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Technical Paper

Simulation of Straight-Line Type Assist Characteristic of Electric Power-Assisted Steering

2004-03-08
2004-01-1107
Electric Power-Assisted Steering (EPAS) is a new power steering technology that will define the future of vehicle steering. The assist of EPAS is the function of the steering wheel torque and vehicle velocity. The assist characteristic of EPAS is set by control software, which is one of the key issues of EPAS. The straight-line type assist characteristic has been used in some current EPAS products, but its influence on the steering maneuverability and road feel hasn't been explicitly studied in theory. In this paper, the straight-line type assist characteristic is analyzed theoretically. Then a whole vehicle dynamic model used to study the straight-line type assist characteristic is built with ADAMS/Car and validated with DCF (Driver Control Files) mode of ADAMS/Car. Based on the whole vehicle dynamic model, the straight-line type assist characteristic's influence on the steering maneuverability and road feel is investigated.
Journal Article

Design Optimization of a Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Real-World Driving Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0840
This paper proposes a framework to perform design optimization of a series PHEV and investigates the impact of using real-world driving inputs on final design. Real-World driving is characterized from a database of naturalistic driving generated in Field Operational Tests. The procedure utilizes Markov chains to generate synthetic drive cycles representative of real-world driving. Subsequently, PHEV optimization is performed in two steps. First the optimal battery and motor sizes to most efficiently achieve a desired All Electric Range (AER) are determined. A synthetic cycle representative of driving over a given range is used for function evaluations. Then, the optimal engine size is obtained by considering fuel economy in the charge sustaining (CS) mode. The higher power/energy demands of real-world cycles lead to PHEV designs with substantially larger batteries and engines than those developed using repetitions of the federal urban cycle (UDDS).
Technical Paper

Correlation of Cord Loads in Tires on Roadwheel and Highway

1970-02-01
700093
Strain gage instrumented transducers were used to measure the cord loads at a number of locations in several different automotive tires loaded against both flat and cylindrical road wheel surfaces. The two basic types of cord load fluctuation encountered in all automobile tires have been identified from these measurements, and the most severe location for cord load fluctuations has been closely bracketed. By these measurements, it has been possible to show that for each tire definite relations exist between the cord loads induced while running on a cylindrical drum and while running on a flat surface. The maximum cord load fluctuations in a tire are the same for the NBS roadwheel and flat surface when the tire is loaded against the roadwheel with a load of between 85 and 90% of that used on the flat surface.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Two RVE Modelling Methods for Chopped Carbon Fiber SMC

2017-03-28
2017-01-0224
To advance vehicle lightweighting, chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) is identified as a promising material to replace metals. However, there are no effective tools and methods to predict the mechanical property of the chopped carbon fiber SMC due to the high complexity in microstructure features and the anisotropic properties. In this paper, a Representative Volume Element (RVE) approach is used to model the SMC microstructure. Two modeling methods, the Voronoi diagram-based method and the chip packing method, are developed to populate the RVE. The elastic moduli of the RVE are calculated and the two methods are compared with experimental tensile test conduct using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Furthermore, the advantages and shortcomings of these two methods are discussed in terms of the required input information and the convenience of use in the integrated processing-microstructure-property analysis.
Technical Paper

An Indirect Occupancy Detection and Occupant Counting System Using Motion Sensors

2017-03-28
2017-01-1442
This paper proposes a low-cost but indirect method for occupancy detection and occupant counting purpose in current and future automotive systems. It can serve as either a way to determine the number of occupants riding inside a car or a way to complement the other devices in determining the occupancy. The proposed method is useful for various mobility applications including car rental, fleet management, taxi, car sharing, occupancy in autonomous vehicles, etc. It utilizes existing on-board motion sensor measurements, such as those used in the vehicle stability control function, together with door open and closed status. The vehicle’s motion signature in response to an occupant’s boarding and alighting is first extracted from the motion sensors that measure the responses of the vehicle body. Then the weights of the occupants are estimated by fitting the vehicle responses with a transient vehicle dynamics model.
Technical Paper

A Novel Dual Nonlinear Observer for Vehicle System Roll Behavior with Lateral and Vertical Coupling

2019-04-02
2019-01-0432
The study of vehicle coupling state estimation accuracy especially in observer-based vehicle chassis control for improving road handling and ride comfort is a challenging task for vehicle industry under various driving conditions. Due to a large amount of life safety arising from vehicle roll behavior, how to precisely acquire vehicle roll state and rapidly provide for the vehicle control system are of great concern. Simultaneously, uncertainty is unavoidable for various aspects of a vehicle system, e.g., varying sprung mass, moment of inertia and position of the center of gravity. To deal with the above issues, a novel dual observer approach, which combines adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter (AUKF) and Takagi-Sugeno (T-S), is proposed in this paper. A full-car nonlinear model is first established to describe vehicle lateral and vertical coupling roll behavior under various road excitation.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Pure Electric Bus Jointly Powered by Lithium-Ion Battery and Ultra Capacitor

2004-03-08
2004-01-0368
The paper presents the design and analysis of pure electric bus powered by Lithium-ion battery and ultra capacitor. For the limited power energy of battery, the ultra capacitor pack is chosen as the auxiliary on-board energy storage device. The system configuration, system modeling and on-road test result analysis will be covered in the paper and the possibility of using ultra capacitors on electric bus to improve the economical efficiency in urban areas will be discussed.
Technical Paper

A Test Method for Quantifying Residual Stress Due to Heat Treatment in Metals

2006-04-03
2006-01-0319
Quantification of residual stresses is an important engineering problem impacting manufacturabilty and durability of metallic components. An area of particular concern is residual stresses that can develop during heat treatment of metallic components. Many heat treatments, especially in heat treatable cast aluminum alloys, involve a water-quenching step immediately after a solution-treatment cycle. This rapid water quench has the potential to induce high residual stresses in regions of the castings that experience large thermal gradients. These stresses may be partially relaxed during the aging portion of the heat treatment. The goal of this research was to develop a test sample and quench technique to quantify the stresses created by steep thermal gradients during rapid quenching of cast aluminum. The development and relaxation of residual stresses during the aging cycle was studied experimentally with the use of strain gauges.
Technical Paper

Worst Case Scenarios Generation and Its Application on Driving

2007-08-05
2007-01-3585
The current test methods are insufficient to evaluate and ensure the safety and reliability of vehicle system for all possible dynamic situations including the worst cases such as rollover, spin-out and so on. Although the known NHTSA J-turn and Fish-hook steering maneuvers are applied for the vehicle performance assessment, they are not enough to predict other possible worst case scenarios. Therefore, it is crucial to search for the various worst cases including the existing severe steering maneuvers. This paper includes the procedure to search for other useful worst case based upon the existing worst case scenarios in terms of rollover and its application in simulation basis. The human steering angle is selected as a design variable and optimized to maximize the index function to be expressed in terms of vehicle roll angle. The obtained scenarios were enough to generate the worse cases than NHTSA ones.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Real-time Dynamic AMT Test Bench for Simulating Total Road Forces of Vehicle

2008-06-23
2008-01-1682
In this paper the hardware and software of a real-time dynamic test bench for simulating the total road forces of vehicles fitted with Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT) is described. First, the purpose and meaning of this research are discussed. And then, we select the hardware components of the test bench system according to the application requirements and complete the system design. Statement of the structure, working principle and function of the system is also included in this part. According to the experimental procedure of simulating total road load forces of vehicle under real-time conditions on the dynamic test bench, the software system is designed using Visual C++ 6.0, CAN bus communication protocol, RS-232, and network technology. Finally, some experimental tests for the system are carried out with the results that this design corresponds to the real-time dynamic requirements.
Technical Paper

Road Test Results of an I-C Engine Misfire Detection System

1993-03-01
930398
This paper presents results of experimental results of a misfire detection system for cars equipped with gasoline fueled engines and both manual and automatic transmissions. A brief overview of the theory of the method and discussion of instrumentation is also given. The performance of the method for cars operated on a chassis dynamometer and on various roads is presented.
Technical Paper

A Knowledge Representation Scheme for Nondestructive Testing of Composite Components

1990-02-01
900070
This paper presents our efforts to formalize the knowledge domain of nondestructive quality control of automotive composite components with organic (resin) matrices and to develop a prototype knowledge-based system, called NICC for Nondestructive Inspection of Composite Components, to help in the quality assurance of individual components. Geometric and bonding characteristics of parts and assemblies are taken into account, as opposed to the better understood evaluation of test specimens. The reasoning process was divided in two stages: in the first stage all flaws that might be present in the given part are characterized; in the second stage appropriate nondestructive testing procedures are specified to detect each of the possible flaws. The use of nondestructive techniques in the inspection of composites is fairly recent and hence, the knowledge required to develop an expert system is still very scattered and not fully covered in the literature.
Technical Paper

Seat Belt Retractor Rattle: Understanding Root Sources and Testing Methods

1999-05-17
1999-01-1729
This paper describes the rattle mechanisms that exist in seat belt retractors and the vehicle acceleration conditions that induce these responses. Three principal sources of rattle include: 1) the sensor, 2) the spool, and 3) the lock pawl. In-vehicle acceleration measurements are used to characterize retractor excitation and are subsequently employed for laboratory testing of retractor rattle. The merits and demerits of two testing methods, based on frequency domain and time domain shaker control, are discussed.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Study of Unsteady Wake Flow Behind a Bluff Body with a Drag Reduction Device

2001-03-05
2001-01-1042
Simple devices have been shown to be capable of tailoring the flow field around a vehicle and reducing aerodynamic drag. An experimental and computational investigation of a drag reduction device for bluff bodies in ground proximity has been conducted. The main goal of the research is to gain a better understanding of the drag reduction mechanisms in bluff-body square-back geometries. In principle, the device modifies the flow field behind the test model by disturbing the shear layer. As a consequence, the closure of the wake is altered and reductions in aerodynamic drag of more than 20 percent are observed. We report unsteady base pressure, hot-wire velocity fluctuations and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the near wake of the two models (baseline and the modified models). In addition, the flows around the two configurations are simulated using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in conjunction with the V2F turbulence model.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1072
Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

Improving Motorcycle Safety through DSRC Motorcycle-to-Vehicle Communication

2015-04-14
2015-01-0291
Many Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) technologies have been developed to improve the safety and efficiency of cars, trucks, public transport and infrastructure. However, very few ITS have been developed specifically for the motorcycle user protection. In this paper an analysis of dynamic and static communications tests between a vehicle and two motorcycles are provided. The system enables vehicles and motorcycles to exchange safety information such as speed, heading, location, and brake status through the use of 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) protocol. The vehicles and motorcycles can then assess the potential threat level based on the incoming messages from the nearby traffic. Several high-impact motorcycle-to-vehicle collision scenarios are analyzed. Technical challenges, such as motorcycle wireless unit antenna direction performance, communication performance and target classification accuracy are further investigated.
Technical Paper

Studies on Anti-Slip Regulation Technologies for AMT Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1314
In order to improve the tractive ability, steering capability and directional stability, etc. of automated mechanical transmission (AMT) vehicles running on the wet and slippery road, the anti-slip regulation (ASR) technologies for AMT vehicles are developed. The significance of ASR for AMT vehicles is introduced; a road friction recognition method based on the deceleration of driving wheels is investigated; a fuzzy anti-slip control system based on adjustment of engine torque is developed and the corresponding experimental verification is conducted. The experimental results denote that the proposed method is effective to eliminate the excessive slip when the AMT vehicle travels on the low friction road.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Vehicle Technologies That Improve Safety, Congestion, and Efficiency: Overview and Public Policy Role

2009-04-20
2009-01-0168
At the forefront of intelligent vehicle technologies are vehicle-to-vehicle communication (V2V) and vehicle-infrastructure integration (VII). Their capabilities can be added to currently-available systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC), to drastically decrease the number and severity of collisions, to ease traffic flow, and to consequently improve fuel efficiency and environmental friendliness. There has been extensive government, industry, and academic involvement in developing these technologies. This paper explores the capabilities and challenges of vehicle-based technology and examines ways that policymakers can foster implementation at the federal, state, and local levels.
Journal Article

Characterization of the Lateral Control Performance by Human Drivers on Highways

2008-04-14
2008-01-0561
The characterization of human drivers' performance is of great significance for highway design, driver state monitoring, and the development of automotive active safety systems. Many earlier studies are restricted by experimental scope, the number and diversity of human subjects, and the accuracy and extent of measured variables. In this work, driver lateral control performance on limited-access highways is quantified by utilizing a comprehensive naturalistic driving database, with the emphasis on measures of vehicle lateral position and time to lane crossing (TLC). Normative values at various speed ranges are reported. The results represent a statistical view of baseline on-road naturalistic driving performance, and can be used for quantitative studies such as driver impairment and alertness monitoring, the triggering of lane departure warning systems, and highway design.
Technical Paper

A Uniform Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Rig for Modular and Integrated Testing of Commercial Vehicle Electronic Braking System

2016-09-27
2016-01-8042
This paper describes a uniform Hardware-In-the-Loop (HiL) test rig for the different types of Electronic Braking System (EBS). It is applied to both modular testing and integrated testing. This test rig includes a vehicle dynamic model, a real-time simulation platform, an actual brake circuit and the EBS system under test. Firstly, the vehicle dynamic model is a highly parameterized commercial vehicle model. So it can simulate different types of commercial vehicle by different parameter configurations. Secondly, multi-types of brake circuit are modeled using brake components simulation library. So, it can test the EBS control unit independently without the influence of any real electro-pneumatic components. And a software EBS controller is also modeled. So it can test the algorithm of EBS offline. Thirdly, all real electro-pneumatic components without real gas inputted are connected to the real-time test platform through independent program-controlled relay-switches.
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