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Technical Paper

Effects of Micro-Hole and Ultra-High Injection Pressure on Mixture Properties of D.I. Diesel Spray

2007-07-23
2007-01-1890
Experimental study has been carried out on the effects of the micro-hole nozzle injector and ultra-high injection pressure on the mixture properties of D.I. Diesel engine. A manually operated piston screw pump, High Pressure Generator, was used to obtain ultra-high injection pressures. Three kinds of injection pressures, 100MPa, 200MPa, and 300MPa, were applied to a specially designed injector. Four kinds of nozzle hole diameters, 0.16mm, 0.14mm, 0.10mm, and 0.08mm, were adopted in this study. The laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique was used to analyze the equivalence ratio distributions, Sauter mean diameter, spray tip penetration length, and other spray characteristics. The analyses of the experimental results show that the micro-hole nozzle and ultra-high injection pressure are effective to increase the turbulent mixing rate and to form the uniform and lean fuel-air mixture.
Technical Paper

Effects of Group-hole Nozzle Specifications on Fuel Atomization and Evaporation of Direct Injection Diesel Sprays

2007-07-23
2007-01-1889
The group-hole nozzle concept is regarded as a promising approach to facilitate better fuel atomization and evaporation for direct injection diesel engine applications. In the present work, the spray and mixture properties of group-hole nozzle with close, parallel or a small included angle orifices were investigated experimentally by means of the ultraviolet-visible laser absorption-scattering (LAS) imaging technique, in comparison with the conventional single-hole nozzle. Three series of group-hole nozzles were designed to investigate the effect of group-hole nozzle specification while varying the included angle and interval between the orifices. The results suggested that: 1) Group-hole nozzle with very close, parallel orifices presents the similar spray characteristics with those of the single-hole nozzle.
Technical Paper

Spray and Mixture Properties of Hole-Type Injector for D. I. Gasoline Engine-Comparison of Experiment and CFD Simulation-

2007-07-23
2007-01-1850
An experimental and numerical study was conducted on the spray and mixture properties of a hole-type injector for direct injection (D. I.) gasoline engines. The Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was adopted to simultaneously measure the spatial concentration distributions and the mass of the liquid and vapor phases in the fuel spray injected into a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel. The experimental results were compared to the numerical calculation results using three-dimensional CFD and the multi-objective optimization. In the numerical simulation, the design variable of the spray model was optimized by choosing spray tip penetration, and mass of liquid and vapor phases as objective functions.
Technical Paper

Entrainment, Evaporation and Mixing Characteristics of Diesel Sprays around End-of-Injection

2009-04-20
2009-01-0849
In this study, air entrainment, fuel evaporation and mixing process of diesel sprays injected by micro-orifices for direct-injection diesel engines were investigated at the end of injection transient and after the end of injection. The mixture formation process was analyzed using a laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique, providing the information of quantified liquid and vapor mass concentration, entrained air concentration and equivalence ratio. The data was obtained at the timings of quasi-steady state, sudden velocity decrease, the end of injection and after the end of injection. Two micro-orifices, which have different orifice diameters, were selected as test nozzles to investigate the end-of-injection characteristics at different nozzle geometries. In case of smaller orifice diameter, the liquid phase regression was observed around the end of injection, while it was not observed at larger orifice diameter due to denser liquid concentration near the nozzle tip.
Journal Article

Effect of Injection Pressure on Ignition, Flame Development and Soot Formation Processes of Biodiesel Fuel Spray

2010-09-28
2010-32-0053
The effect of injection pressure ranging from 100 to 300MPa on the ignition, flame development and soot formation characteristics of biodiesel fuel spray using a common rail injection system for direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine was investigated. Experiments were carried out in a constant volume vessel under conditions similar to the real engine condition using a single hole nozzle. Biodiesel fuels from two sources namely; palm oil (BDFp) and cooked oil (BDFc) with the commercial JIS#2diesel fuel were utilized in this research. The OH chemiluminescence technique was used to determine the ignition and the lift-off length of the combusting flame. The natural luminosity technique was applied to study the flame development and the two color pyrometry was applied for the soot formation processes. Ignition delay decreased as the injection pressure progressed from 100 to 300MPa. This was as a result of the enhanced mixing achieved at higher injection pressures.
Journal Article

Effect of Spray/Wall Interaction on Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation in Two-Dimensional Piston Cavity

2013-10-15
2013-32-9021
The effects of spray/wall interaction on diesel combustion and soot formation in a two-dimensional piston cavity were studied with a high speed color video camera in a constant volume combustion vessel. The two-dimensional piston cavity was applied to generate the impinging spray flame. In the cavity, the flat surface which plays a role as the cylinder head has a 13.5 degree angle with the injector axis and the impinging point was located 30 mm away from the nozzle tip. Three injection pressures of 100, 150, and 200 MPa and a single hole diesel injector (hole diameter: 0.133mm) were selected. The flame structure and combustion process were examined by using the color luminosity images. Two-color pyrometry was used to measure the line-of sight soot temperature and concentration by using the R and B channels of the color images. The soot mass generated by impinging spray flame is higher than that of the free spray flame.
Technical Paper

Internal Fuel Flow, Near-Field and Far-Field Spray Evolution, and Mixture Formation Characteristics of Diesel Injectors - A Comparison between Multi- and Single-Hole Injectors

2019-04-02
2019-01-0273
A comparison of spray characteristics was conducted between single- and multi-hole injectors. A commercial software (AVL FIRE) was used to investigate the internal flow inside the sac volume, as well as the initial spray behavior at 1 mm downstream of the nozzle exit. Microscopic imaging was applied to observe the spray dispersion angle (spray cone angle) at the vicinity of the nozzle. Laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was implemented for measuring the mixture concentration. Three injection quantities, namely 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/hole, were selected to observe the differences between transient and quasi-steady spray. The vapor penetration at the initial stage of the injection was greater for single-hole than that of multi-hole injector due to faster fuel pressure build-up process inside the sac volume.
Technical Paper

Models for Combustion and Formation of Nitric Oxide and Soot in Direct Injection Diesel Engines

1976-02-01
760129
A mathematical model was developed for predicting the concentration of exhaust nitric oxide, soot and other emissions in a direct injection diesel engine. In the model, it was emphasized to describe the phenomena occurring in the combustion chamber from the microscopic point of view. The prediction was based on the knowledges concerning a single droplet as well as the droplet size distribution in a fuel spray and the spatial and temporal distribution histories of fuel in a combustion chamber. The heterogeneous field of temperature and equivalence ratio, and uniform pressure in the cylinder were postulated. The heat release model gives the burning rate of injected fuel and pressure and temperature history in the cylinder. The concentration of nitric oxide and soot in the cylinder was predicted by the emission formation model.
Technical Paper

Simplified Three-Dimensional Modeling of Mixture Formation and Combustion in a D.I. Diesel Engine

1989-02-01
890269
This paper describes a simplified three-dimensional modeling of the mixture formation and combustion processes in a direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine. The fuel-air mixing and combustion processes in the D.I. diesel engine can be characterized by the combined effects of some processes, such as spray trajectory, fuel vaporization, gas motion, combustion, and dispersion of gaseous components and enthalpy. Each process was computed by a simple sub-model based on the experimental results and empirical equations. The dispersion process was, however, computed by solving the conservation equations of the gaseous components and enthalpy by the finite difference technique. The sub-models were combined for predicting the three-dimensional distributions of the gaseous components and the temperature in the combustion chamber, and finally the cylinder pressure, heat release rate, engine performance and pollutant emissions (NO and soot).
Technical Paper

Optimizing Spray Behavior to Improve Engine Performance and to Reduce Exhaust Emissions in a Small D.I. Diesel Engine

1989-02-01
890463
The effects of engine parameters, such as spray characteristics and combustion chamber geometry on performance and exhaust emissions in a small D.I. diesel engine were investigated to find out the optimum way of improving the engine. Diesel spray injected into a high-pressure vessel was photographically analyzed to guess the spray behavior in a firing diesel engine. The ratio of hole length to the diameter of a nozzle (L/D) was varied from 3 to 7 as the main parameter of the nozzle. Piston cavity diameter and intake swirl were chosen as the other parameters. The effect of the above parameters was investigated in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), exhaust smoke, nitric oxides (NOx) and total hydrocarbon (THC). The L/D of the nozzle is concluded to be of major importance in terms of BSFC and THC emission. Smaller piston cavity diameters lead to lower exhaust smoke, but to a higher level of NOx emission.
Technical Paper

Fuel Spray Trajectory and Dispersion in a D.I. Diesel Combustion Chamber

1989-02-01
890462
Experiments and modeling of the fuel spray trajectory and dispersion influenced by both a swirling gas flow and wall impingement were performed under simulated direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine conditions at a high pressure and high temperature. A spray was injected into the steady swirling gas flow and impinged on the simulated piston cavity wall in a constant-volume bomb. High-speed Schlieren photographs provided the informative data on the behavior of the spray vaporizing in such diesel-like circumstances. A simplified computational model was developed to describe the spray trajectory and the fuel vapor dispersion in the D.I. diesel combustion chamber. The model includes the effects of the breakup on the trajectory and the vaporization of the spray, and the effects of the swirling gas flow and the wall impingement on the dispersion of the fuel vapor.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Optical Technique for Measuring Diesel Spray Penetration

1990-10-01
902077
A new optical measuring technique of tip penetration of a diesel fuel spray was developed by detecting the arrival times of the spray tip at several light sheets which were preset at various axial locations downstream. Verified by the instantaneous photographic technique, it was confirmed that this technique is effective, with sufficient accuracy, for measuring the spray tip penetration much more easily than the conventional photographic technique. The tip penetrations of diesel sprays injected through single-hole nozzles with various orifice lengths and diameters has been investigated over a wide range of the operating conditions by this technique. The spray injected through two multihole nozzles, either with or without a sac volume, has also been characterized. The results showed that the spray tip penetration is affected somewhat by the operating conditions. Eventually it is affected by the injected fuel momentum flowrate, nozzle geometry and ambient gas density.
Technical Paper

Total In-Cylinder Sampling Experiment on Emission Formation Processes in a D.I. Diesel Engine

1990-10-01
902062
An experimental study on emission formation processes, such as these of nitric oxide, particulate and total hydrocarbon in a small direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine was carried out by using a newly developed total in-cylinder sampling technique. The sampling method consisted of rapidly opening a blowdown valve attached to the bottom of the piston bowl, and quickly transferring most of the in-cylinder contents into a large sampling chamber below the piston. No modification of the intake and exhaust ports in a cylinder head was required for the installation of the blowdown apparatus. The sampling experiment gave a history of spatially-averaged emission concentrations in the cylinder. The effects of several engine variables, such as the length-to-diameter ratio of the nozzle hole, the ratio of the piston bowl diameter to the cylinder bore and the intake swirl ratio, on the emission formation processes were investigated.
Technical Paper

A Practical Calculation Method for Injection Pressure and Spray Penetration in Diesel Engines

1992-02-01
920624
Spray penetration for Diesel injectors, where injection pressure varies with time during the injection period, was calculated. In order to carry out this calculation, the discharge coefficients of the needle-seat opening passage and discharge hole in orifice-type Diesel nozzles were investigated separately. Simple empirical correlations were obtained between these coefficients and needle lift. Then, by introducing these correlations, the injection pressure, which is defined as the pressure in the sac chamber just upstream of the discharge hole, was either derived from measured fuel supply line pressure, or predicted by means of an injection system simulation. Finally, based on the transient injection pressure, spray tip penetration was calculated by taking the overall line which covers the trajectories of all fuel elements ejected during the injection period.
Technical Paper

Spray and Evaporation Characteristics of Multi-Hole Injector for DISI Engines - Effect of Diverging Angle Between Neighboring Holes

2009-04-20
2009-01-1500
Experimental and computational studies were carried out to characterize the spray development and evaporation processes of multi-hole injector for direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines. The main injector parameter to be investigated in this study is a diverging angle between neighboring two holes. In the experimental study, the influence of the diverging angle on evaporation process of fuel spray from two-hole injector was investigated using Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) measurement. Smaller diverging angle causes larger spray tip penetration because the momentum of the spray from one hole emphasizes another, when two spray merge to one. Moreover, spray tip penetration decreases at certain diverging angle due to the negative pressure region between two sprays. Mechanisms behind the above spray behaviors were discussed using the detailed information on the spray and ambient gas flow fields obtained by the three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Mixture Formation Process of Flat Wall Impinging Spray Injected by Micro-Hole Nozzle under Ultra-High Injection Pressures

2008-06-23
2008-01-1601
Increasing injection pressure and decreasing nozzle hole diameter have been proved to be two effective approaches to reduce the exhaust emissions and to improve the fuel economy. Recently, the micro-hole nozzles and ultra-high injection pressures are applicable in commercial Diesel engines. But the mechanism of these two latest technologies is still unclear. The current research aims at providing information on the spray and mixture formation processes of the micro-hole nozzle (d=0.08mm) under the ultra-high injection pressure (Pinj=300MPa). The flat wall impinging sprays were focused on and the laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique was employed to obtain the qualitative and quantitative information at both atmospheric and elevated conditions. The spray parameters were collected, the mixing rate was discussed, and the effects of various parameters on mixture formation were clarified.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Imaging of the Fuel Concentration in a SI Engine with Laser Rayleigh Scattering

1993-10-01
932641
Quantitative imaging of the fuel concentration distribution was made in the combustion chamber of a propane-fueled spark ignition (SI) engine with the employment of laser-sheet-induced Rayleigh scattering technique for realizing the remote, nonintrusive and highly space- and time-resolved measurement. The original engine was modified to introduce YAG laser-induced sheet light into the combustion chamber and the scattered light was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated double-micro- channel plate image intensifier. The measurements were done at the crank angle of 270°ATDC in the combustion chamber of the engine motored at 200rpm with an air fuel ratio of 13 for various injection timing, injection direction and intake flow. The results show that with an appropriate matching of fuel injection timing, injection direction and intake flow, a stratified distribution of the fuel concentration can be realized.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Flame Propagation of Spray Compound Mixture

1993-10-01
932711
The ignition and flame propagation processes of a propane-air mixture compounded with a kerosene spray were investigated in order to allow a better understanding of the multi-phase combustion process of the spray compound mixture in a direct injection stratified charge (DISC) engine. The ignition probability and the flame propagation velocity, as functions of the overall equivalence ratio, fraction of propane in the fuel, ignition energy and the Sauter mean diameter of the spray, were measured under atmospheric conditions. The development of the flame kernel and the propagating flame were observed by a high-speed video camera combined with a schlieren system. Adding small amounts of the kerosene spray to the lean propane-air mixture improved the ignition probability. However, the ignition probability depended strongly on the Sauter mean diameter and the ignition energy. Replacing the propane with the kerosene spray in a rich propane-air mixture increased the flame propagation velocity.
Technical Paper

Approach to Low NOx and Smoke Emission Engines by Using Phenomenological Simulation

1993-03-01
930612
A phenomenological spray-combustion model of a D.I. Diesel engine was applied to study the engine parameters with potential for reducing NOx and smoke emissions. The spray-combustion model, first developed at the University of Hiroshima in 1976, has been sophisticated by incorporating new knowledge of diesel combustion. The model was verified using data from an experimental, single cylinder, D.I. diesel engine with a bore of 135mm and a stroke of 130mm. After the verification process, calculations were made under a wide range of the engine parameters, such as intake air temperature, intake air pressure, intake swirl ratio, nozzle hole diameter, injection pressure, air entrainment rate into the spray, and injection rate profile. These calculations estimated the effects of the engine parameters on NOx, smoke and specific fuel consumption. As a result of the calculations, an approach for the low NOx and smoke emission engine was found.
Technical Paper

Fuel Droplet Size Distribution in Diesel Combustion Chamber

1974-02-01
740715
In order to determine spray droplet size in a diesel engine, fuel was injected into high-pressure, room-temperature gaseous environments with a diesel engine injection system. Droplet size was measured using the liquid immersion sampling technique with a mixture of water-methylcellulose solution and ethanol used as an immersion liquid for diesel fuel oil. The volume distribution of diesel spray droplets is well correlated with chi square distribution with freedom, ϕ = 8, in the range of this investigation. The Sauter mean diameter increased with increasing back pressure, with the amount of fuel in a spray, and with decrease in pump speed. An empirical correlation was developed between effective injection pressure, air density, the quantity of the fuel delivery, and the Sauter mean diameter of spray droplets.
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