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Technical Paper

Neat Biodiesel Fuel Engine Tests and Preliminary Modelling

2007-04-16
2007-01-0616
Engine performance and emission comparisons were made between the use of 100% soy, Canola and yellow grease derived biodiesel fuels and an ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel in the oxygen deficient regions, i.e. full or high load engine operations. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was extensively applied to initiate low temperature combustion. An intake throttling valve was implemented to increase the differential pressure between the intake and exhaust in order to increase and enhance the EGR. The intake temperature, pressure, and EGR levels were modulated to improve the engine fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions. Furthermore, a preliminary ignition delay correlation under the influence of EGR was developed. Preliminary low temperature combustion modelling of the biodiesel and diesel fuels was also conducted. The research intends to achieve simultaneous reductions of nitrogen oxides and soot emissions in modern production diesel engines when biodiesel is applied.
Technical Paper

Effect of Weld Geometry and HAZ Softening on Fatigue Performance of DP780 GMAW Lap Joint

2007-04-16
2007-01-0632
With the increasing demand for safety, energy saving and emission reduction, Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) have become very attractive materials for automobile makers. Welding of AHSS remains one of the technical challenges in the successful application of AHSS in automobile structures, especially when durability of the welded structures is required. In this study, 2.0 mm uncoated DP780 was investigated. GMAW welding parameters for lap joints of this steel were developed in order to obtain different weld geometries defined by weld toe angle, weld leg sizes, and weld penetration. Metallurgical properties of the joints were evaluated using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Static and fatigue tests were conducted on the welded joints. Effect of weld geometry and HAZ softening on fatigue performance including fatigue life, crack initiation site and propagation path of the joints will be analyzed.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Effect of E85 vs. Gasoline on Exhaust System Surface Temperatures

2007-04-16
2007-01-1392
With concerns over increasing worldwide demand for gasoline and greenhouse gases, many automotive companies are increasing their product lineup of vehicles to include flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of operating on fuel blends ranging from 100% gasoline up to a blend of 15% gasoline/85% ethanol (E85). For the purpose of this paper, data was obtained that will enable an evaluation relating to the effect the use of E85 fuel has on exhaust system surface temperatures compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline while the vehicle undergoes a typical drive cycle. Three vehicles from three different automotive manufacturers were tested. The surface of the exhaust systems was instrumented with thermocouples at specific locations to monitor temperatures from the manifold to the catalytic converter outlet. The exhaust system surface temperatures were recorded during an operation cycle that included steady vehicle speed operation; cold start and idle and wide open throttle conditions.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Real-Time Measurements of NO and NO2 in Medium Duty Diesel Truck Exhaust

2007-04-16
2007-01-1329
The goal of the present work was to investigate the ability of the SEMTECH®-D Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) to provide simultaneous, accurate, real-time (1Hz) measurements of NO and NO2 in vehicle exhaust. Extensive chassis dynamometer laboratory evaluation studies of the SEMTECH® system were conducted. The instantaneous (1Hz) NOx emissions were measured using a conventional chemiluminescence analyzer (CLA) and were compared to the sum of the instantaneous NO and NO2 measurements from the SEMTECH®-D. The sum of the NO and NO2 emissions measured by the SEMTECH® were in excellent agreement (within 95% in most cases) with the total NOx measurements from the conventional CLA. During the laboratory evaluation studies, several Federal Test Procedure (FTP) drive cycles were conducted. Examples of the NO and NO2 concentration and mass emissions measured using the SEMTECH®-D are presented along with the corresponding SEMTECH®-D detection limits.
Technical Paper

An Adaptive Delay-Compensated PID Air Fuel Ratio Controller

2007-04-16
2007-01-1342
In this work, a discrete,time-based, delay-compensated, adaptive PID control algorithm for air fuel ratio control in an SI engine is presented. The controller operates using feedback from a wide-ranging Universal Exhaust Gas Oxygen (UEGO) sensor situated in the exhaust manifold. Time delay compensation is used to address the difficulties traditionally associated with the relatively long and time-varying time delay in the gas transport process and UEGO sensor response. The delay compensation is performed by computing a correction to the current control move based on the current delay and the corresponding values of the past control moves. The current delay is determined from the measured engine speed and load using a two dimensional map. In order to achieve good servo operation during target changes without compromising regulator performance a two degree of freedom controller design has been developed by adding a pre-filter to the air fuel ratio target.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Studies and Mathematical Modeling of Urea SCR Catalyst Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-1573
This paper presents the development of an analytical model that complements laboratory based experiments to provide a tool for Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) applications. The model calibration is based on measured data from NOx reduction performance tests as well as ammonia (NH3) adsorption/desorption tests over select SCR catalyst formulations in a laboratory flow reactor. Only base metal/zeolite SCR samples were evaluated. Limited validations are presented that show the model agrees well with vehicle data from Environmental Protection Agency Federal Test Procedure (EPA FTP) emission assessments. The model includes energy and mass balances, several different NH3 reactions with NOx, NH3 adsorption and desorption algorithms, and NH3 oxidation.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Ammonia Slip Catalysts on Ammonia, N2O and NOX Emissions for Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1572
The use of urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a promising method for achieving U.S. Tier 2 diesel emission standards for NOx. To meet the Tier 2 standards for Particulate Matter (PM), a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) will likely be present and any ammonia (NH3) that is not consumed over an SCR catalyst would pass over the CDPF to make nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and/or oxides of nitrogen (NOx), or exit the exhaust system as NH3. N2O is undesirable due to its high greenhouse gas potential, while NOx production from the slipped NH3 would reduce overall system NOx conversion efficiency. This paper reviews certain conditions where NH3 slip past an SCR system may be a concern, looks at what would happen to this slipped NH3 over a CDPF, and evaluates the performance of various supplier NH3 slip catalysts under varied space velocities, temperatures and concentrations of NH3 and NOx.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Ammonia to NOX Ratio on SCR Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-1581
It is likely that use of urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) will be needed to meet U.S. Tier 2 diesel emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The ideal ratio of ammonia (NH3) molecules to NOx molecules (known as alpha) is 1:1 based on urea consumption and having NH3 available for reaction of all of the exhaust NOx. However, SCR efficiency can be less than 100% at low temperatures in general, and at higher temperatures with high exhaust SCR catalyst space velocities. At the low temperatures where NOx conversion efficiency is low, it may be advantageous to reduce the alpha ratio to values less than one (less NH3 than is needed to convert 100% of the NOx emissions) to avoid NH3 slip. At higher space velocities and high temperatures, the NOx conversion efficiency may be higher with alpha ratios greater than 1. There is however concern that the additional NH3 will be slipped under these conditions.
Technical Paper

Highly Homogeneous Compression Ignition in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Biodiesel

2007-07-23
2007-01-2020
Highly homogeneous compression ignition is difficult to achieve in a direct injection diesel engine. The difficulty of achieving adequate fuel vaporization and the problems of fuel spray wall impingement are the main factors. Limitation of the maximum operating load results from high rates of pressure rise that occur in this combustion regime. The levels of HC and CO emissions are raised substantially when compared with conventional combustion and remain a significant emission factor. In this study, two methods of achieving highly homogeneous combustion in a direct injection diesel engine were investigated, Nissan MK type and early injection. The effects of fuel injection pressure, injection timing, EGR level, EGR cooler efficiency and compression ratio were examined using a conventional 4 cylinder 2.0L common rail diesel engine with 18.4:1 and 14.4:1 compression ratios.
Technical Paper

Fiber Optic Sensor for Crank Angle Resolved Measurements of Burned Gas Residual Fraction in the Cylinder of an SI Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-1921
A fiber optic infrared spectroscopic sensor was developed to measure the crank angle resolved residual fraction of burned gas retained in the cylinder of a four-stroke SI engine. The sensor detected the attenuation of infrared radiation in the 4.3 μm infrared vibrational-rotational absorption band of CO2. The residual fraction remaining in the cylinder is proportional to the CO2 concentration. The sensor was tested in a single-cylinder CFR spark ignition engine fired on propane at a speed of 700 rpm. The sensor was located in one of two spark plug holes of the CFR engine. A pressure-transducer-type spark plug was used to record the cylinder pressure and initiate the spark. The temporal resolution of the measurements was 540 μs (equivalent to 2.3 crank angle degrees) and the spatial resolution was 6 mm. Measurements were made during the intake and compression stroke for several intake manifold pressures. The compression ratio of the engine was varied from 6.3 to 9.5.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Volatility, Load, and Speed on HC Emissions Due to Piston Wetting

2001-05-07
2001-01-2024
Piston wetting can be isolated from the other sources of HC emissions from DISI engines by operating the engine predominantly on a gaseous fuel and using an injector probe to impact a small amount of liquid fuel on the piston top. This results in a marked increase in HC emissions. In a previous study, we used a variety of pure liquid hydrocarbon fuels to examine the influence of fuel volatility and structure on the HC emissions due to piston wetting. It was shown that the HC emissions correspond to the Leidenfrost effect: fuels with very low boiling points yield high HCs and those with a boiling point near or above the piston temperature produce much lower HCs. All of these prior tests of fuel effects were performed at a single operating condition: the Ford World Wide Mapping Point (WWMP). In the present study, the effects of load and engine speed are examined.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure in an Optically-Accessed DISI Engine with Side-Mounted Fuel Injector

2001-05-07
2001-01-1975
This paper presents the results of an experimental study into the effects of fuel injection pressure on mixture formation within an optically accessed direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. Comparison is made between the spray characteristics and in-cylinder fuel distributions due to supply rail pressures of 50 bar and 100 bar subject to part-warm, part-load homogeneous charge operating conditions. A constant fuel mass, corresponding to stoichiometric tune, was maintained for both supply pressures. The injected sprays and their subsequent liquid-phase fuel distributions were visualized using the 2-D laser Mie-scattering technique. The experimental injector (nominally a hollow-cone pressure-swirl design) was seen to produce a dense filled spray structure for both injection pressures under investigation. In both cases, the leading edge velocities of the main spray suggest the direct impingement of liquid fuel on the cylinder walls.
Technical Paper

An On-Board Reductant Delivery System for Diesel Aftertreatment

2001-09-24
2001-01-3622
It has become evident that almost all diesel aftertreatment devices dealing with NOx and particulate matter (PM) controls require the addition of one or more reducing agents (reductants), such as diesel fuel, ammonia, or aqueous urea to enhance their efficiency and durability. These reductants can be used to catalytically convert NOx to N2, to enrich the air fuel ratio (A/F), or to increase temperatures for regenerating PM filters or for de-sulfating NOx traps. A number of injection methods have been developed recently to provide easy reductant addition. However, many of them may be cumbersome, costly, or ineffective. This paper describes a new reductant delivery system, which appears to minimize these shortcomings. To be effective, the manner of reductant injection into the exhaust is critical. First, the reductant must be added quickly to accommodate the fast transient operations.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Manifold Radiated Noise Prediction Methodology

2001-04-30
2001-01-1433
The spark ignition engine is a prime source of vibration energy. NVH disturbances generated by the engine ultimately reach the customer in the form of objectionable noise or NVH. Exhaust Manifolds are one of the many sources of noise contributors among the engine components. Often, the exhaust manifold is identified as a source of objectionable NVH late in the design and development process. Due to the lack of an upfront NVH analysis tool, a new CAE NVH methodology for evaluating new exhaust manifold designs has been investigated and developed by the Ford Motor Company's V-Engine CAE and Exhaust Manifold Design Sections. This new CAE methodology has been developed to compare the NVH performance of current production exhaust manifolds to new design levels. Mechanical induced radiated shell noise is the predominate cause of objectionable NVH in exhaust manifolds.
Technical Paper

Wavelet-Based Visualization of Impulsive and Transient Sounds in Stationary Background Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1475
Scalograms based on shift-invariant orthonormal wavelet transforms can be used to analyze impulsive and transient sounds in the presence of more stationary sound backgrounds, such as wind noise or drivetrain noise. The visual threshold of detection for impulsive features on the scalogram (signal energy content vs. time and frequency,) is shown to be similar to the audible threshold of detection of the human auditory system for the corresponding impulsive sounds. Two examples of impulsive sounds in a realistic automotive sound background are presented: automotive interior rattle in a vehicle passenger compartment, and spark knock recorded in an engine compartment.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Experience with the IR-TRACC Chest Deflection Transducer

2002-03-04
2002-01-0188
In 1998, Rouhana et al. described development of a new device, called the IR-TRACC (InfraRed - Telescoping Rod for Assessment of Chest Compression). In its original concept, the IR-TRACC uses two infrared LEDs inside of a telescoping rod to measure deflection. One LED serves as a light transmitter and the other as a light receiver. The output from the receiver LED is converted to a linear function of chest compression using an analog circuit. Tests have been performed with IR-TRACC units at various labs around the world since 1998. A first-generation IR-TRACC system was retrofit into a Q3 dummy by TNO. Similarly, a mid sized male Hybrid III dummy thorax and a small female Hybrid III dummy thorax have been designed by First Technology Safety Systems (FTSS) such that each contains 4 second-generation IR-TRACC units. The second-generation IR-TRACC is the result of continued development by FTSS, especially in the areas of the analysis circuit, manufacturing and calibration methods.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of EGR Treatment on the Emission and Operating Characteristics of Modern Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1083
Tests are conducted to improve the use of exhaust gas recirculation on a single cylinder diesel engine with EGR stream treatment techniques that include intake heating, combustible substance oxidation, catalytic fuel reforming, and partial bypass-flow control. In parallel with the empirical work, theoretical modeling analyses are performed to investigate the effectiveness of the reforming process and the combined effects on the overall system efficiency. The research is aimed at stabilizing and expanding the limits of heavy EGR during steady and transient operations so that the individual limiting conditions of EGR can be better identified. Additionally, the heavy EGR is applied to enable in-cylinder low temperature combustion. The effectiveness of EGR treatment on engine emission and operating characteristics are therefore reported.
Technical Paper

Investigation into Partially Premixed Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled Gasoline and Diesel with a Mixture of

2007-10-29
2007-01-4058
Partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engines operating with a low temperature highly homogeneous charge have been demonstrated previously using conventional diesel fuel. The short ignition delay of conventional diesel fuel requires high fuel injection pressures to achieve adequate premixing along with high levels of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) to achieve low NOx emissions. Low load operating regions are typified by substantial emissions of CO and HC and there exists an upper operating load limitation due to very high rates of in-cylinder gas pressure rise. In this study mixtures of gasoline and diesel fuel were investigated using a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine. It was found that an increased proportion of gasoline fuel reduced smoke emissions at higher operating loads through an increase in charge premixing resulting from an increase in ignition delay and higher fuel volatility.
Technical Paper

Low Volatility ZDDP Technology: Part 2 - Exhaust Catalysts Performance in Field Applications

2007-10-29
2007-01-4107
Phosphorus is known to reduce effectiveness of the three-way catalysts (TWC) commonly used by automotive OEMs. This phenomenon is referred to as catalyst deactivation. The process occurs as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) decomposes in an engine creating many phosphorus species, which eventually interact with the active sites of exhaust catalysts. This phosphorous comes from both oil consumption and volatilization. Novel low-volatility ZDDP is designed in such a way that the amounts of volatile phosphorus species are significantly reduced while their antiwear and antioxidant performances are maintained. A recent field trial conducted in New York City taxi cabs provided two sets of “aged” catalysts that had been exposed to GF-4-type formulations. The trial compared fluids formulated with conventional and low-volatility ZDDPs. Results of field test examination were reported in an earlier paper (1).
Technical Paper

Engineering the Ford H2 IC Engine Powered E-450 Shuttle Bus

2007-10-29
2007-01-4095
As a part of a continuous research and innovation effort, Ford Motor Company has been evaluating hydrogen since 1997 as an alternative fuel option for vehicles with internal combustion engines. Hydrogen fuel is attractive in that it is the cleanest fuel. Hydrogen, when used in an internal combustion engine, produces an exhaust emission consisting mainly of water vapor, with no carbon dioxide and trace amounts of other regulated pollutants. Hydrogen can be produced from renewable sources which will help reduce the dependence on foreign oil. The implementation of the hydrogen powered IC engine is seen as a strategy to help transition from a petroleum economy to a hydrogen economy and drive development of hydrogen storage, fueling infrastructure and other hydrogen related technologies.
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