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Technical Paper

Observation of the Effect of Swirl on Flame Propagation and the Derived Heat Release and Mass Burning Rates

1987-11-08
871175
A high speed research engine has optical access to over 80% of the combustion chamber volume through a piston with a quartz window. The engine has been used to study the effect of swirl on the spark-ignited combustion by means of high speed photography and analysis of combustion-time data. Results over the speed, swirl and mixture strength range show the flame travel derived from the pressure to agree with the measured flame travel to within 3% on average. Turbulent to laminar flame speed ratios as high as 45 occur under high swirl conditions. However it was not possible to find a predictive model which could explain the turbulent flame speed in terms of engine design variables.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging for the Fuel Efficient Urban Car

1983-11-07
830878
The arguments are given for the use of a 1.3 litre turbocharged spark ignition engine as a substitute for a 2 litre normally aspirated engine for late-80's compact cars. Descriptions of the three stages leading to an optimised engine-turbocharger package are described, together with details of the prototype TC engine manufacture and testing including supercharger tests to define operating limits. An outline of the optimising computer program is given, together with examples of computed camshaft designs giving significantly improved performance at low engine speeds. Some experimental results are given, including those of in-car testing which showed fuel consumption reductions of 12-22% over urban driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Spatial and Temporal Temperature Distributions in a Spark Ignition Engine Piston at WOT

2007-04-16
2007-01-1436
Two coupled finite element analysis (FEA) programs were written to determine the transient and steady state temperature distribution in a spark ignition engine piston. The programs estimated the temperatures at each crank angle degree (CAD) through warm-up to thermal steady state. A commercial FEA code was used to combine the steady state temperature distribution with the mechanical loads to find the stress response at each CAD for one complete cycle. The first FEA program was a very fast and robust non-linear thermal code to estimate spatial and time resolved heat flux from the combustion chamber to the aluminum alloy piston crown. This model applied the energy conservation equation to the near wall gas and includes the effects of turbulence, a propagating heat source, and a quench layer allowing estimates of local, instantaneous near-wall temperature gradients and the resulting heat fluxes.
Technical Paper

Highly Turbocharging a Flow Restricted Two Cylinder Small Engine - Turbocharger Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-1562
This paper describes the turbocharger development of a restricted 430 cm3 odd firing two cylinder engine. The downsized test engine used for development was specifically designed and configured for Formula SAE, SAE's student Formula race-car competition. A well recognised problem in turbocharging Formula SAE engines arises from the rules, which dictate that the throttle and air intake restrictor must be on the suction side of the compressor. As a consequence of upstream throttling, oil from the compressor side seal assembly is drawn into the inlet manifold. The development process used to solve the oil consumption issue for a Garrett GT-12 turbocharger is outlined, together with cooling and control issues. The development methodology used to achieve high pressure ratio turbocharging is discussed, along with exhaust manifold development and operating limitations. This includes experimental and modeling results for both pulse and constant pressure type turbocharging.
Technical Paper

The Always Lean Burn Spark Ignition (ALSI) Engine – Its Performance and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0932
This paper is based on extensive experimental research with lean burn, high compression ratio engines using LPG, CNG and gasoline fuels. It also builds on recent experience with highly boosted spark ignition gasoline and LPG engines and single cylinder engine research used for model calibration. The final experimental foundation is an evaluation of jet assisted ignition that generally allows a lean mixture shift of more than one unit in lambda with consequential benefits of improved thermal efficiency and close to zero NOx. The capability of an ultra lean burn spark ignition engine is described. The concept is operation at air-fuel ratios similar to the diesel engine but with essentially homogenous charge, although some stratification may be desirable. To achieve high thermal efficiency this engine has optimized compression ratio but with variable valve timing which enables reduction in the effective compression ratio when desirable.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Charge Composition of SI Engine Lean Limits

2009-04-20
2009-01-0929
In this paper the experimental performance of the lean limits is examined for two different types of engines the first a dedicated LPG high compression ratio 2-valve per cylinder engine (Ford of Australia MY 2001 AU Falcon) and the second a gasoline moderate compression 4-valve per cylinder variant of the same engine (Ford of Australia MY 2006 BF Falcon). The in-cylinder composition at the lean limit over a range of steady state operating conditions is estimated using a quasi-dimensional model. This makes it possible to take into account the effects of both residual fraction and fresh charge diluents (EGR and excess air) that allow the exploration of a modeled lean limit performance [1, 2]. The results are compared to the predictions from a model for combustion variability applied to the quasi-dimensional model operating in optimization mode.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging for Fuel Efficiency

1983-02-01
830014
The arguments are given for the application of a 1.3 litre turbocharged spark ignition engine, as a substitute for a 2 litre normally aspirated engine as the power plant for a compact-sized car in the late 80’s. Three stages of the project leading to an optimised engine-turbocharger package are outlined. Achievement of Stage 1, leading to evaluation of a non-optimised configuration, will be reported. Description includes the use of a separately driven supercharger to define operating limits in the experimental variable matrix comprising compression ratio, boost pressure, EGR rate and spark retard at the knock limit. Computer programs for the optimising stages of the project are outlined. The current status of the project is reported, where, even at this early stage, fuel consumption reductions of 11-22% have been achieved under simulated urban driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of a 430cc Constant Power Engine for FSAE Competition

2006-04-03
2006-01-0745
This paper describes the design and development of an engine with constant power for SAE's student Formula race-car competition, allowing the avoidance of gear shifting for much of the Autocross event. To achieve constant power for over 50% of the speed range, turbocharging was adopted with a boost pressure ratio of 2.8 at mid-range speeds and applied to an engine capacity of 430 cc. This engine was specifically designed and configured for the purpose, being a twin cylinder in-line arrangement with double overhead camshafts. Most of the engine components were specially cast or machined from billets. The capacity was selected to minimise frictional losses and thus increase delivered power along with dry sump lubrication and a three speed gear box. The engine manifolds and plenums were designed using a CAE application and proved to be well suited to the task resulting in excellent agreement between predicted and actual performance.
Technical Paper

Why Liquid Phase LPG Port Injection has Superior Power and Efficiency to Gas Phase Port Injection

2007-08-05
2007-01-3552
This paper reports comparative results for liquid phase versus gaseous phase port injection in a single cylinder engine. It follows previous research in a multi-cylinder engine where liquid phase was found to have advantages over gas phase at most operating conditions. Significant variations in cylinder to cylinder mixture distribution were found for both phases and leading to uncertainty in the findings. The uncertainty was avoided in this paper as in the engine used, a high speed Waukesha ASTM CFR, identical manifold conditions could be assured and MBT spark found for each fuel supply system over a wide range of mixtures. These were extended to lean burn conditions where gaseous fuelling in the multi-cylinder engine had been reported to be at least an equal performer to liquid phase. The experimental data confirm the power and efficiency advantages of liquid phase injection over gas phase injection and carburetion in multi-cylinder engine tests.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio Effects on Performance, Efficiency, Emissions and Combustion in a Carbureted and PFI Small Engine

2007-08-05
2007-01-3623
This paper compares the performance, efficiency, emissions and combustion parameters of a prototype two cylinder 430 cm3 engine which has been tested in a variety of normally aspirated (NA) modes with compression ratio (CR) variations. Experiments were completed using 98-RON pump gasoline with modes defined by alterations to the induction system, which included carburetion and port fuel injection (PFI). The results from this paper provide some insight into the CR effects for small NA spark ignition (SI) engines. This information provides future direction for the development of smaller engines as engine downsizing grows in popularity due to rising oil prices and recent carbon dioxide (CO2) emission regulations. Results are displayed in the engine speed, manifold absolute pressure (MAP) and CR domains, with engine speeds exceeding 10000 rev/min and CRs ranging from 9 to 13. Combustion analysis is also included, allowing mass fraction burn (MFB) comparison.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Design of the Air Flow Orifice or Restrictor for Race Car Applications

2007-08-05
2007-01-3553
Several race car competitions seek to limit engine power through a rule that requires all of the engine combustion air passes through a hole of prescribed diameter. As the approach and departure wall shapes to this hole, usually termed orifice or restrictor are not prescribed, there is opportunity for innovation in these shapes to obtain maximum flow and therefore power. This paper reports measurements made for a range of restrictor types including venturis with conical inlets and outlets of various angles and the application of slotted throats of the ‘Dall tube’ type. Although normal venturis have been optimized as subsonic flow measuring devices with minimum pressure losses, at the limit the flow in the throat is sonic and the down stream shocks associated with flow transition from sub-sonic to sonic are best handled with sudden angular changes and the boundary layer minimized by the corner slots between the convergent and divergent cones.
Technical Paper

A New Look at Oxygen Enrichment 1) The Diesel Engine

1990-02-01
900344
New concepts in oxygen enrichment of the inlet air have been examined in tests on two direct injection diesel engines, showing: significant reduction in particulate emissions (nearly 80% at full load), increased thermal efficiency if injection timing control is employed, substantial reductions in exhaust smoke under most conditions, ability to burn inferior quality fuels which is economically very attractive and achivement of turbo-charged levels of output with consequential benefits of increased power/mass and improved thermal efficiency. The replacement of an engine's turbocharger and intercooling system with a smaller turbocharger and polymeric membrane elements to supply the oxygen enriched stream should allow improved transient response. NOx emission remain a problem and can only be reduced to normally aspirated engine levels at some efficiency penalty.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Gasketless Cylinder Head / Block Interface for an Open Deck, Multi Cylinder, Highly Turbocharged Small Engine

2006-11-13
2006-32-0036
This paper describes the design and development of a gasketless interface, which was used successfully to couple an aluminium cylinder head to an open deck design cylinder block. The cylinder block was manufactured from aluminium, featuring shrink fit dry cast iron liners. Extensive CAE modelling was employed to implement the gasketless interface and thus avoid using a conventional metal or fiber based cylinder head gasket. The engine was specifically designed and configured for the purpose, being a 430 cm3, highly turbocharged (TC) twin cylinder in-line arrangement with double overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder. Most of the engine components were specially cast or machined from billets. The new design removed the conventional head gasket and relied on the correct amount of face pressure generated by interference between the cylinder head and block to seal the interface. This had advantages in improving the structural integrity of the weak open deck design.
Technical Paper

Highly Turbocharging a Restricted, Odd Fire, Two Cylinder Small Engine - Design, Lubrication, Tuning and Control

2006-12-05
2006-01-3637
This paper describes the mechanical component design, lubrication, tuning and control aspects of a restricted, odd fire, highly turbocharged (TC) engine for Formula SAE competition. The engine was specifically designed and configured for the purpose, being a twin cylinder inline arrangement with double overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder. Most of the engine components were specially cast or machined from billets. A detailed theoretical analysis was completed to determine engine specifications and operating conditions. Results from the analysis indicated a new engine design was necessary to sustain highly TC operation. Dry sump lubrication was implemented after initial oil surge problems were found with the wet sump system during vehicle testing. The design and development of the system is outlined, together with brake performance effects for the varying systems.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Engine Gas Exchange, Combustion and Heat Transfer during Warm-Up

2008-06-23
2008-01-1653
This paper presents experimental and computational results obtained on an in line, six cylinder, naturally aspirated, gasoline engine. Steady state measurements were first collected for a wide range of cam and spark timings versus throttle position and engine speed at part and full load. Simulations were performed by using an engine thermo-fluid model. The model was validated with measured steady state air and fuel flow rates and indicated and brake mean effective pressures. The model provides satisfactory accuracy and demonstrates the ability of the approach to produce fairly accurate steady state maps of BMEP and BSFC. However, results show that three major areas still need development especially at low loads, namely combustion, heat transfer and friction modeling, impacting respectively on IMEP and FMEP computations. Satisfactory measurement of small IMEP and derivation of FMEP at low loads is also a major issue.
Technical Paper

The Feasibility of Downsizing a 1.25 Liter Normally Aspirated Engine to a 0.43 Liter Highly Turbocharged Engine

2007-09-16
2007-24-0083
In this paper, performance, efficiency and emission experimental results are presented from a prototype 434 cm3, highly turbocharged (TC), two cylinder engine with brake power limited to approximately 60 kW. These results are compared to current small engines found in today's automobile marketplace. A normally aspirated (NA) 1.25 liter, four cylinder, modern production engine with similar brake power output is used for comparison. Results illustrate the potential for downsized engines to significantly reduce fuel consumption while still maintaining engine performance. This has advantages in reducing vehicle running costs together with meeting tighter carbon dioxide (CO2) emission standards. Experimental results highlight the performance potential of smaller engines with intake boosting. This is demonstrated with the test engine achieving 25 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP).
Technical Paper

Simulation of Spark Ignition Engine Combustion Using Lagrangian Code

1993-11-01
931908
A new method of solution is presented for the equations governing unsteady flow field during compression and combustion in a spark ignition. The Lagrangian approach, an application of a vortex method to the three-dimensional solution of the continuity and conservation equations, avoids the need for a turbulence model and wall laws close to the surfaces. Vorticity is introduced as blobs close to the wall which diffuse into the main flow. The potential equation is solved by the boundary element method. Combustion is treated as a thin sheet propagating at laminar flame speed using an extension of the simple line interface method to three-dimensions, now called a simple plane interface method. The code is demonstrated in application to a wedge shaped combustion chamber with surface irregularities closely approximating the actual shape.
Technical Paper

Opportunities for making LPG a clean and low greenhouse emission fuel

2005-05-11
2005-01-2217
It is shown that LPG has the potential to be a main stream fuel because of its low particulate emissions and low greenhouse emission potential. The experimental study reported is directed at minimising the cost of LPG optimised engines through the use of gas phase, throttle body injection in an engine with 11.7 compression ratio up from 9.65 of the base gasoline engine. The advantages of throttle body injection, guided by CFD studies, are extension of the lean limit to lambda 1.6, where NOx is low enough to meet Euro4 emission standards without a reducing catalyst, as deduced from bench test results. Comparison is also made between throttle body and both liquid and gas phase multipoint port injection. Differences in the method of mixing significantly affect engine performance. Notable improvements in emissions and thermal efficiencies were achieved when compared with gasoline, eg.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Emissions from a HAJI Equipped Ultra-lean Burn SI Engine

1998-02-23
980044
Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition (HAJI) is a novel method of maintaining combustion stability during ultra-lean operation of conventional, homogeneously charged, SI engines. When operating with HAJI above λ=2, CO and NOx emissions fall to low levels while HC emissions rise to approximately double their stoichiometric value. HC emissions were investigated by operating a HAJI equipped, optically accessible, four-valve single cylinder engine at 600 r/min, wide open throttle (WOT), and from λ=1 to λ=2.4. A fast flame ionisation detector was used to collect real time hydrocarbon concentration data from behind one of the exhaust valves, inside the HAJI pre-chamber, and from near the combustion chamber wall. Flame images were also obtained. Exhaust port sampling shows that the HC concentration during blowdown and early exhaust is increased, but the concentration at the end of exhaust is decreased.
Technical Paper

Quasi-Dimensional and CFD Modelling of Turbulent and Chemical Flame Enhancement in an Ultra Lean Burn S.I. Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-1263
HAJI, or Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition, is an ignition system which uses a hot gaseous jet to initiate and stabilise combustion. HAJI allows a dramatic reduction of cyclic variability, and an extension of the lean limit of the engine to lambda 5. Improvements in cyclic variability lead to increased power output, reduced noise, wear on components and emissions. The ability to operate ultra lean gives 25% improvements in efficiency and extremely low emissions, particularly of NOx. Combustion analysis based on the fractal dimensions of the propagating flame fronts, obtained from optical flame data, support the hypothesis of enhancement of flame speeds through the presence of active chemical species. However, the relative contributions of turbulence and active species to the mechanisms of combustion enhancement realised with HAJI are not well defined. HAJI ignition has also been simulated with a comprehensive three dimensional combustion code, KIVA3.
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