Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Video

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Validation of the EFEA Method through Correlation with Conventional FEA and SEA Results

2001-04-30
2001-01-1618
The Energy Finite Element Analysis(EFEA) is a recent development for high frequency vibro-acoustic analysis, and constitutes an evolution in the area of high frequency computations. The EFEA is a wave based approach, while the SEA is a modal based approach. In this paper the similarities in the theoretical development of the two methods are outlined. The main scope of this paper is to establish the validity of the EFEA by analyzing several complex structural-acoustic systems. The EFEA solutions are compared successfully to SEA results and to solutions obtained from extremely dense conventional FEA models.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Computational Process for Pass-By Noise Simulation

2001-04-30
2001-01-1561
The Indirect Boundary Element Analysis is employed for developing a computational pass-by noise simulation capability. An inverse analysis algorithm is developed in order to generate the definition of the main noise sources in the numerical model. The individual source models are combined for developing a system model for pass-by noise simulation. The developed numerical techniques are validated through comparison between numerical results and test data for component level and system level analyses. Specifically, the source definition capability is validated by comparing the actual and the computationally reconstructed acoustic field for an engine intake manifold. The overall pass-by noise simulation capability is validated by computing the maximum overall sound pressure level for a vehicle under two separate driving conditions.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

2001-04-30
2001-01-1449
Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0326
In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Fuel Evaporation Parameter Identification during SI Cold Start

2001-03-05
2001-01-0552
The stochastic properties of continuous time model parameters obtained through discrete least squares estimation are examined. Particular attention is given to the application of estimating the fuel evaporation dynamics of a V-8 SI engine. The continuous time parameter distributions in this case are biased. The bias is shown to be a function of both measurement noise and sampling rate selection. Analysis and experimental results suggest that for each particular model, there is a corresponding optimum sampling rate. A bias compensation formula is proposed that improves the accuracy of least squares estimation without iterative techniques.
Technical Paper

Bolt-Load Retention Behavior of a Die Cast Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloy

2001-03-05
2001-01-0425
The need for improved understanding of new magnesium alloys for the automotive industry continues to grow as the application for these lightweight alloys expands to more demanding environments, particularly in drivetrain components. Their use at elevated temperatures, such as in transmission cases, presents a challenge because magnesium alloys generally have lower creep resistance than aluminum alloys currently employed for such applications. In this study, a new die cast magnesium alloy, MEZ, containing rare earth (RE) elements and zinc as principal alloying constituents, was examined for its bolt-load retention (BLR) properties. Preloads varied from 14 to 28 kN and test temperatures ranged from 125 to 175°C. At all test temperatures and preloads, MEZ retained the greatest fraction of the initial imposed preload when compared to the magnesium alloys AZ91D, AE42, AM50, and the AM50+Ca series alloys.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1354
Living in the era of rising environmental sensibility and increasing gasoline prices, the development of a new environmentally friendly generation of vehicles becomes a necessity. Hybrid electric vehicles are one means of increasing propulsion system efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. In this paper, the series-parallel power-split configuration for Michigan Technological University's FutureTruck is analyzed. Mathematical equations that describe the hybrid power-split transmission are derived. The vehicle's differential equations of motion are developed and the system's need for a controller is shown. The engine's brake power and brake specific fuel consumption, as a function of its speed and throttle position, are experimentally determined. A control strategy is proposed to achieve fuel efficient engine operation. The developed control strategy has been implemented in a vehicle simulation and in the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Role of Carboxylate-Based Coolants in Cast Iron Corrosion Protection

2001-03-05
2001-01-1184
Nitrites have long been added to heavy-duty coolant to inhibit iron cylinder liner corrosion initiated by cavitation. However, in heavy-duty use, nitrites deplete from the coolant, which then must be refortified using supplemental coolant additives (SCA's). Recently, carboxylates have also been found to provide excellent cylinder liner protection in heavy-duty application. Unlike nitrites, carboxylate inhibitors deplete slowly and thus do not require continual refortification with SCA's. In the present paper laboratory aging experiments shed light on the mechanism of cylinder liner protection by these inhibitors. The performance of carboxylates, nitrites and mixtures of the two inhibitors are compared. Results correlate well with previously published fleet data. Specifically, rapid nitrite and slow carboxylate depletion are observed. More importantly, when nitrite and carboxylates are used in combination, nitrite depletion is repressed while carboxylates deplete at a very slow rate.
Technical Paper

Rollover Propensity Evaluation of an SUV Equipped with a TRW VSC System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0128
In this paper, a simulation-based dynamic rollover evaluation procedure is described. This work is based on the worst-case methodology developed at the University of Michigan, and is the result of a collaborated research project between the University of Michigan and TRW Inc. The target vehicle studied in this paper is a large production volume SUV. This vehicle is equipped with a production-intent TRW Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) system. The main goals of this paper are to (i) study the rollover propensity of this SUV, as influenced by vehicle and environment parameters such as vehicle speed, road condition, etc.; and (ii) investigate whether, and by how much, does the VSC system influence the rollover propensity of this SUV. The modeling, evaluation procedure, and preliminary evaluation results are reported.
Technical Paper

Modeling Variability in Reaching Motions

2001-06-26
2001-01-2094
Motion prediction models may give the average reach for an individual of specified characteristics. The actual reach will vary from this reach in a manner that may depend on both systematic and random factors. We describe a modeling approach that incorporates the variability within the reaches of a given subject and that between subjects. This information is useful to designers in investigating phenomena that may not occur during the average reach but may occur during variants such as collision with an obstacle or injury due to over-exertion.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Analysis for the Performance Characteristics of Engine Bearings due to Variability in Bearing Properties

2003-05-05
2003-01-1733
This paper presents the development of surrogate models (metamodels) for evaluating the bearing performance in an internal combustion engine without performing time consuming analyses. The metamodels are developed based on results from actual simulation solvers computed at a limited number of sample points, which sample the design space. A finite difference bearing solver is employed in this paper for generating information necessary to construct the metamodels. An optimal symmetric Latin hypercube algorithm is utilized for identifying the sampling points based on the number and the range of the variables that are considered to vary in the design space. The development of the metamodels is validated by comparing results from the metamodels with results from the actual bearing performance solver over a large number of evaluation points. Once the metamodels are established they are employed for performing probabilistic analyses.
Technical Paper

Structural Vibration of an Engine Block and a Rotating Crankshaft Coupled Through Elastohydrodynamic Bearings

2003-05-05
2003-01-1724
A comprehensive formulation is presented for the dynamics of a rotating flexible crankshaft coupled with the dynamics of an engine block through a finite difference elastohydrodynamic main bearing lubrication algorithm. The coupling is based on detailed equilibrium conditions at the bearings. The component mode synthesis is employed for modeling the crankshaft and block dynamic behavior. A specialized algorithm for coupling the rigid and flexible body dynamics of the crankshaft within the framework of the component mode synthesis has been developed. A finite difference lubrication algorithm is used for computing the oil film elastohydrodynamic characteristics. A computationally accurate and efficient mapping algorithm has been developed for transferring information between a high - density computational grid for the elastohydrodynamic bearing solver and a low - density structural grid utilized in computing the crankshaft and block structural dynamic response.
Technical Paper

Oil Film Dynamic Characteristics for Journal Bearing Elastohydrodynamic Analysis Based on a Finite Difference Formulation

2003-05-05
2003-01-1669
A fast and accurate journal bearing elastohydrodynamic analysis is presented based on a finite difference formulation. The governing equations for the oil film pressure, stiffness and damping are solved using a finite difference approach. The oil film domain is discretized using a rectangular two-dimensional finite difference mesh. In this new formulation, it is not necessary to generate a global fluidity matrix similar to a finite element based solution. The finite difference equations are solved using a successive over relaxation (SOR) algorithm. The concept of “Influence Zone,” for computing the dynamic characteristics is introduced. The SOR algorithm and the “Influence Zone” concept significantly improve the computational efficiency without loss of accuracy. The new algorithms are validated with numerical results from the literature and their numerical efficiency is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

A Two-Tracer LIF Strategy for Quantitative Oxygen Imaging in Engines Applied to Study the Influence of Skip-Firing on In-Cylinder Oxygen Contents of an SIDI Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1114
The effect of skip-firing (which is often applied in optical engine work) on the available in-cylinder oxygen concentration was investigated with a laser-induced fluorescence imaging setup that combines the measurement of fluorescence signals from toluene and 3-pentanone to quantitatively determine the distribution of molecular oxygen. We describe in detail the image processing procedure for this measurement. The reduction of in-cylinder oxygen when switching from skip-fired to continuous-fired engine operation is measured and compared to traditional exhaust measurements.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1072
Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

A Cascade Atomization and Drop Breakup Model for the Simulation of High-Pressure Liquid Jets

2003-03-03
2003-01-1044
A further development of the ETAB atomization and drop breakup model for high pressure-driven liquid fuel jets, has been developed, tuned and validated. As in the ETAB model, this breakup model reflects a cascade of drop breakups, where the breakup criterion is determined by the Taylor drop oscillator and each breakup event resembles experimentally observed breakup mechanisms. A fragmented liquid core due to inner-nozzle disturbances is achieved by injecting large droplets subject to this breakup cascade. These large droplets are equipped with appropriate initial deformation velocities in order to obtain experimentally observed breakup lengths. In contrast to the ETAB model which consideres only the bag breakup or the stripping breakup mechanism, the new model has been extended to include the catastrophic breakup regime. In addition, a continuity condition on the breakup parameters has lead to the reduction of one model constant.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Electric Turbo Compound Technology

2003-06-23
2003-01-2294
A cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar is aimed at demonstrating electric turbo compound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with an electric turbocompound system. The system consists of a turbocharger with an electric motor/generator integrated into the turbo shaft. The generator extracts surplus power at the turbine, and the electricity it produces is used to run a motor mounted on the engine crankshaft, recovering otherwise wasted energy in the exhaust gases. The electric turbocompound system also provides more control flexibility in that the amount of power extracted can be varied. This allows for control of engine boost and thus air/fuel ratio. The paper presents the status of development of an electric turbocompound system for a Caterpillar heavy-duty on-highway truck engine.
X