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Technical Paper

MPI Air/Fuel Mixing for Gaseous and Liquid LPG

This paper presents a parametric, experimental study of the performance of gas and liquid propane injection in a spark ignition, multi-point port injected (MPI) engine. An inline, six cylinder engine is used over a wide range of speeds and torques, and the air/fuel ratio, compression ratio and injection timing are all varied. The engine was mapped at the standard compression ratio of 9.65:1 with the original, gasoline MPI system, propane gas MPI, and single point, throttle body, propane gas injection. Gas and liquid propane MPI are then tested at a compression ratio of 11.7:1. Contour plots of thermodynamic efficiency and the specific emissions of HC, NOx, CO2 and CO over the torque/speed range are presented and compared. The results show significant differences in performance between gas and liquid propane MPI injection, as well as the MPI and throttle body gas injection.
Technical Paper

Opportunities for making LPG a clean and low greenhouse emission fuel

It is shown that LPG has the potential to be a main stream fuel because of its low particulate emissions and low greenhouse emission potential. The experimental study reported is directed at minimising the cost of LPG optimised engines through the use of gas phase, throttle body injection in an engine with 11.7 compression ratio up from 9.65 of the base gasoline engine. The advantages of throttle body injection, guided by CFD studies, are extension of the lean limit to lambda 1.6, where NOx is low enough to meet Euro4 emission standards without a reducing catalyst, as deduced from bench test results. Comparison is also made between throttle body and both liquid and gas phase multipoint port injection. Differences in the method of mixing significantly affect engine performance. Notable improvements in emissions and thermal efficiencies were achieved when compared with gasoline, eg.