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Technical Paper

Simulator Scene Detail and Visual Augmentation Guidance in Landing Training for Beginning Pilots

Beginning flight students were taught landings in a flight simulator with a visual landing display to examine the effects of scene detail, visual augmented guidance, and the number of landing training trials. Transfer as assessed in a criterion simulator configuration showed advantages for larger numbers of training trials, visual augmented guidance, and moderate scene detail. Transfer of training to the aircraft showed advantages for low-scene detail over moderate-scene detail for the number of landing training sessions. Subjects who received equal simulator time practicing an instrument pattern (control group) performed better than the moderate-scene detail group on student assisted landings and number of landing training sessions.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Reinforcement Learning on Air Source Heat Pump Defrost Control for Full Electric Vehicles

Air source heat pumps as the heating system for full electric vehicles are drawing more and more attention in recent years. Despite the high energy efficiency, frost accumulation on the heat pump evaporator is one of the major challenges associated with air source heat pumps. The evaporator needs to be actively defrosted periodically and heat pump heating will be interrupted during defrosting process. Proper defrost control is needed to obtain high average heat pump energy efficiency. In this paper, a new method for generating air source heat pump defrost control policy using reinforcement learning is introduced. This model-free method has several advantages. It can automatically generate optimal defrost control policy instead of requiring manually determination of the control policy parameters and logics.
Technical Paper

Trends in Engineering Education

An overview of enrollment trends and curricular changes in engineering education in the past ten years. Comments are made about the implications of lower enrollment on quality of education and availability of engineers for the employment market. Discussions of curricular variations summarizes changes such as computerization of engineering studies, expansion of high school preparation, and selection of major studies for students.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the SIMON Tractor-Semitrailer Model for Steady State and Transient Handling

This research compares the responses of a vehicle modeled in the 3D vehicle simulation program SIMON in the HVE simulation operating system against instrumented responses of a 3-axle tractor, 2-axle semi-trailer combination. The instrumented tests were previously described in SAE 2001-01-0139 and SAE 2003-01-1324 as part of a continuous research effort in the area of vehicle dynamics undertaken at the Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC). The vehicle inertial and mechanical parameters were measured at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI). The tire data was provided by Smithers Scientific Services, Inc. and UMTRI. The series of tests discussed herein compares the modeled and instrumented vehicle responses during quasi-steady state, steady state and transient handling maneuvers, producing lateral accelerations ranging nominally from 0.05 to 0.5 G's.
Technical Paper

Emergency Response Personnel Training for Aircraft Accidents

A new Aircraft Accident Awareness Program (AAAP) was developed, evaluated, and is available to emergency response service provider organizations (firefighters, emergency medical technicians, trauma center personnel, law enforcement, clergy, coroners, and media) who would be called to an aircraft accident scene. Aircraft accident responder training is a critical factor in accident victim crash survivability and successful life-safety outcomes. This program was designed to teach participants about the unique conditions and safety hazards associated with aircraft crashes. A blend of academic classroom investigation, exposure to airworthy/ unairworthy aircraft including operating systems and components, computer accident simulations, “hands-on” (destructive) extrication protocol training, and participation in simulated in-the-field accident scenarios was used as an instructional delivery model.
Technical Paper

Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation of a Scallop Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing

Understanding the aerodynamic impact of swept-wing ice accretions is a crucial component of the design of modern aircraft. Computer-simulation tools are commonly used to approximate ice shapes, so the necessary level of detail or fidelity of those simulated ice shapes must be understood relative to high-fidelity representations of the ice. Previous tests were performed in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel to acquire high-fidelity ice shapes. From this database, full-span artificial ice shapes were designed and manufactured for both an 8.9%-scale and 13.3%-scale semispan wing model of the CRM65 which has been established as the full-scale baseline for this swept-wing project. These models were tested in the Walter H. Beech wind tunnel at Wichita State University and at the ONERA F1 facility, respectively. The data collected in the Wichita St.
Technical Paper

Additional Comparison of Iced Aerodynamic Measurements on a Swept Wing from Two Wind Tunnels

Artificial ice shapes of various geometric fidelity were tested on a wing model based on the Common Research Model. Low Reynolds number tests were conducted at Wichita State University’s Walter H. Beech Memorial Wind Tunnel utilizing an 8.9% scale model, and high Reynolds number tests were conducted at ONERA’s F1 wind tunnel utilizing a 13.3% scale model. Several identical geometrically-scaled ice shapes were tested at both facilities, and the results were compared at overlapping Reynolds and Mach numbers. This was to ensure that the results and trends observed at low Reynolds number could be applied and continued to high, near-flight Reynolds number. The data from Wichita State University and ONERA F1 agreed well at matched Reynolds and Mach numbers. The lift and pitching moment curves agreed very well for most configurations.