Non-Constant Variance - Emission Modeling Methods for Offline Optimization and Calibration of Engine Management Systems
Calibrating the engine control unit to satisfy pollutant and performance objectives can be a challenging task. Due to the large number of variables and their interactive complexities, many firms apply design of experiment methods and modeling techniques to the acquired test data. This establishes a “black box” or “gray box” simulation model that predicts power and emissions as a function of the engine parameters. An offline optimization procedure on the fitted model(s) will identify the engine control strategy that best satisfies pollutant and performance objectives. A review of the literature reveals that the General Linear Modeling method and Neural Network modeling architectures are widely used in the development of “black box” or “gray box” simulation models. While Neural Network methods are “assumption free”, the General Linear Model method is limited to those problems in which the errors, ε, are normally distributed and have constant variance, σ2.