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Technical Paper

Computational Analysis of Biodiesel Combustion in a Low-Temperature Combustion Engine using Well-Defined Fuel Properties

Biodiesel fuel can be produced from a wide range of source materials that affect the properties of the fuel. The diesel engine has become a highly tuned power source that is sensitive to these properties. The objectives of this research were to measure and predict the key properties of biodiesel produced from a broad range of source materials to be used as inputs for combustion modeling; and second to compare the results of the model with and without the biodiesel fuel definition. Substantial differences in viscosity, surface tension, density and thermal conductivity were obtained relative to reference diesel fuels and among the different source materials. The combustion model revealed differences in the temperature and emissions of biodiesel when compared to reference diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Injector Nozzle Coking With Oxygenated Diesel

The use of substances other than petroleum based fuels for power sources is not a new concept. Prior to the advent of petroleum fueled vehicles numerous other substances were used to create mobile sources of power. As the world's petroleum supply dwindles, alternative fuel sources are sought after to replace petroleum fuels. Many industries are particularly interested in the development of renewable fuel sources, or biologically derived fuel sources, which includes ethanol. The use of No. 2 diesel as well as many alternative fuels in compression ignition engines result in injector coking. Injector coking can severely limit engine performance by limiting the amount of fuel delivered to the combustion chamber and altering the spray pattern. Injector tip coking is also one of the most sensitive measures of diesel fuel quality [1]. A machine vision system was implemented to quantify injector coking accumulation when a compression ignition engine was fueled with oxydiesel.
Technical Paper

Testing Heuristic Tools for Life Support System Analysis

BioSim is a simulation tool which captures many basic life support functions in an integrated simulation. Conventional analyses can not efficiently consider all possible life support system configurations. Heuristic approaches are a possible alternative. In an effort to demonstrate efficacy, a validating experiment was designed to compare the configurational optima discovered by heuristic approaches and an analytical approach. Thus far, it is clear that a genetic algorithm finds reasonable optima, although an improved fitness function is required. Further, despite a tight analytical fit to data, optimization produces disparate results which will require further validation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Programmable E/H Valve with a Hybrid Control Algorithm

This paper presents a programmable E/H control valve consisting of five individually proportional flow control valves. With a hybrid control algorithm, this valve has programmable valve characteristics, such as adjustable valve deadband and flow control gain, and programmable valve functions, such as different center functions. System analyses and experimental evaluations indicate that this programmable valve is capable of replacing conventional E/H control valves in practical applications.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Biodiesel and Diesel Fuels in Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engines using Multiple Injection Strategies

Biodiesel fuels and their blends with diesel are often used to reduce emissions from diesel engines. However, biodiesel has been shown to increase the NOx emissions. Operating a compression ignition engine in low-temperature combustion mode as well as using multiple injections can reduce NOx emissions. Experimental data for biodiesel are compared to those for diesel to show the effect of the biodiesel on the peak pressure, temperature, and emissions. Accurate prediction of biodiesel properties, combined with the KIVA 3V code, is used to investigate the combustion of biodiesel. The volume fraction of the cylinder that has temperatures greater than 2200 K is shown to directly affect the production of oxides of nitrogen. Biodiesel is shown to burn faster during the combustion events, though the ignition delay is often longer for biodiesel compared to diesel.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Visualization in an Optical HSDI Diesel Engine Operated in Low-Temperature Combustion Mode with Bio-diesel and Diesel Fuels

An optically accessible single-cylinder high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) Diesel engine equipped with a Bosch common rail injection system was used to study the spray and combustion processes for European low sulfur diesel, bio-diesel, and their blends at different blending ratio. Influences of injection timing and fuel type on liquid fuel evolution and combustion characteristics were investigated under similar loads. The in-cylinder pressure was measured and the heat release rate was calculated. High-speed Mie-scattering technique was employed to visualize the liquid distribution and evolution. High-speed combustion video was also captured for all the studied cases using the same frame rate. NOx emissions were measured in the exhaust pipe. The experimental results indicated that for all of the conditions the heat release rate was dominated by a premixed combustion pattern and the heat release rate peak became smaller with injection timing retardation for all test fuels.
Technical Paper

Atomization Characteristics of Multi-component Bio-fuel Systems under Micro-explosion Conditions

A numerical study of micro-explosion in multi-component droplets is presented. The homogeneous nucleation theory is used in describing the bubble generation process. A modified Rayleigh equation is then used to calculate the bubble growth rate. The breakup criterion is then determined by applying a linear stability analysis on the bubble-droplet system. After the explosion/breakup, the atomization characteristics, including Sauter mean radius and averaged velocity of the secondary droplets, are calculated from conservation equations. Micro-explosion can be enhanced by introducing biodiesel into the fuel blends of ethanol and tetradecane. Micro-explosion is more likely to occur at high ambient pressure. However, increasing the ambient temperature does not have a significant effect on micro-explosion. There exists an optimal composition in the liquid mixture for micro-explosion.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Operation of an HSDI Engine Using Multiple Injection Schemes with Soybean Biodiesel, Diesel and Their Blends

The KIVA-3V code, developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, with modifications that improve its capability with biodiesel simulations was used to model the operation of an HSDI engine using blends of soybean biodiesel and diesel. Biodiesel and their blends with diesel are frequently used to reduce emissions from diesel engines, although previous studies showed that biodiesel may increase NOx emission. The paradox may be resolved by running the engine in low temperature combustion mode with biodiesel/diesel blends, as low temperature combustion simultaneously reduced NOx and soot. The modified KIVA code predicts the major combustion characteristics: peak combustion pressure, heat release rate and ignition timing accurately when compared with experimental measurements. It also correctly predicts the trend of NOx emissions. It was observed that the cylinder temperature distribution has a strong effect on emission levels.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Operation of a High Speed Direction Injection Engine Using MVCO Injector and Conventional Fuel Injector

The operation of a small bore high speed direct injection (HSDI) engine with a MVCO injector is simulated by the KIVA 3V code, developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The MVCO injector extends the range of injection timings over conventional injectors and it extra flexibility in designing injection schemes. Combustion from very early injection is observed with MVCO injections but not with conventional injection. This improves the fuel economy of the engine in terms of lower ISFC. Even better efficiency can be achieved by using biodiesel, which may be due to extra oxygen in the fuel improving the combustion process. Biodiesel sees a longer ignition delay for the initial injection. It also exhibits a faster burning rate and shorter combustion duration. Biodiesel also lowered both NOx and soot emissions. This is consistent with the general observation for soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Regulated and Unregulated Emissions from a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE)-Gasoline Blends

Bio-butanol has been widely investigated as a promising alternative fuel. However, the main issues preventing the industrial-scale production of butanol is its relatively low production efficiency and high cost of production. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, has attracted a lot of interest as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. If ABE could be directly used for clean combustion, the separation costs would be eliminated which save an enormous amount of time and money in the production chain of bio-butanol.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic and Microscopic Characteristics of Flash Boiling Spray with Binary Fuel Mixtures

Flash boiling has drawn much attention recently for its ability to enhance spray atomization and vaporization, while providing better fuel/air mixing for gasoline direct injection engines. However, the behaviors of flash boiling spray with multi-component fuels have not been fully discovered. In this study, isooctane, ethanol and the mixtures of the two with three blend ratios were chosen as the fuels. Measurements were performed with constant fuel temperature while ambient pressures were varied to adjust the superheated degree. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray were investigated using Diffused Back-Illumination (DBI) imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). Comparisons between flash boiling sprays with single component and binary fuel mixtures were performed to study the effect of fuel properties on spray structure as well as atomization and vaporization processes.
Technical Paper

Automated Guidance Control for Agricultural Tractor Using Redundant Sensors

The development of automated guidance for agricultural tractors has addressed several basic and applied issues of agricultural equipment automation. Basic analyses have included the dynamics of steering systems and posture sensors for guidance. Applied issues have evaluated the potential of several commercial sensing systems and a commercial mechanical guidance system. A research platform has been developed based on a Case 7220 Magnum1 2-wheel drive agricultural tractor. An electrohydraulic steering system was used and characterized in support of automated guidance control. Posture sensing methods were developed using GPS, geomagnetic direction sensors (GDS), inertial, and machine vision sensing systems. Sensor fusion of GPS-inertial-machine vision and GPS-GDS-machine vision provided the most flexible and accurate guidance and capable for operation under dynamically changing field conditions.
Technical Paper

Comparison Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of ABE/IBE-Diesel Blends in a Common-Rreail Diesel Engine

Bio-butanol has been considered as a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines due to its advantageous physicochemical properties. However, the further development of bio-butanol is inhibited by its high recovery cost and low production efficiency. Hence, the goal of this study is to evaluate two upstream products from different fermentation processes of bio-butanol, namely acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) and isopropanol-butanol-ethanol (IBE), as alternative fuels for diesel. The experimental comparison is conducted on a single-cylinder and common-rail diesel engine under various main injection timings (MIT) and equivalent engine load (EEL) conditions. The experimental results show that ABE and IBE significantly affect the combustion phasing. The start of combustion (SOC) is retarded when ABE and IBE are mixed with diesel. Furthermore, the ABE/IBE-diesel blends are more sensitive to the changes in MIT compared with that of pure diesel.
Technical Paper

A Prototype Computer Based Test System to Test Commercial Vehicle Air Brake Systems: Application and Test Results

This paper describes a practical and efficient approach for determining complete transient, as well as steady state response of tractor-trailer air brake systems by recording pushrod displacement and air brake service line pressure as a function to time. The test hardware utilizes easy to fabricate “clip on” transducers to measure pushrod stroke length. Data acquisition is via LABVIEW‚. All transducers are easy to temporarily affix to any tractor- trailer and require no alteration to the vehicle. A complete system check takes less time than manually measuring pushrod stroke as required under FMCSA. This system with one treadle application and release gives digital timing and displacement history of all brakes. Useful information includes: application and release profiles (pushrod velocity), shoe compliance upon seating and crack pressure release points for both tractor and trailer relay valves.
Technical Paper

Dynamics and Roll Stability of a Loaded Class 8 Tractor-Livestock Semi-Trailer

The transporting of live cattle involves the use of Class 8 tractors and livestock semi-trailers for transportation from farms and feedlots to processing plants. This travel may include unimproved roads, local streets, two lane highways, as well as interstate highways. Typically, cattle are compartmentalized in a “double deck” fashion as it provides utility and comports with size and weight limits for commercial Class 8 vehicles. Concern has been expressed for the effect of cattle movement upon the dynamic performance of the loaded Class 8 tractor-livestock trailer assembly. Loading guidelines exist for cattle that attempt to prevent injury or debilitation during transit, and literature exists on the orientation and some kinematics of loaded cattle. Considerable literature exists on the effect of liquid slosh in tankers and swinging beef carcasses suspended from hooks in refrigerated van trailers on the dynamic response and roll stability of those vehicles.
Technical Paper

Safety Concerns in Automatic Control of Heavy-Duty Articulated Vehicles

Control system design is one of the most critical issues for implementation of intelligent vehicle systems. Wide ranged fundamental research has been undertaken in this area and the safety issues of the fully automated vehicles are clearly recognized. Study of vehicle performance constrains is essential for a good understanding of this problem. This paper discusses safety issues of heavy-duty vehicles under automatic steering control. It focuses on the analysis of the effect of tire force saturation. Vehicle handling characteristics are also analyzed to improve understanding of the truck dynamics and control tasks. A simple differential brake control is formulated to show its effect of on reducing trailer swing.
Technical Paper

Study of Biodiesel Combustion in a Constant Volume Chamber with Different Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration

Biodiesel is a widely used biofuel in diesel engines, which is of particular interest as a renewable fuel because it possesses the similar properties as the diesel fuel. The pure soybean biodiesel was tested in an optical constant volume combustion chamber using natural flame luminosity and forward illumination light extinction (FILE) methods to explore the combustion process and soot distribution at various ambient temperatures (800 K and 1000 K) and oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 10.5%). Results indicated that, with a lower ambient temperature, the autoignition delay became longer for all three oxygen concentrations and more ambient air was entrained by spray jet and more fuel was burnt by premixed combustion. With less ambient oxygen concentration, the heat release rate showed not only a longer ignition delay but also longer combustion duration.
Technical Paper

Effects of Oxygenated Compounds on Combustion and Soot Evolution in a DI Diesel Engine:Broadband Natural Luminosity Imaging

The detailed mechanisms by which oxygenated diesel fuels reduce engine-out soot emissions are not well understood. The literature contains conflicting results as to whether a fuel's overall oxygen content is the only important parameter in determining its soot-reduction potential, or if oxygenate molecular structure or other variables also play significant roles. To begin to resolve this controversy, experiments were conducted at a 1200-rpm, moderate-load operating condition using a modern-technology, 4-stroke, heavy-duty DI diesel engine with optical access. Images of broadband natural luminosity (i.e., light emission without spectral filtering) from the combustion chamber, coupled with heat-release and efficiency analyses, are presented for three test-fuels. One test-fuel (denoted GE80) was oxygenated with tri-propylene glycol methyl ether; the second (denoted BM88) was oxygenated with di-butyl maleate. The overall oxygen contents of these two fuels were matched at 26% by weight.
Technical Paper

Feasibility of Modifying an Existing Semi-Trailer Air Suspension Into an Anti-Rollover System

This paper examines the feasibility of modifying an existing semi-trailer air suspension system to function as an anti-rollover system in addition to its normal suspension operation. The semi-trailer model used is a dynamic, two-dimensional system. The anti-rollover system controller is formulated using projective control theory. All other factors being equal, simulations show that use of the modified suspension system decreases the weight shift when the semi-trailer undergoes lateral acceleration. By decreasing weight shift, the modified suspension system decreases the possibility of rollover.