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Technical Paper

Oversteer/Understeer Characteristics of a Locked Differential

1994-12-01
942485
The type of differential used in a vehicle has an important and often-neglected effect on handling performance. This is particularly important in racing applications, such as in IndyCar racing, in which the type of differential chosen depends on the course being raced (superspeedway ovals, short ovals, temporary street courses and permanent road courses). In the present work, we examine the effect of a locked rear differential on oversteer/understeer behavior. Using a linear tire model, it is shown that employing a locked differential adds a constant understeer offset to the steering wheel angle (SWA) -v- lateral acceleration vehicle signature. A computer simulation of steady-state cornering behavior showed that the actual effect is much more complicated, and is strongly influenced by static weight distribution, front/rear roll couple distribution, available traction and the radius of the turn being negotiated.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Cyclic Fatigue Damage Modeling of Alumina

1994-03-01
940251
Cyclic loading is not as damaging as static loading of ceramics at high temperatures. Microcrack growth retardation has been established as a mechanism for increasing the durability of ceramics at high temperatures. A combined experimental and theoretical approach provides a mechanistic understanding of the deformation and failure processes in ceramic materials at high temperatures. Results demonstrate that the high temperature behavior of some ceramic material systems are controlled by the behavior of the grain boundary phase whose response is considerably different under static and cyclic loading.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic and Microscopic Characteristics of Flash Boiling Spray with Binary Fuel Mixtures

2019-04-02
2019-01-0274
Flash boiling has drawn much attention recently for its ability to enhance spray atomization and vaporization, while providing better fuel/air mixing for gasoline direct injection engines. However, the behaviors of flash boiling spray with multi-component fuels have not been fully discovered. In this study, isooctane, ethanol and the mixtures of the two with three blend ratios were chosen as the fuels. Measurements were performed with constant fuel temperature while ambient pressures were varied to adjust the superheated degree. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray were investigated using Diffused Back-Illumination (DBI) imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). Comparisons between flash boiling sprays with single component and binary fuel mixtures were performed to study the effect of fuel properties on spray structure as well as atomization and vaporization processes.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0297
The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Two-Phase Flow in the Second Header of MAC Condenser

2019-04-02
2019-01-1065
Phase separation circuiting have been proved in the past to effectively improve the performance of mobile air conditioning (MAC) condensers. In the vertical second header of the condenser, liquid separates from vapor mainly due to gravity, leaving vapor-rich flow with higher heat transfer coefficient to go into the upper passes. The condenser effectiveness is improved in this way. However, separation is usually not perfect, expressed through the separation efficiency (ηl and ηv). This paper presents the numerical study of phase separation phenomena in the second header. The Euler-Euler method of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used. Simulations are conducted for two-phase refrigerant R-134a for MAC application. Inlet mass flow rate is simulated at values of 16 g∙s-1, 20 g∙s-1, and 30 g∙s-1 for 21 inlet microchannel tubes, which is the same 1st-pass tube number as of a real separation condenser. Corresponding mass fluxes are 166 kg∙m-2∙s-1, 207 kg∙m-2∙s-1, and 311 kg∙m-2∙s-1.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Blow-by in a Small-Bore High-Speed Direct-Injection Optically Accessible Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0649
The blow-by phenomenon is seldom acquainted with diesel engines, but for a small bore HSDI optical diesel engine, the effects are significant. A difference in peak pressure up to 25% can be observed near top-dead-center. To account for the pressure differences, a 0-D crevice flow model with a dynamic ring pack model was incorporated into the KIVA code to determine the amount of blow-by. The ring pack model will take into account the forces acting on the piston rings, the position of the piston rings, and the pressure located at each region of the crevice volume at every time step. The crevice flow model takes into consideration the flow through the circumferential gap, ring gap, and the ring side clearance. As a result, the cylinder mass, trapped mass in the crevice regions, and the blow-by values are known. Validation of the crevice model is accomplished by comparing the in-cylinder motoring pressure trace with the experimental motoring data.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Computed and Measured Results for a HSDI Diesel Engine Operating Under HCCI Mode

2006-04-03
2006-01-1519
As engine researchers are facing the task of designing more powerful, more fuel efficient and less polluting engines, a large amount of research has been focused towards homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation for diesel engines. Ignition timing of HCCI operation is controlled by a number of factors including intake temperatures, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection timing to name a few. This study focuses on the computational modeling of an optically accessible high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) small bore diesel engine. In order to capture the phenomena of HCCI operation, the KIVA computational code package has been outfitted with an improved and optimized Shell autoignition model, the extended Zeldovich thermal NOx model, and soot formation and oxidation models. With the above named models in place, several cases were computed and compared to experimentally measured data and captured images of the DIATA test engine.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Linear Roll Dynamics Properties for Various Vehicle Configurations

1992-02-01
920053
The ability to categorize, compare and segregate the roll dynamical behavior of various vehicles from one another is a subject of considerable research interest. A number of comparison paradigms have been developed (static stability index, roll couple methods, etc.), but all suffer from lack of robustness: results developed on the basis of a particular comparison metric are often not able to be generalized across vehicle lines and types, etc., or they simply do not segregate vehicles at all. In addition, most models do not describe vehicle dynamics in sufficient detail, and some contain no dynamics at all (e.g., static stability index = t/2h). In the present work, static stability index, a two-degree-of-freedom roll model and a three-degree-of-freedom roll and handling model were used to locate eigenvalues for a sample of 43 vehicles consisting of (1) passenger cars, (2) light trucks, (3) sport/utility vehicles and (4) minivans.
Technical Paper

Developing Flow Map for Two-Phase R134a after Expansion Device

2008-04-14
2008-01-0736
This paper presents a mapping of developing adiabatic two-phase R134a flow directly after the expansion valve until the flow is “fully developed” in a 15.3mm inner diameter pipe. Flow characteristics of separation distance, flow type in the homogenous region, void fraction as a function of tube length, and fully developed flow region void fraction and regime were quantified and described.
Technical Paper

Testing Heuristic Tools for Life Support System Analysis

2007-07-09
2007-01-3225
BioSim is a simulation tool which captures many basic life support functions in an integrated simulation. Conventional analyses can not efficiently consider all possible life support system configurations. Heuristic approaches are a possible alternative. In an effort to demonstrate efficacy, a validating experiment was designed to compare the configurational optima discovered by heuristic approaches and an analytical approach. Thus far, it is clear that a genetic algorithm finds reasonable optima, although an improved fitness function is required. Further, despite a tight analytical fit to data, optimization produces disparate results which will require further validation.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Modeling of Liquid Cooling Networks in Vehicle Thermal Management Systems

2008-04-14
2008-01-0386
This paper describes a ‘toolbox’ for modeling liquid cooling system networks within vehicle thermal management systems. Components which can be represented include pumps, coolant lines, control valves, heat sources and heat sinks, liquid-to-air and liquid-to-refrigerant heat exchangers, and expansion tanks. Network definition is accomplished through a graphical user interface, allowing system architecture to be easily modified. The elements of the toolbox are physically based, so that the models can be applied before hardware is procured. The component library was coded directly into MATLAB / SIMULINK and is intended for control system development, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation, and as a system emulator for on-board diagnostics and controls purposes. For HIL simulation and on-board diagnostics and controls, it is imperative that the model run in real-time.
Technical Paper

Modeling Stochastic Performance and Random Failure

2007-07-09
2007-01-3027
High costs and extreme risks prevent the life testing of NASA hardware. These unavoidable limitations prevent the determination of sound reliability bounds for NASA hardware; thus the true risk assumed in future missions is unclear. A simulation infrastructure for determining these risks is developed in a configurable format here. Positive preliminary results in preparation for validation testing are reported. A stochastic filter simulates non-deterministic output from the various unit processes. A maintenance and repair module has been implemented with several levels of complexity. Two life testing approaches have been proposed for use in future model validation.
Technical Paper

Dynamics and Roll Stability of a Loaded Class 8 Tractor-Livestock Semi-Trailer

1999-11-15
1999-01-3732
The transporting of live cattle involves the use of Class 8 tractors and livestock semi-trailers for transportation from farms and feedlots to processing plants. This travel may include unimproved roads, local streets, two lane highways, as well as interstate highways. Typically, cattle are compartmentalized in a “double deck” fashion as it provides utility and comports with size and weight limits for commercial Class 8 vehicles. Concern has been expressed for the effect of cattle movement upon the dynamic performance of the loaded Class 8 tractor-livestock trailer assembly. Loading guidelines exist for cattle that attempt to prevent injury or debilitation during transit, and literature exists on the orientation and some kinematics of loaded cattle. Considerable literature exists on the effect of liquid slosh in tankers and swinging beef carcasses suspended from hooks in refrigerated van trailers on the dynamic response and roll stability of those vehicles.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Realism Versus Algorithmic Efficiency: A Trade-off in Human Motion Simulation Modeling

2001-06-26
2001-01-2090
The purpose this paper is to delineate why there exists a trade-off between biomechanical realism and algorithmic efficiency for human motion simulation models, and to illustrate how empirical human movement data and findings can be integrated with novel modeling techniques to overcome such a realism-efficiency tradeoff. We first review three major classes of biomechanical models for human motion simulation. The review of these models is woven together by a common fundamental problem of redundancy—kinematic and/or muscle redundancy. We describe how this problem is resolved in each class of models, and unveil how the trade-off arises, that is, how the computational demand associated with solving the problem is amplified as a model evolves from small scale to large scale, or from less realism to more realism.
Technical Paper

An Angle of Attack Correction Scheme for the Design of Low Aspect Ratio Wings With Endplates

2002-12-02
2002-01-3292
Low aspect ratio wings are used extensively on open-wheeled race cars to generate aerodynamic downforce. Consequently, a great deal of effort is invested in obtaining wing profiles that provide high values of lift coefficient. If the wings are designed using 2-D methods, then it is necessary to take into account the change in operating angle of a typical airfoil section that occurs when it operates in the downwash generated by the wing. Accounting for this change during the design phase will ensure that the airfoil sections are optimized for their intended operating conditions. The addition of endplates to the wing serves to counteract the magnitude of the change in operating angle by effectively producing an increase in wing aspect ratio. During the design process at UIUC, an empirical method was used to provide an estimate of the effective aspect ratio of the wing and endplate combination.
Technical Paper

Test Vehicle Steering Systems

1994-09-01
941740
In order to test and design vehicle systems it is often necessary to develop prototypes. A vehicle's steering system requires a qualitative analysis since it is difficult to quantify and measure subjective quantities such as the “feel” of a steering system. The virtual prototype system (VPS) provides an effective and flexible way of developing and testing the prototypes for qualitative testing. By creating a computer model of a vehicle's steering system using a dynamic simulation package and linking it to a virtual reality vehicle, a designer can drive the virtual prototype vehicle as if he or she were operating an actual vehicle.
Technical Paper

Methane Jet Penetration in a Direct-Injection Natural Gas Engine

1998-02-01
980143
A direct-injection natural gas (DING) engine was modified for optical access to allow the use of laser diagnostic techniques to measure species concentrations and temperatures within the cylinder. The injection and mixing processes were examined using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone-seeded natural gas to obtain qualitative maps of the fuel/air ratio. Initial acetone PLIF images were acquired in a quiescent combustion chamber with the piston locked in a position corresponding to 90° BTDC. A series of single shot images acquired in 0.1 ms intervals was used to measure the progression of one of the fuel jets across the cylinder. Cylinder pressures as high as 2 MPa were used to match the in-cylinder density during injection in a firing engine. Subsequent images were acquired in a motoring engine at 600 rpm with injections starting at 30, 20, and 15° BTDC in 0.5 crank angle degree increments.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Cylinder Head Deformation and Asymmetry on Exhaust Valve Thermo-Mechanical Stresses

1998-02-23
981034
A geometrically accurate, three-dimensional finite element model of a Diesel engine exhaust valve and cylinder head assembly has been developed to analyze the effect of cylinder head interactions on exhaust valve stresses. Results indicate that a multi-lobed stress pattern occurs around the exhaust valve head due to cylinder head deformation, stiffness variations, and thermal asymmetry. Consequently, peak valve bending and hoop stresses from the three-dimensional model are 48% and 40% higher, respectively, than for the two-dimensional, axisymmetric model. These results indicate the degree of model complexity required for more accurate analyses of exhaust valve operating stresses.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Model of a Springless Electrohydraulic Valvetrain

1997-02-24
970248
A dynamic model for the springless electrohydraulic valvetrain has been developed. The model speeds up the valvetrain development process by simulating effects of parameter changes, thus minimizing the number of hardware variations. It includes dynamic characteristics of check valves that enable energy recovery, hydraulic snubbers that limit seating velocity of the engine valves, and leakage in the control solenoids. A good match of the experimental data has been obtained for a single valve system, and the model calibration and validation have been completed. The known parameters are used together with some unknown calibration constants which have been tuned to match the experimental data. The simulation results for a twin valve system are also presented. The model applications for system performance analysis and for the closed-loop control of the engine valve lift are described. The cyclic variability of the experimental data is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy Quality Evaluation for Agricultural Applications

2000-09-11
2000-01-2621
Machine operators rely on intuition and experience to evaluate vehicle performance. As we increasingly turn to automation, it is important to automatically evaluate sensor data and system performance. Fuzzy logic allows us to take advantage of domain knowledge to evaluate data and to describe a system linguistically. In this paper, two automated fuzzy evaluation systems are described. In the first, a fuzzy quality module evaluates output from a simulated noisy sensor. In the second system, a fuzzy quality module evaluates the output from a machine vision system. Results from both systems indicate that fuzzy logic was able to accurately categorize the output in support of machinery decision making for automated control.
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