Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Comparing the Operation of an HSDI Engine Using Multiple Injection Schemes with Soybean Biodiesel, Diesel and Their Blends

2009-04-20
2009-01-0719
The KIVA-3V code, developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, with modifications that improve its capability with biodiesel simulations was used to model the operation of an HSDI engine using blends of soybean biodiesel and diesel. Biodiesel and their blends with diesel are frequently used to reduce emissions from diesel engines, although previous studies showed that biodiesel may increase NOx emission. The paradox may be resolved by running the engine in low temperature combustion mode with biodiesel/diesel blends, as low temperature combustion simultaneously reduced NOx and soot. The modified KIVA code predicts the major combustion characteristics: peak combustion pressure, heat release rate and ignition timing accurately when compared with experimental measurements. It also correctly predicts the trend of NOx emissions. It was observed that the cylinder temperature distribution has a strong effect on emission levels.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Operation of a High Speed Direction Injection Engine Using MVCO Injector and Conventional Fuel Injector

2009-04-20
2009-01-0718
The operation of a small bore high speed direct injection (HSDI) engine with a MVCO injector is simulated by the KIVA 3V code, developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The MVCO injector extends the range of injection timings over conventional injectors and it extra flexibility in designing injection schemes. Combustion from very early injection is observed with MVCO injections but not with conventional injection. This improves the fuel economy of the engine in terms of lower ISFC. Even better efficiency can be achieved by using biodiesel, which may be due to extra oxygen in the fuel improving the combustion process. Biodiesel sees a longer ignition delay for the initial injection. It also exhibits a faster burning rate and shorter combustion duration. Biodiesel also lowered both NOx and soot emissions. This is consistent with the general observation for soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Cavitating Flow within an Injector-Like Geometry and the Subsequent Spray

2019-04-02
2019-01-0284
Cavitation plays a significant role in the spray characteristics and the subsequent mixing and combustion process in engines. Cavitation has beneficial effects on the development of the fuel sprays by improving injection velocity and promoting primary break-up. On the other hand, intense pressure peaks induced by the vapor collapse may lead to erosion damage and severe degradation of the injector performance. In the present paper, the transient cavitating flow in the injector-like geometry was investigated using the modified turbulence model and cavitation criterion. A local density correction was used in the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model to reduce the turbulent viscosity, which facilitates the cavitation development. The turbulent stress was also considered in the cavitation inception stage. The modified model is capable of reproducing the cavitating flow with an affordable computational cost.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic and Microscopic Characteristics of Flash Boiling Spray with Binary Fuel Mixtures

2019-04-02
2019-01-0274
Flash boiling has drawn much attention recently for its ability to enhance spray atomization and vaporization, while providing better fuel/air mixing for gasoline direct injection engines. However, the behaviors of flash boiling spray with multi-component fuels have not been fully discovered. In this study, isooctane, ethanol and the mixtures of the two with three blend ratios were chosen as the fuels. Measurements were performed with constant fuel temperature while ambient pressures were varied to adjust the superheated degree. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray were investigated using Diffused Back-Illumination (DBI) imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). Comparisons between flash boiling sprays with single component and binary fuel mixtures were performed to study the effect of fuel properties on spray structure as well as atomization and vaporization processes.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0297
The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.
Technical Paper

High-Load Compression-Ignition Engine Emissions Reduction with Inverted Phi-Sensitivity Fuel Using Multiple Injection Strategies

2019-04-02
2019-01-0554
Inverted phi (ϕ)-sensitivity is a new approach of NOx reduction in compression-ignition (C.I.) engines. Previously, pure ethanol (E100) was selected as the preliminary test fuel in a single injection compression-ignition engine, and was shown to have good potential for low engine-out NOx emissions under low and medium load conditions due to its inverted ignition sequence. Under high load, however, the near-stoichiometric and non-homogeneous fuel/air distribution removes the effectiveness of the inverted ϕ-sensitivity. Therefore, it is desirable to recover the combustion sequence in the chamber such that the leaner region is burned before the near-stoichiometric region. When the combustion in near-stoichiometric region is inhibited, the temperature rise of that region is hindered and the formation of NOx is suppressed.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics in a Constant Volume Chamber of Diesel Blended with HTL

2019-04-02
2019-01-0578
There are a few different ways in which biofuels can be sourced, with the most popular coming from agricultural sources. An alternative approach is to utilize biowaste. An estimated 20 million dry tons of volatile organic compounds, or biowaste, is annually deposited in US municipal wastewaters. Most of this biowaste energy content is not recovered and, as a result, the biowaste could be a massive potential source of renewable energy. Biocrude diesel is converted from wet biowaste via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Three types of feedstocks (algae, swine manure, and food processing waste) were converted into biocrude oil via HTL. From the previous experiments done in an AVL 5402 single-cylinder diesel engine, it was observed that the presence of 20% of HTL in the blend performed similarly during combustion to pure diesel. By studying these mixtures in a constant volume chamber, these observations could be compared to the results in the diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Blow-by in a Small-Bore High-Speed Direct-Injection Optically Accessible Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0649
The blow-by phenomenon is seldom acquainted with diesel engines, but for a small bore HSDI optical diesel engine, the effects are significant. A difference in peak pressure up to 25% can be observed near top-dead-center. To account for the pressure differences, a 0-D crevice flow model with a dynamic ring pack model was incorporated into the KIVA code to determine the amount of blow-by. The ring pack model will take into account the forces acting on the piston rings, the position of the piston rings, and the pressure located at each region of the crevice volume at every time step. The crevice flow model takes into consideration the flow through the circumferential gap, ring gap, and the ring side clearance. As a result, the cylinder mass, trapped mass in the crevice regions, and the blow-by values are known. Validation of the crevice model is accomplished by comparing the in-cylinder motoring pressure trace with the experimental motoring data.
Technical Paper

Computational Analysis of Biodiesel Combustion in a Low-Temperature Combustion Engine using Well-Defined Fuel Properties

2007-04-16
2007-01-0617
Biodiesel fuel can be produced from a wide range of source materials that affect the properties of the fuel. The diesel engine has become a highly tuned power source that is sensitive to these properties. The objectives of this research were to measure and predict the key properties of biodiesel produced from a broad range of source materials to be used as inputs for combustion modeling; and second to compare the results of the model with and without the biodiesel fuel definition. Substantial differences in viscosity, surface tension, density and thermal conductivity were obtained relative to reference diesel fuels and among the different source materials. The combustion model revealed differences in the temperature and emissions of biodiesel when compared to reference diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Multiple Scattering in a Hollow-Cone Spray

2007-04-16
2007-01-0648
Laser diagnostics of fuel sprays are often hampered by multiple scattering effects. Planar laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (PLIEF) and Mie scattering images of a spray are presented, and the effects of multiple signal scattering are explored. A hollow-cone spray is cut in half with a spray cutter, and then imaged from either side. In one set, signal passes through the spray to the camera (back-cut images), and in the other set it does not (front-cut images), showing the effect of passing the signal through the spray to the camera. The cut spray is characterized with a phase Doppler anemometer (PDA) and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) is seen to range from 10-30 μm. Operational guidelines for using the cutter are presented. It was determined that a film forms on the cutter face 3-5 ms after the start of injection (ASOI) depending on the cutter temperature. Stripped droplets from this film increase droplet concentration and SMD in the center of the spray if the cutter is used improperly.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Computed and Measured Results for a HSDI Diesel Engine Operating Under HCCI Mode

2006-04-03
2006-01-1519
As engine researchers are facing the task of designing more powerful, more fuel efficient and less polluting engines, a large amount of research has been focused towards homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation for diesel engines. Ignition timing of HCCI operation is controlled by a number of factors including intake temperatures, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection timing to name a few. This study focuses on the computational modeling of an optically accessible high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) small bore diesel engine. In order to capture the phenomena of HCCI operation, the KIVA computational code package has been outfitted with an improved and optimized Shell autoignition model, the extended Zeldovich thermal NOx model, and soot formation and oxidation models. With the above named models in place, several cases were computed and compared to experimentally measured data and captured images of the DIATA test engine.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Linear Roll Dynamics Properties for Various Vehicle Configurations

1992-02-01
920053
The ability to categorize, compare and segregate the roll dynamical behavior of various vehicles from one another is a subject of considerable research interest. A number of comparison paradigms have been developed (static stability index, roll couple methods, etc.), but all suffer from lack of robustness: results developed on the basis of a particular comparison metric are often not able to be generalized across vehicle lines and types, etc., or they simply do not segregate vehicles at all. In addition, most models do not describe vehicle dynamics in sufficient detail, and some contain no dynamics at all (e.g., static stability index = t/2h). In the present work, static stability index, a two-degree-of-freedom roll model and a three-degree-of-freedom roll and handling model were used to locate eigenvalues for a sample of 43 vehicles consisting of (1) passenger cars, (2) light trucks, (3) sport/utility vehicles and (4) minivans.
Technical Paper

An Enhanced Computer-Based Process Simulation Model for the Cylinder Boring Process

1991-04-01
910957
This paper discusses an advanced computer-based process simulation model to predict cutting forces and surface error (also referred to as the lack of cylindricity) for the cylinder boring process. The model takes into consideration several enhanced features including dual and multiple-cylinder boring, back-boring, boring in the presence of windows/cavities, etc.. The model makes use of a Finite Element product model and the cutting force process model to generate a surface error profile at any axial level in the cylinder bore. A design of experiment approach is employed to study the influence of various process variables on bore surface error. The enhanced process simulation model may be used as a valuable tool in enhancing the simultaneous engineering of products and manufacturing processes.
Technical Paper

The In-Situ Measurement of the Thermal Diffusivity of Combustion Chamber Deposits in Spark Ignition Engines

1992-02-01
920513
Combustion chamber deposits in spark ignition engines act as thermal insulators and can lead to octane requirement increase. The thermal properties of deposits are not well documented, the reported thermal diffusivity values vary by two orders of magnitude. Two thermal property measurement techniques were compared, the flash and steady illumination laser methods. The steady laser method was more suitable for deposit property measurement. A comparison was made of the thermal properties of deposits grown with a base fuel with the thermal properties of deposits grown with the base fuel doped with reformer bottoms. For the clean fuel the thermal diffusivity ranged from 3.5 to 3.9-7 m2/s, at various locations around the combustion chamber. For the fuel doped with reformer bottoms the thermal diffusivity ranged from 1.1 to 1.9-7 m2/s at different locations within the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Biodiesel and Diesel Fuels in Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engines using Multiple Injection Strategies

2008-04-14
2008-01-1388
Biodiesel fuels and their blends with diesel are often used to reduce emissions from diesel engines. However, biodiesel has been shown to increase the NOx emissions. Operating a compression ignition engine in low-temperature combustion mode as well as using multiple injections can reduce NOx emissions. Experimental data for biodiesel are compared to those for diesel to show the effect of the biodiesel on the peak pressure, temperature, and emissions. Accurate prediction of biodiesel properties, combined with the KIVA 3V code, is used to investigate the combustion of biodiesel. The volume fraction of the cylinder that has temperatures greater than 2200 K is shown to directly affect the production of oxides of nitrogen. Biodiesel is shown to burn faster during the combustion events, though the ignition delay is often longer for biodiesel compared to diesel.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Temperature and Instantaneous Local Heat Flux Measurements in a Spark Ignition Engine

1993-03-01
930217
Cylinder head combustion chamber and piston temperatures and heat fluxes were measured in a 2.2 L 4 cylinder spark ignition engine. Measurements for the combustion chamber were made at wide open throttle conditions, 1400 rpm to 5000 rpm at 600 rpm increments, additional measurements were made on the combustion chamber at part throttle conditions at 3200 RPM. Piston temperature and heat flux measurements were made at WOT conditions from 1400 to 3200 RPM in 600 RPM increments. Average combustion chamber surface temperatures ranged from 130 deg. C to 248 deg. C, while peak combustion chamber surface temperatures ranged from 142 deg. C to 258 deg. C for WOT conditions. Peak heat flus at the surface for WOT conditions in the combustion chamber ranged from 1.2 MW/m2to 5.0 MW/m2. Central region heat fluxes were 2.3 to 2.8 times greater than those in the end gas regions of the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Injector Nozzle Coking With Oxygenated Diesel

2001-05-07
2001-01-2016
The use of substances other than petroleum based fuels for power sources is not a new concept. Prior to the advent of petroleum fueled vehicles numerous other substances were used to create mobile sources of power. As the world's petroleum supply dwindles, alternative fuel sources are sought after to replace petroleum fuels. Many industries are particularly interested in the development of renewable fuel sources, or biologically derived fuel sources, which includes ethanol. The use of No. 2 diesel as well as many alternative fuels in compression ignition engines result in injector coking. Injector coking can severely limit engine performance by limiting the amount of fuel delivered to the combustion chamber and altering the spray pattern. Injector tip coking is also one of the most sensitive measures of diesel fuel quality [1]. A machine vision system was implemented to quantify injector coking accumulation when a compression ignition engine was fueled with oxydiesel.
Technical Paper

Automated Guidance Control for Agricultural Tractor Using Redundant Sensors

1999-04-14
1999-01-1874
The development of automated guidance for agricultural tractors has addressed several basic and applied issues of agricultural equipment automation. Basic analyses have included the dynamics of steering systems and posture sensors for guidance. Applied issues have evaluated the potential of several commercial sensing systems and a commercial mechanical guidance system. A research platform has been developed based on a Case 7220 Magnum1 2-wheel drive agricultural tractor. An electrohydraulic steering system was used and characterized in support of automated guidance control. Posture sensing methods were developed using GPS, geomagnetic direction sensors (GDS), inertial, and machine vision sensing systems. Sensor fusion of GPS-inertial-machine vision and GPS-GDS-machine vision provided the most flexible and accurate guidance and capable for operation under dynamically changing field conditions.
Technical Paper

Performance of Alcohol Blends in Diesel Engines

1981-04-01
810681
A normally aspirated, four-stroke diesel engine was tested under operation with two alcohol containing fuel blends. The fuels contained ethanol, butanol, heavy virgin distillate, diesel Nos. 2 and 4, and a cetane improver. The proportions of the components were selected to give blends with properties within the range of diesel No. 2. The final blends contained 25 and 43.7 percent alchohols. Test results showed a loss in power due to the reduced heating value of the blends, and some deterioration of performance at light loads. At intermediate to heavy loads, satisfactory performance was obtained.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Combustion within a Small Bore High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) Diesel Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0919
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion employing single main injection strategies in an optically accessible single cylinder small-bore High-Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a Bosch common-rail electronic fuel injection system was investigated in this work. In-cylinder pressure was taken to analyze the heat release process for different operating parameters. The whole cycle combustion process was visualized with a high-speed digital camera by imaging natural flame luminosity. The flame images taken from both the bottom of the optical piston and the side window were taken simultaneously using one camera to show three dimensional combustion events within the combustion chamber. The engine was operated under similar Top Dead Center (TDC) conditions to metal engines. Because the optical piston has a realistic geometry, the results presented are close to real metal engine operations.
X