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Technical Paper

Control of Powertrain Noise Using a Frequency Domain Filtered-x LMS Algorithm

2009-05-19
2009-01-2145
An enhanced, frequency domain filtered-x least mean square (LMS) algorithm is proposed as the basis for an active control system for treating powertrain noise. There are primarily three advantages of this approach: (i) saving of computing time especially for long controller’s filter length; (ii) more accurate estimation of the gradient due to the sample averaging of the whole data block; and (iii) capacity for rapid convergence when the adaptation parameter is correctly adjusted for each frequency bin. Unlike traditional active noise control techniques for suppressing response, the proposed frequency domain FXLMS algorithm is targeted at tuning vehicle interior response in order to achieve a desirable sound quality. The proposed control algorithm is studied numerically by applying the analysis to treat vehicle interior noise represented by either measured or predicted cavity acoustic transfer functions.
Journal Article

Experimental Study on Enhanced FXLMS Algorithm for Active Impulsive Noise Control

2013-05-13
2013-01-1951
Active noise control (ANC) technique with the filtered-x least mean square (FXLMS) algorithm has proven its efficiency and drawn increasingly interests in vehicle noise control applications. However, many vehicle interior and/or exterior noises are exhibiting non-Gaussian type with impulsive characteristic, such as diesel knocking noise, injector ticking, impulsive crank-train noise, gear rattle, and road bumps, etc. Therefore, the conventional FXLMS algorithm that is based on the assumption of deterministic and/or Gaussian signal may not be appropriate for tackling this type of impulsive noise. In this paper, an ANC system configured with modified FXLMS (MFXLMS) algorithm by adding thresholds on reference and error signal paths is proposed for impulsive noise control. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, an experimental study is conducted in the laboratory.
Journal Article

Influence of Gyroscopic Effect on Hypoid and Bevel Geared System Dynamics

2009-05-19
2009-01-2070
The noise and vibration response of hypoid or bevel geared rotor system, primarily excited by transmission error (TE), and mesh vector and stiffness variations, can be affected significantly by the coupling between the driveline rotor dynamics and gear vibratory response. This is because of the inherent design comprising of non-parallel rotational axes and time-varying as well as spatial-varying gear mesh characteristics. One of the important factors of the driveline system dynamics is the rotor gyroscopic effect that has not been studied extensively in traditional gear dynamics. To address this gap in the literature, this paper attempts to examine the influence of incorporating gyroscopic terms in the hypoid gear dynamic simulation. A multi-degrees-of-freedom, multi-body dynamic model is used as a generalized representation of a hypoid geared rotor system.
Journal Article

Development of a New Squeak and Rattle Detection Algorithm

2009-05-19
2009-01-2111
A new algorithm to detect and to quantify the seriousness of the detected squeak and rattle (S&R) events was developed. A T-F analysis technique called AWT, the Zwicker loudness model and leaky integration are employed to define new concepts we called transient specific loudness time histories and perceived transient loudness time history. The detection threshold of the perceived transient loudness was identified by a clever interpretation of jury test results. The proposed algorithm showed a good promise producing results that are well correlated with the jury tests. The new algorithm developed in this work will be able to automate detection and rating of the S&R events with good accuracy and with minimum possibility of false alarm under normal operating conditions
Technical Paper

A System Approach for the Assessment of Cavitation Corrosion Damage of Cylinder Liners in Internal Combustion Engines

1993-03-01
930581
Modeling of liner cavitation corrosion is of increasing significance since new engine design trends could aggravate the problem. Cavitation corrosion is of a complex nature and is affected by numerous coupled factors. A system approach to analyze and assess cavitation corrosion damage is deemed necessary. The approach accounts for the macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the phenomenon that include modeling of piston dynamics, liner transient vibration, pressure wave propagation, bubble dynamics and their effect on material damage. Though detection methods can provide crucial insight of factors that influence the cavitation problem, analysis methods are required at the initial design stage to provide overall engine design optimization and reduce prototype development cost and time. This analytical diagnostic approach provides a powerful tool to give valuable and relatively quick insight in solving engine liner cavitation corrosion problems.
Technical Paper

Driveline NVH Modeling Applying a Multi-subsystem Spectral-based Substructuring Approach

2005-05-16
2005-01-2300
A new multi-level substructuring approach is proposed to predict the NVH response of driveline systems for the purpose of analyzing rear axle gear whine concern. The fundamental approach is rooted in the spectral-based compliance coupling theory for combining the dynamics of two adjacent subsystems. This proposed scheme employs test-based frequency response functions of individual subsystems, including gear pairs, propshaft, control arms and axle tube, in free-free state as sequential building blocks to synthesize the complete system NVH response. Using an existing driveline design, the salient features of this substructuring approach is demonstrated. Specifically, the synthesized results for the pinion-propshaft assembly and complete vehicle system are presented. The predictions are seen to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data from direct vehicle measurements.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Experimental Study of the Mean Flow Effect on the Sound Transmission Through a Cylindrical Shell of an Automobile Muffler

2001-04-30
2001-01-1517
Sound transmission through the sidewall of an automotive muffler has been studied theoretically and experimentally. Three wall structures: a single shell, double shell and porous-cored shell constructions are considered. Transmission losses through the sidewalls were measured using the two microphone method. Experimental results are compared to one another, and to the corresponding theoretical analysis results, which shows that the mean flow effect is not a significant factor in designing the muffler sidewall.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Sensors for Noise Path Analysis Testing

1999-05-17
1999-01-1859
Test sensors are evaluated for noise path analysis applications. Newly developed ICP™ piezo-electric strain gages are used with accelerometers and microphones in a conventional noise path analysis test on the front body/suspension attachment points of a vehicle. In a less conventional application, a steering knuckle is converted into a 6-DOF force transducer using an array of strain gages and using an array of 3-DOF load cells. The two sensor arrays are both calibrated with a 6-DOF load cell. The result is an estimate of the three translation force and three moment operating inputs entering the steering knuckle from the wheel.
Technical Paper

Application of FRF-Based Inverse Substructuring Analysis to Vehicle NVH Problems

2003-05-05
2003-01-1607
A multi-coordinate FRF-based inverse substructuring approach is proposed to partition a vehicle system into two or more substructures, which are coupled at discrete interface points. The joint and free substructure dynamic characteristics are then extracted from the coupled system response spectra. Depending on the actual form of the structural coupling terms, three forms of the coupling matrix are assumed here. The most general one constitutes the non-diagonal form, and the other two simpler cases are the block-diagonal and purely diagonal representations that can be used to simplify testing process and overcome computational problems. The paper is focused on the investigation of the durability of these three formulations when the input FRFs are noise contaminated. A finite element model of a simplified vehicle system is used as the case study.
Technical Paper

Application of Spectral-Based Substructuring Approach to Analyze the Dynamic Interactions of Powertrain Structures

2003-05-05
2003-01-1731
A spectral-based substructuring approach applying linear frequency response functions (FRF) is proposed for improving the accuracy of simulating the dynamics of coupled systems. The method also applies a least square singular value decomposition (SVD) scheme to overcome the inherent computational deficiency in the basic substructuring formulation. The computational problem is caused by the magnification of measurement errors during any one of the matrix inversion calculations required for this method. The primary objective of applying this approach is to examine the possibility of analyzing higher frequency response that is normally not possible using conventional modeling technique such as the direct finite and boundary element, and lumped parameter techniques. In this study, additional concepts are also evaluated to quantify the limitations and range of applicability of the proposed substructuring approach for simulating the vibration response of complex powertrain structures.
Technical Paper

Active Vibration Control to Suppress Gear Mesh Response

2007-05-15
2007-01-2420
This paper discusses an enhanced active vibration control concept to suppress the dynamic response associated with gear mesh frequencies. In active control application, the control of dynamic gear mesh tonal response is essentially the rejection or suppression of periodical disturbance. Our active control experimental work shows that the existence of un-controlled harmonic result in the increase at these harmonics when applying direct control to the target mesh frequencies. To address this problem, the effect of the existence of un-correlated harmonic components in error signal when applying active control to suppress the target gear mesh harmonics is examined. The proposed adaptive controller that is designed specifically for tackling gear mesh frequency vibrations is based on an enhanced filtered-x least mean square algorithm (FXLMS) with frequency estimation to synthesize the required reference signal.
Technical Paper

Coupled Multi-Body Dynamic and Vibration Analysis of High-Speed Hypoid Geared Rotor System

2007-05-15
2007-01-2228
High speed, precision geared rotor systems are often plagued by excessive vibration and noise problems. The response that is primarily excited by gear transmission error is actually coupled to the large displacement rotational motion of the driveline system. Classical pure vibration model assumes that the system oscillates about its mean position without coupling to the large displacement motion. To improve on this approach and understanding of the influences of the dynamic coupling, a coupled multi-body dynamic and vibration simulation model is proposed. Even though the focus is on hypoid geared rotor system, the model is more general since hypoid and bevel gears have more complicated geometry and time and spatial-varying characteristics compared to parallel axis gears.
Technical Paper

Joining of a PdCr Resistance Strain Gauge to Inconel 718 Using an Infrared Process

1994-04-01
941201
Joining of a PdCr Strain Gage with a Hastelloy X carrier shim to Inconel by a rapid infrared processing technique has been investigated at 1150 °C using a nickel based brazing alloy AMS 4777, Ni-7Cr-3Fe-3.2B-4.5Si-.06C in wt%. The effects of the infrared joining parameters on the joint and base material microstructure, joint shear strength, and delamination tendency of the PdCr gage was investigated. Results show that the joint shear strength is as high as 503 MPa when processed at approximately 1150 °C for 120 seconds. Microstructural examinations of the joint with both an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope indicate that good wetting exists between the brazing alloy with both the Hastelloy X and Inconel 718. And, the Hastelloy X and Inconel 718 exhibits no noticeable change in microstructure due to the rapid processing cycle of the infrared heating process while the stabilized PdCr wire gage shows little change in resistance.
Technical Paper

Microsensor Fusion Technology for Space Vehicle Reliability Enhancement

1994-04-01
941203
In this work, the goal of enhanced reliability through redundancy is explored. Two levels of fusion have been defined: the first is a fusion of sensors, redundant in both number and type, and the second is a statistical fusion of the resulting data at a software level. An intermediate preprocessing level is required to connect both fusions. The various types of sensors which are included are bulk micromachined flow, pressure and hydrogen sensors and a thin film poly-crystalline silicon temperature sensor. Individual sensors have been fabricated and packaged in arrays. Associated preprocessing has been designed to be able to handle all of the signals coming from each sensor and prepare them for statistical analysis. Data fusion algorithms have been written and tested.
Technical Paper

Optical Fiber Coupled Sensors Integrating Optical Waveguides and Micromechanical Structures on Silicon

1994-04-01
941205
Electrically passive optical sensors have been formed using optical waveguides and micromachined-micromechanical structures on silicon substrates. We present recent results on an interferometric pressure sensor where pressure-induced strain in a micromachined diaphragm alters the path length of an optical channel waveguide ring resonator. Pressure is detected as a change in the resonant condition of the ring and found to vary linearly over a range of -100 to 400 kPa with a sensitivity of 0.0094 rad/kPa. Problems with attaching this sensor for testing will be discussed. Our second device is an intensity-type accelerometer utilizing a micromachined cantilever beam. Light transmission across a gap between two channel waveguides, one located on a beam bent by acceleration and another which remains fixed, is measured optically. We show preliminary measurements of the coupling between two closely spaced waveguide sections which agree with overlap integral calculations.
Technical Paper

Design of a Dependable Systems Knowledge Base

1994-04-01
941218
Building and operating dependable systems is fundamental to many critical applications, such as designing integrated hardware and software systems for vehicles or satellites. Dependable systems techniques, methods, and tools are developed and used by researchers and practitioners working in widely varying disciplines. In order to provide a unifying framework for the successful dissemination and sharing of dependability results, the development of a dependable systems knowledge base is underway.1 Two database support subsystems are under development: one that manages the storage and retrieval of document information, as well as communicating between the user interface layer and the physical database layer, and another that manages the lexicon of dependability terminology for the user interface layer. The system will provide access to information in a sophisticated, intelligent manner that enables a human user to function more effectively in learning and decision-making capacities.
Technical Paper

SSME Parameter Modeling with Neural Networks

1994-04-01
941221
The High Pressure Oxidizer Turbine (HPOT) discharge temperature of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) was estimated using Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNN) during the startup transient. Estimation was performed for both nominal engine operation and during simulated input sensor failures. The K-means clustering algorithm was used on the data to determine the location of the basis function centers. The performance of the RBFNN is compared with that of a feedforward neural network trained with the Quickprop learning algorithm.
Technical Paper

Generalization of an Automated Visual Inspection System (AVIS)

1994-04-01
941219
Efforts have been made to utilize Al constructs to identify flaws in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) faceplate regions. In order to expand the applicability of these algorithms to a larger problem domain, the automatic visual inspection system(AVIS) has been modified to enable a user with little or no image processing background to define a system capable of identifying flaws on a given set of imagery. This system requires the user to simply identify flawed regions and the selection of processing and feature descriptors is performed automatically. This paper explicates the motivations, definitions, and performance issues associated with the AVIS paradigm.
Technical Paper

Identifying Alternative Movement Techniques from Existing Motion Data: An Empirical Performance Evaluation

2004-06-15
2004-01-2177
A manual task can be performed based on alternative movement techniques. Ergonomic human motion simulation requires consideration of alternative movement techniques, because they could bring different biomechanical, physiological, and psychophysical consequences. A method for identifying movement techniques from existing motion data was developed. The method is based on a JCV (Joint Contribution Vector) index and statistical clustering. A JCV quantifies a motion's underlying movement technique by computing contributions of individual body joint DOFs (degree-of-freedom) to the achievement of the task goal. Given a set of motions (motion capture data) achieving the same or similar task goals, alternative movement techniques can be identified by 1) representing the motions in terms of JCV and 2) performing a statistical clustering analysis. Performance of this movement technique identification method was evaluated based on a set of stoop and squat lifting motions.
Journal Article

Interaction of Gear-Shaft Dynamics Considering Gyroscopic Effect of Compliant Driveline System

2015-06-15
2015-01-2182
Due to the design of lightweight, high speed driveline system, the coupled bending and torsional vibration and rotordynamics must be considered to predict vibratory responses more realistically. In the current analysis, a lumped parameter model of the propeller shaft is developed with Timoshenko beam elements, which includes the effect of rotary inertia and shear deformation. The propeller shaft model is then coupled with a hypoid gear pair representation using the component mode synthesis approach. In the proposed formulation, the gyroscopic effect of both the gear and propeller shaft is considered. The simulation results show that the interaction between gear gyroscopic effect and propeller shaft bending flexibility has considerable influence on the gear dynamic mesh responses around bending resonances, whereas the torsional modes still dominate in the overall frequency spectrum.
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