Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Observation of the Effect of Swirl on Flame Propagation and the Derived Heat Release and Mass Burning Rates

1987-11-08
871175
A high speed research engine has optical access to over 80% of the combustion chamber volume through a piston with a quartz window. The engine has been used to study the effect of swirl on the spark-ignited combustion by means of high speed photography and analysis of combustion-time data. Results over the speed, swirl and mixture strength range show the flame travel derived from the pressure to agree with the measured flame travel to within 3% on average. Turbulent to laminar flame speed ratios as high as 45 occur under high swirl conditions. However it was not possible to find a predictive model which could explain the turbulent flame speed in terms of engine design variables.
Technical Paper

Estimates of the Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of Light Trucks

1987-11-08
871235
A fleet of 17 utility, van and flat tray bodied trucks has been tested for fuel consumption and exhaust emissions over a range of drive cycles and steady state operating conditions. The influence of vehicle load on the results was included. For each vehicle the tractive force applied by the chassis dynamometer, on which testing was performed, was adjusted to match those found on the road using a new procedure. The fuel consumption results show a downward trend with model year (1.7% annum); about 30% higher petrol use compared with diesel; a cold start penalty of 3 L/100 km and over 2:1 variation for vehicles capable of identical transport task. Exhaust emissions from these rigid trucks were between 3 and 6 times greater than those of the passenger car fleet.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging for the Fuel Efficient Urban Car

1983-11-07
830878
The arguments are given for the use of a 1.3 litre turbocharged spark ignition engine as a substitute for a 2 litre normally aspirated engine for late-80's compact cars. Descriptions of the three stages leading to an optimised engine-turbocharger package are described, together with details of the prototype TC engine manufacture and testing including supercharger tests to define operating limits. An outline of the optimising computer program is given, together with examples of computed camshaft designs giving significantly improved performance at low engine speeds. Some experimental results are given, including those of in-car testing which showed fuel consumption reductions of 12-22% over urban driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Spatial and Temporal Temperature Distributions in a Spark Ignition Engine Piston at WOT

2007-04-16
2007-01-1436
Two coupled finite element analysis (FEA) programs were written to determine the transient and steady state temperature distribution in a spark ignition engine piston. The programs estimated the temperatures at each crank angle degree (CAD) through warm-up to thermal steady state. A commercial FEA code was used to combine the steady state temperature distribution with the mechanical loads to find the stress response at each CAD for one complete cycle. The first FEA program was a very fast and robust non-linear thermal code to estimate spatial and time resolved heat flux from the combustion chamber to the aluminum alloy piston crown. This model applied the energy conservation equation to the near wall gas and includes the effects of turbulence, a propagating heat source, and a quench layer allowing estimates of local, instantaneous near-wall temperature gradients and the resulting heat fluxes.
Technical Paper

Giving Standard Diesel Fuels Premium Performance Using Oxygen-Enriched Air in Diesel Engines

1993-10-01
932806
Oxygen-enriched air supplied to a diesel engine has significant benefits in reducing the particulate emissions of all fuels tested. A Caterpillar 3208 direct injection diesel engine was modified to operate on a wide range of fuel grades including residual fuel oils with oxygen-enriched intake air. The paper focuses on four fuels, two fuels were regular automotive distillate fuels, the third was a low emission diesel fuel and the fourth fuel had high boiling point fractions. Comparison with less extensive work on residual fuel oil is also included. Smoke and particulates decrease by up to 94% at full load with 27% oxygen concentration. Performance with oxygen addition using regular fuels showed comparable smoke and particulates to a premium priced low emission fuel used specifically in underground mines.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Wide Range of Drive Cycles on the Emissions from Vehicles of Three Levels of Technology

1995-02-01
950221
Exhaust emission tests were performed on a fleet of vehicles comprising a range of engine technology from leaded fuel control methods to closed loop three-way catalyst meeting 1992 U.S. standards but marketed in Australia. Each vehicle was tested to 5 different driving cycles including the FTP cycles and steady speed driving. Research had shown that for hot-start operation the major driving pattern parameters which influence fuel consumption and exhaust emissions are average speed and PKE (the positive acceleration kinetic energy per unit distance). Plots from analysis of micro-trip fuel use and emissions rates from the test cycles may be presented as contours in PKE. It follows that the micro trip emissions from a range of driving cycles including, regulated e.g. FTP city and unregulated e.g. LA-92, recently developed EPA cycles or from other cities e.g. Bangkok can be superimposed.
Technical Paper

HAJI Operation in a Hydrogen-Only Mode for Emission Control at Cold Start

1995-02-01
950412
The HAJI (Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition) system for S.I. engines utilises direct injection of small amounts of hydrogen to enhance the combustion of a variety of automotive fuels. Although not the primary purpose of HAJI, the hardware, once in place, also lends itself to the possibility of hydrogen-only running during a cold start. Cold-start simulations have been performed using a single cylinder engine. Results are presented, comparing hydrogen-only tests with standard HAJI operation and normal spark-ignition operation. HAJI and spark ignition tests were carried out with gasoline as the main-chamber fuel. Emission levels and combustion stability characteristics were recorded as the engine warmed up. The differences between the various fueling/ignition scenarios are presented and the implications for possible automotive applications are discussed in light of current and proposed emissions legislation.
Technical Paper

An Optical and Numerical Characterization of Directly Injected Compressed Natural Gas Jet Development at Engine-Relevant Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0294
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is an attractive, alternative fuel for spark-ignited (SI), internal combustion (IC) engines due to its high octane rating, and low energy-specific CO2 emissions compared with gasoline. Directly-injected (DI) CNG in SI engines has the potential to dramatically decrease vehicles’ carbon emissions; however, optimization of DI CNG fueling systems requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of CNG jets in an engine environment. This paper therefore presents an experimental and modeling study of DI gaseous jets, using methane as a surrogate for CNG. Experiments are conducted in a non-reacting, constant volume chamber (CVC) using prototype injector hardware at conditions relevant to modern DI engines. The schlieren imaging technique is employed to investigate how the extent of methane jets is impacted by changing thermodynamic conditions in the fuel rail and chamber.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging for Fuel Efficiency

1983-02-01
830014
The arguments are given for the application of a 1.3 litre turbocharged spark ignition engine, as a substitute for a 2 litre normally aspirated engine as the power plant for a compact-sized car in the late 80’s. Three stages of the project leading to an optimised engine-turbocharger package are outlined. Achievement of Stage 1, leading to evaluation of a non-optimised configuration, will be reported. Description includes the use of a separately driven supercharger to define operating limits in the experimental variable matrix comprising compression ratio, boost pressure, EGR rate and spark retard at the knock limit. Computer programs for the optimising stages of the project are outlined. The current status of the project is reported, where, even at this early stage, fuel consumption reductions of 11-22% have been achieved under simulated urban driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Why Liquid Phase LPG Port Injection has Superior Power and Efficiency to Gas Phase Port Injection

2007-08-05
2007-01-3552
This paper reports comparative results for liquid phase versus gaseous phase port injection in a single cylinder engine. It follows previous research in a multi-cylinder engine where liquid phase was found to have advantages over gas phase at most operating conditions. Significant variations in cylinder to cylinder mixture distribution were found for both phases and leading to uncertainty in the findings. The uncertainty was avoided in this paper as in the engine used, a high speed Waukesha ASTM CFR, identical manifold conditions could be assured and MBT spark found for each fuel supply system over a wide range of mixtures. These were extended to lean burn conditions where gaseous fuelling in the multi-cylinder engine had been reported to be at least an equal performer to liquid phase. The experimental data confirm the power and efficiency advantages of liquid phase injection over gas phase injection and carburetion in multi-cylinder engine tests.
Technical Paper

Optimized Design of a Cyclic Variability Constrained Lean Limit SI Engine at Optimum NOx and Efficiency Using a PSO Algorithm

2007-08-05
2007-01-3551
In recent times new tools have emerged to aid the optimization of engine design. The particle swarm optimizer, used here is one of these tools. However, applying it to the optimization of the S.I. engine for high efficiency and low NOx emission has shown the preference of ultra lean burn strategy combined with high compression ratios. For combined power, efficiency and emissions benefits, there are two restricting factors, limiting the applicability of this strategy, knocking and cyclic variability. In the ultra lean region, knocking is not an important issue but the variability is a major concern. This paper demonstrates the application of a variability model to limit the search domain for the optimization program. The results show that variability constrains the possible gains in fuel consumption and emission reduction, through optimizing cam phasing, mixture and spark timing. The fuel consumption gain is reduced by about 11% relative.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio Effects on Performance, Efficiency, Emissions and Combustion in a Carbureted and PFI Small Engine

2007-08-05
2007-01-3623
This paper compares the performance, efficiency, emissions and combustion parameters of a prototype two cylinder 430 cm3 engine which has been tested in a variety of normally aspirated (NA) modes with compression ratio (CR) variations. Experiments were completed using 98-RON pump gasoline with modes defined by alterations to the induction system, which included carburetion and port fuel injection (PFI). The results from this paper provide some insight into the CR effects for small NA spark ignition (SI) engines. This information provides future direction for the development of smaller engines as engine downsizing grows in popularity due to rising oil prices and recent carbon dioxide (CO2) emission regulations. Results are displayed in the engine speed, manifold absolute pressure (MAP) and CR domains, with engine speeds exceeding 10000 rev/min and CRs ranging from 9 to 13. Combustion analysis is also included, allowing mass fraction burn (MFB) comparison.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Design of the Air Flow Orifice or Restrictor for Race Car Applications

2007-08-05
2007-01-3553
Several race car competitions seek to limit engine power through a rule that requires all of the engine combustion air passes through a hole of prescribed diameter. As the approach and departure wall shapes to this hole, usually termed orifice or restrictor are not prescribed, there is opportunity for innovation in these shapes to obtain maximum flow and therefore power. This paper reports measurements made for a range of restrictor types including venturis with conical inlets and outlets of various angles and the application of slotted throats of the ‘Dall tube’ type. Although normal venturis have been optimized as subsonic flow measuring devices with minimum pressure losses, at the limit the flow in the throat is sonic and the down stream shocks associated with flow transition from sub-sonic to sonic are best handled with sudden angular changes and the boundary layer minimized by the corner slots between the convergent and divergent cones.
Technical Paper

A New Look at Oxygen Enrichment 1) The Diesel Engine

1990-02-01
900344
New concepts in oxygen enrichment of the inlet air have been examined in tests on two direct injection diesel engines, showing: significant reduction in particulate emissions (nearly 80% at full load), increased thermal efficiency if injection timing control is employed, substantial reductions in exhaust smoke under most conditions, ability to burn inferior quality fuels which is economically very attractive and achivement of turbo-charged levels of output with consequential benefits of increased power/mass and improved thermal efficiency. The replacement of an engine's turbocharger and intercooling system with a smaller turbocharger and polymeric membrane elements to supply the oxygen enriched stream should allow improved transient response. NOx emission remain a problem and can only be reduced to normally aspirated engine levels at some efficiency penalty.
Technical Paper

The Feasibility of Downsizing a 1.25 Liter Normally Aspirated Engine to a 0.43 Liter Highly Turbocharged Engine

2007-09-16
2007-24-0083
In this paper, performance, efficiency and emission experimental results are presented from a prototype 434 cm3, highly turbocharged (TC), two cylinder engine with brake power limited to approximately 60 kW. These results are compared to current small engines found in today's automobile marketplace. A normally aspirated (NA) 1.25 liter, four cylinder, modern production engine with similar brake power output is used for comparison. Results illustrate the potential for downsized engines to significantly reduce fuel consumption while still maintaining engine performance. This has advantages in reducing vehicle running costs together with meeting tighter carbon dioxide (CO2) emission standards. Experimental results highlight the performance potential of smaller engines with intake boosting. This is demonstrated with the test engine achieving 25 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP).
Technical Paper

Simulation of Spark Ignition Engine Combustion Using Lagrangian Code

1993-11-01
931908
A new method of solution is presented for the equations governing unsteady flow field during compression and combustion in a spark ignition. The Lagrangian approach, an application of a vortex method to the three-dimensional solution of the continuity and conservation equations, avoids the need for a turbulence model and wall laws close to the surfaces. Vorticity is introduced as blobs close to the wall which diffuse into the main flow. The potential equation is solved by the boundary element method. Combustion is treated as a thin sheet propagating at laminar flame speed using an extension of the simple line interface method to three-dimensions, now called a simple plane interface method. The code is demonstrated in application to a wedge shaped combustion chamber with surface irregularities closely approximating the actual shape.
Technical Paper

Opportunities for making LPG a clean and low greenhouse emission fuel

2005-05-11
2005-01-2217
It is shown that LPG has the potential to be a main stream fuel because of its low particulate emissions and low greenhouse emission potential. The experimental study reported is directed at minimising the cost of LPG optimised engines through the use of gas phase, throttle body injection in an engine with 11.7 compression ratio up from 9.65 of the base gasoline engine. The advantages of throttle body injection, guided by CFD studies, are extension of the lean limit to lambda 1.6, where NOx is low enough to meet Euro4 emission standards without a reducing catalyst, as deduced from bench test results. Comparison is also made between throttle body and both liquid and gas phase multipoint port injection. Differences in the method of mixing significantly affect engine performance. Notable improvements in emissions and thermal efficiencies were achieved when compared with gasoline, eg.
Technical Paper

Instantaneous Multi-Point versus Single-Point Measurement of Exhaust Port Hydrocarbons of Ultra Lean Mixture

2000-03-06
2000-01-0241
A fast flame ionisation detector (FID) is able to measure the hydrocarbon (HC) concentration at a single point in the exhaust port. However, when sampling is conducted near the plane of the exhaust valve, these measurements are not representative of the entire port cross-section. This paper describes a multi-point extension to a standard fast FID probe, enabling the instantaneous measurement of a more representative HC concentration near the plane of the exhaust valve. Construction and use of the multi-point probe is discussed, and results are compared with standard single-point measurements.
Technical Paper

The Psychological and Accident Reconstruction “Thresholds” of Drivers' Detection of Relative Velocity

2014-04-01
2014-01-0437
Relative velocity detection thresholds of drivers are one factor that determines their ability to avoid rear-end crashes. Laboratory, simulator and driving studies show that drivers could scale relative velocity when it exceeded the threshold of about 0.003 rad/sec. Studies using accident reconstruction have suggested that the threshold may be about ten times larger. This paper discusses this divergence and suggests reasons for it and concludes that the lower value should be used as a true measure of the psychological threshold for detection of relative velocity.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Trace Knock in a Modern SI Engine Fuelled by Ethanol/Gasoline Blends

2015-04-14
2015-01-1242
This paper presents a numerical study of trace knocking combustion of ethanol/gasoline blends in a modern, single cylinder SI engine. Results are compared to experimental data from a prior, published work [1]. The engine is modeled using GT-Power and a two-zone combustion model containing detailed kinetic models. The two zone model uses a gasoline surrogate model [2] combined with a sub-model for nitric oxide (NO) [3] to simulate end-gas autoignition. Upstream, pre-vaporized fuel injection (UFI) and direct injection (DI) are modeled and compared to characterize ethanol's low autoignition reactivity and high charge cooling effects. Three ethanol/gasoline blends are studied: E0, E20, and E50. The modeled and experimental results demonstrate some systematic differences in the spark timing for trace knock across all three fuels, but the relative trends with engine load and ethanol content are consistent. Possible reasons causing the differences are discussed.
X