with a passive EGR rebreathing strategy for steady state and transient operation. High speed (response time ∼1ms) in-cylinder sampling using modified GDI valves is coupled with high frequency response analysers to measure the cyclic in-cylinder CO2, from which the EGR rate is deduced. It was found that controlling the EGR using the passive rebreathing strategy during certain combined speed and load transients is challenging, causing high smoke and NO emissions.
Technical Paper

Premixed Turbulent Combustion Flowfield Measurements Using PIV and LST and Their Application to Flamelet Modelling of Engine Combustion

1992-10-01
922322
Flamelet modelling of premixed turbulent combustion can be applied to spark-ignition engine combustion. To address and validate several modelling criteria, two measurement techniques are used in a burner flame to study the interaction between turbulent flowfields and combustion for subsequent application to engine combustion. Particle Image Velocimetry and Light Sheet Tomography are used together to measure conditional velocities simultaneously in reactant and product mixtures. Correlations of velocity and reaction scalar fluctuations indicate that counter-gradient turbulent diffusion must be accounted for when modelling this flowfield. Comparisons of spatial averaging of instantaneous and ensemble-averaged data are made and the application of similar techniques to engine combustion is discussed.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Simulation Using a Flamelet Based Combustion Model

2015-09-06
2015-24-2402
Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become an integral part in analysing engine in-cylinder processes since it provides detailed information on the flow and combustion, which helps to find design improvements during the development of modern engine concepts. The predictive capability of simulation tools depends largely on the accuracy, fidelity and robustness of the various models used, in particular concerning turbulence and combustion. In this study, a flamelet model with a physics based closure for the progress variable dissipation rate is applied for the first time to a spark ignited IC engine. The predictive capabilities of the proposed approach are studied for one operating condition of a gasoline port fuel injected single-cylinder, four-stroke spark ignited full-metal engine running at 3,500 RPM close to full load (10 bar BMEP) at stoichiometric conditions.
Technical Paper

Fast Response CO2 Sensor for Automotive Exhaust Gas Analysis

1999-10-25
1999-01-3477
A fast response sensor for measuring carbon dioxide concentration has been developed for laboratory research and tested on a spark ignition engine. The sensor uses the well known infra-red absorption technique with a miniaturized detection system and short capillary sampling tubes, giving a time constant of approximately 5 milliseconds; this is sufficiently fast to observe changes in CO2 levels on a cycle-by-cycle basis under normal operating conditions. The sensor is easily located in the exhaust system and operates continuously. The sensor was tested on a standard production four cylinder spark-ignition engine to observe changes in CO2 concentration in exhaust gas under steady state and transient operating conditions. The processed sensor signal was compared to a standard air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) sensor in the exhaust stream and the results are presented here. The high frequency response CO2 measurements give new insights into both engine and catalyst transient operation.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Gas Flow Field within a Diesel Particulate Filter Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

2015-09-01
2015-01-2009
In recent years magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be an attractive method for fluid flow visualization. In this work, we show how MRI velocimetry techniques can be used to non-invasively investigate and visualize the hydrodynamics of exhaust gas in a diesel particulate filter (DPF), both when clean and after loading with diesel engine exhaust particulate matter. The measurements have been used to directly measure the gas flow in the inlet and outlet channels of the DPF, both axial profiles along the length and profiles across the channel diameter. Further, from this information we show that it is possible to indirectly ascertain the superficial wall-flow gas velocity and the soot loading profiles along the filter channel length.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on Truck Side-Skirt Flow

2016-04-05
2016-01-1593
The underbody of a truck is responsible for an appreciable portion of the vehicle’s aerodynamic drag, and thus its fuel consumption. This paper investigates experimentally the flow around side-skirts, a common underbody aerodynamic device which is known to be effective at reducing vehicle drag. A full, 1/10 scale European truck model is used. The chassis of the model is designed to represent one that would be found on a typical trailer, and is fully reconfigurable. Testing is carried out in a water towing tank, which allows the correct establishment of the ground flow and rotating wheels. Optical access into the underbody is possible through the clear working section of the facility. Stereoscopic and planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) set-ups are used to provide both qualitative images of and quantitative information on the flow field.
Technical Paper

A New Technique for Measuring HC Concentration in Real Time, in a Running Engine

1988-02-01
880517
Using a novel, high frequency response FID unit, hydrocarbon measurements in the spark plug gap of a firing gasoline engine have been made. These measurements have been correlated with the pressure development, and a significant correlation was found. The method described can be used on any engine fitted with a modified sparking plug.
Journal Article

An Aerosolization Method for Characterizing Particle Contaminants in Diesel Fuel

2013-10-14
2013-01-2668
Diesel fuel injection systems are operating at increasingly higher pressure (up to 250 MPa) with smaller clearances, making them more sensitive to diesel fuel contaminants. Most liquid particle counters have difficulty detecting particles <4 μm in diameter and are unable to distinguish between solid and semi-solid materials. The low conductivity of diesel fuel limits the use of the Coulter counter. This raises the need for a new method to characterize small (<4 μm) fuel contaminants. We propose and evaluate an aerosolization method for characterizing solid particulate matter in diesel fuel that can detect particles as small as 0.5 μm. The particle sizing and concentration performance of the method were calibrated and validated by the use of seed particles added to filtered diesel fuel. A size dependent correction method was developed to account for the preferential atomization and subsequent aerosol conditioning processes to obtain the liquid-borne particle concentration.
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