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Technical Paper

Estimation of Body Links Transfer Functions in Vehicle Vibration Environment

2007-06-12
2007-01-2484
Exposure of a driver to vehicle vibration is known to disrupt manual performances, and more specifically affect the speed and accuracy of reaching tasks associated with vehicle operation. The effects of whole body vibration (WBV) can be analyzed as a function of the vibration characteristics of each body link. This information can then be used to identify movement strategies and predict biodynamic responses. Conceptual principles derived from the understanding of human behavior in a vibratory environment can then be used for the design of controls or interfaces adapted for vehicle operation in this context. The transfer functions of individual upper body links were estimated to investigate their biodynamic properties as a function of vehicle vibration frequency and spatial location of targets to be reached. In the present study, fourteen seated participants performed pointing movements to eight targets distributed in the right hemisphere.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Model of Gait and Transition Stepping for Simulation of Industrial Workcell Tasks

2007-06-12
2007-01-2478
Industrial tasks performed by standing workers are among those most commonly simulated using digital human models. Workers often walk, turn, and take acyclic steps as they perform these tasks. Current h uman modeling tools lack the capability to simulate these whole body motions accurately. Most models simulate walking by replaying joint angle trajectories corresponding to a general gait pattern. Turning is simulated poorly if at all, and violations of kinematic constraints between the feet and ground are common. Moreover, current models do not accurately predict foot placement with respect to loads and other hand targets, diminishing the utility of the associated ergonomic analyses. A new approach to simulating stepping and walking in task-oriented activities is proposed. Foot placements and motions are predicted from operator and task characteristics using empirical models derived from laboratory data and validated using field data from an auto assembly plant.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulated Results Detailing the Sensitivity of Natural Gas HCCI Engines to Fuel Composition

2001-09-24
2001-01-3609
Natural gas quality, in terms of the volume fraction of higher hydrocarbons, strongly affects the auto-ignition characteristics of the air-fuel mixture, the engine performance and its controllability. The influence of natural gas composition on engine operation has been investigated both experimentally and through chemical kinetic based cycle simulation. A range of two component gas mixtures has been tested with methane as the base fuel. The equivalence ratio (0.3), the compression ratio (19.8), and the engine speed (1000 rpm) were held constant in order to isolate the impact of fuel autoignition chemistry. For each fuel mixture, the start of combustion was phased near top dead center (TDC) and then the inlet mixture temperature was reduced. These experimental results have been utilized as a source of data for the validation of a chemical kinetic based full-cycle simulation.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Validity of Kinematically Generated Reach Envelopes for Simulations of Vehicle Operators

2003-06-17
2003-01-2216
Assessments of reach capability using human figure models are commonly performed by exercising each joint of a kinematic chain, terminating in the hand, through the associated ranges of motion. The result is a reach envelope determined entirely by the segment lengths, joint degrees of freedom, and joint ranges of motion. In this paper, the validity of this approach is assessed by comparing the reach envelopes obtained by this method to those obtained in a laboratory study of men and women. Figures were created in the Jack human modeling software to represent the kinematic linkages of participants in the laboratory study. Maximum reach was predicted using the software's kinematic reach-envelope generation methods and by interactive manipulation. Predictions were compared to maximum reach envelopes obtained experimentally. The findings indicate that several changes to the normal procedures for obtaining maximum reach envelopes for seated tasks are needed.
Technical Paper

Data-Based Motion Prediction

2003-06-17
2003-01-2229
A complete scheme for motion prediction based on motion capture data is presented. The scheme rests on three main components: a special posture representation, a diverse motion capture database and prediction method. Most prior motion prediction schemes have been based on posture representations based on well-known local or global angles. Difficulties have arisen when trying to satisfy constraints, such as placing a hand on a target or scaling the posture for a subject of different stature. Inverse kinematic methods based on such angles require optimization that become increasingly complex and computationally intensive for longer linkages. A different representation called stretch pivot coordinates is presented that avoids these difficulties. The representation allows for easy rescaling for stature and other linkage length variations and satisfaction of endpoint constraints, all without optimization allowing for rapid real time use.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Study of Unsteady Wake Flow Behind a Bluff Body with a Drag Reduction Device

2001-03-05
2001-01-1042
Simple devices have been shown to be capable of tailoring the flow field around a vehicle and reducing aerodynamic drag. An experimental and computational investigation of a drag reduction device for bluff bodies in ground proximity has been conducted. The main goal of the research is to gain a better understanding of the drag reduction mechanisms in bluff-body square-back geometries. In principle, the device modifies the flow field behind the test model by disturbing the shear layer. As a consequence, the closure of the wake is altered and reductions in aerodynamic drag of more than 20 percent are observed. We report unsteady base pressure, hot-wire velocity fluctuations and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the near wake of the two models (baseline and the modified models). In addition, the flows around the two configurations are simulated using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in conjunction with the V2F turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Intrusion in Side Impact Crashes

2007-04-16
2007-01-0678
Half of the car occupant deaths involved in two-vehicle crashes results from side impact collisions. In an attempt to better understand the role that vehicle mass plays in crashes and injury causation, detailed information from the NASS CDS database on injury source was distributed in three classes: contact with intrusion, contact without intrusion, and restrained acceleration or non-contact. We compared these distributions for belted drivers in side verses frontal crashes. When looking at the type of striking, or bullet, vehicle in near-side impacts, we found that intrusion injuries are more prevalent in cars hit by SUVs and pickups than by other cars. We also looked at the body region injured verses the type of striking vehicle and found head injuries to be slightly more prevalent when the striking vehicle is an SUV or pick-up. Data from the University of Michigan CIREN case studies on side impacts are presented and are consistent with the NASS CDS data.
Technical Paper

Improved Positioning Procedures for 6YO and 10YO ATDs Based on Child Occupant Postures

2006-11-06
2006-22-0014
The outcomes of crash tests can be influenced by the initial posture and position of the anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) used to represent human occupants. In previous work, positioning procedures for ATDs representing adult drivers and rear-seat passengers have been developed through analysis of posture data from human volunteers. The present study applied the same methodology to the development of positioning procedures for ATDs representing six-year-old and ten-year-old children sitting on vehicle seats and belt-positioning boosters. Data from a recent study of 62 children with body mass from 18 to 45 kg were analyzed to quantify hip and head locations and pelvis and head angles for both sitter-selected and standardized postures. In the present study, the 6YO and 10YO Hybrid-III ATDs were installed using FMVSS 213 procedures in six test conditions used previously with children.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of NOX and Soot in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine by Instantaneous Mixing of Fuel and Water

2007-04-16
2007-01-0125
Meeting diesel engine emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles can be achieved by simultaneous injection of fuel and water. An injection system for instantaneous mixing of fuel and water in the combustion chamber has been developed by injecting water in a mixing passage located in the periphery of the fuel spray. The fuel spray is then entrained by water and hot air before it burns. The experimental work was carried out on a Rapid Compression Machine and on a Komatsu direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. It was also supported by Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of the injection and combustion processes in order to evaluate the effect of water vapor distribution on cylinder temperature and NOX formation. It has been concluded that when the water injection is appropriately timed, the combustion speed is slower and the cylinder temperature lower than in conventional diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Engine and DOC Utilizing Conventional and PCI Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0201
Premixed compression ignition low-temperature diesel combustion (PCI) can simultaneously reduce particulate matter (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions increase relative to conventional diesel combustion, however, which may necessitate the use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). For a better understanding of conventional and PCI combustion, and the operation of a platinum-based production DOC, engine-out and DOC-out exhaust hydrocarbons are speciated using gas chromatography. As combustion mode is changed from lean conventional to lean PCI to rich PCI, engine-out CO and THC emissions increase significantly. The relative contributions of individual species also change; increasing methane/THC, acetylene/THC and CO/THC ratios indicate a richer combustion zone and a reduction in engine-out hydrocarbon incremental reactivity.
Technical Paper

An HCCI Engine: Power Plant for a Hybrid Vehicle

2004-03-08
2004-01-0933
Homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines offer a great potential in achieving high thermal efficiency and extremely low NOx at the same time. However, control of combustion phasing over a wide speed and load range has been a challenge, especially during transient operations. This paper describes work conducted at the National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, which explores the potential use of an HCCI engine as a power plant for a hybrid vehicle. A four-cylinder, 1.9 L commercial diesel engine was modified to operate with port-injected regular grade gasoline in HCCI mode. The combustion phasing is controlled by a combination of boost, EGR and thermal management as a function of engine speed and load. As a stand-alone unit, the engine has demonstrated a wide operation range with efficiency like that of a diesel engine and NOx below 0.2 g/kWh. At room temperature, the engine starts in SI mode and then transitions to HCCI in about 25 seconds.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Narrow Spray Cone Angle, Advanced Injection Timing Strategy to Achieve Partially Premixed Compression Ignition Combustion in a Diesel Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0167
Simultaneous reduction of nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions is possible in a diesel engine by employing a Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) strategy. PPCI combustion is attainable with advanced injection timings and heavy exhaust gas recirculation rates. However, over-advanced injection timing can result in the fuel spray missing the combustion bowl, thus dramatically elevating PM emissions. The present study investigates whether the use of narrow spray cone angle injector nozzles can extend the limits of early injection timings, allowing for PPCI combustion realization. It is shown that a low flow rate, 60-degree spray cone angle injector nozzle, along with optimized EGR rate and split injection strategy, can reduce engine-out NOx by 82% and PM by 39%, at the expense of a modest increase (4.5%) in fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Modeling Head and Hand Orientation during Motion using Quaternions

2004-06-15
2004-01-2179
Some body parts, such as the head and the hand, change their orientation during motion. Orientation can be conveniently and elegantly represented using quaternions. The method has several advantages over Euler angles in that the problem of gimbal lock is avoided and that the orientation is represented by a single mathematical object rather than a collection of angles that can be redefined in various arbitrary ways. The use of quaternions has been popular in animation applications for some time, especially for interpolating motions. We will introduce some new applications involving statistical methods for quaternions that will allow us to present meaningful averages of repeated motions involving orientations and make regression predictions of orientation. For example, we can model how the glancing behavior of the head changes according to the target of the reach and other factors.
Technical Paper

Balance Maintenance during Seated Reaches of People with Spinal Cord Injury

2004-06-15
2004-01-2138
In many task analyses using digital human figure models, only the terminal or apparently most stressful posture is analyzed. For reaches from a seated position, this is generally the posture with the hand or hands at the target. However, depending on the characteristics of the tasks and the people performing them, analyzing only the terminal posture could be misleading. This possibility was examined using data from a study of the reaching behavior of people with spinal cord injury. Participants performed two-handed forward reaching tasks. These reaches were to three targets located in the sagittal plane. The terminal postures did not differ significantly between those with spinal cord injury and those without. However, motion analysis demonstrated that they employed distinct strategies, particularly in the initial phase of motion.
Technical Paper

A Dual-Use Enterprise Context for Vehicle Design and Technology Valuation

2004-03-08
2004-01-1588
Developing a new technology requires decision-makers to understand the technology's implications on an organization's objectives, which depend on user needs targeted by the technology. If these needs are common between two organizations, collaboration could result in more efficient technology development. For hybrid truck design, both commercial manufacturers and the military have similar performance needs. As the new technology penetrates the truck market, the commercial enterprise must quantify how the hybrid's superior fuel efficiency will impact consumer purchasing and, thus, future enterprise profits. The Army is also interested in hybrid technology as it continues its transformation to a more fuel-efficient force. Despite having different objectives, maximizing profit and battlefield performance, respectively, the commercial enterprise and Army can take advantage of their mutual needs.
Technical Paper

Influence of Object Properties on Reaching and Grasping Tasks

2008-06-17
2008-01-1905
This paper investigates how reaching and grasping are affected by various object properties and conditions. While previous studies have examined the effect of object attributes such as size, shape, and distance from the subject, there is a need for quantitative models of finger motions. To accomplish this, the experiment was performed with six subjects where the 3D-coordinates of the finger joints and the wrist of one hand were recorded during reaching and grasping tasks. Finger joint angles at final posture were found to depend on both object size and orientation while wrist postures were changed primarily depending on object orientation. Also, each object orientation caused alteration in relative object location with respect to the hand at final posture. In addition, analysis of temporal variables revealed that it took from 1.06 to 1.30 seconds depending on the object distance to start reaching and complete grasping of the object.
Technical Paper

Combining Energy Boundary Element with Energy Finite Element Simulations for Vehicle Airborne Noise Predictions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0269
The Energy Boundary Element Analysis (EBEA) has been utilized in the past for computing the exterior acoustic field at high frequencies (above ∼400Hz) around vehicle structures and numerical results have been compared successfully to test data [1, 2 and 3]. The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been developed for computing the structural vibration of complex structures at high frequencies and validations have been presented in previous publications [4, 5]. In this paper the EBEA is utilized for computing the acoustic field around a vehicle structure due to external acoustic noise sources. The computed exterior acoustic field comprises the excitation for the EFEA analysis. Appropriate loading functions have been developed for representing the exterior acoustic loading in the EFEA simulations, and a formulation has been developed for considering the acoustic treatment applied on the interior side of structural panels.
Technical Paper

Modeling Iso-octane HCCI Using CFD with Multi-Zone Detailed Chemistry; Comparison to Detailed Speciation Data Over a Range of Lean Equivalence Ratios

2008-04-14
2008-01-0047
Multi-zone CFD simulations with detailed kinetics were used to model iso-octane HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine. The modeling goals were to validate the method (multi-zone combustion modeling) and the reaction mechanism (LLNL 857 species iso-octane) by comparing model results to detailed exhaust speciation data, which was obtained with gas chromatography. The model is compared to experiments run at 1200 RPM and 1.35 bar boost pressure over an equivalence ratio range from 0.08 to 0.28. Fuel was introduced far upstream to ensure fuel and air homogeneity prior to entering the 13.8:1 compression ratio, shallow-bowl combustion chamber of this 4-stroke engine. The CFD grid incorporated a very detailed representation of the crevices, including the top-land ring crevice and head-gasket crevice. The ring crevice is resolved all the way into the ring pocket volume. The detailed grid was required to capture regions where emission species are formed and retained.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1506
EGR coolers are mainly used on diesel engines to reduce intake charge temperature and thus reduce emissions of NOx and PM. Soot and hydrocarbon deposition in the EGR cooler reduces heat transfer efficiency of the cooler and increases emissions and pressure drop across the cooler. They may also be acidic and corrosive. Fouling has been always treated as an approximate factor in heat exchanger designs and it has not been modeled in detail. The aim of this paper is to look into fouling formation in an EGR cooler of a diesel engine. A 1-D model is developed to predict and calculate EGR cooler fouling amount and distribution across a concentric tube heat exchanger with a constant wall temperature. The model is compared to an experiment that is designed for correlation of the model. Effectiveness, mass deposition, and pressure drop are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Simulation of the Vehicle Cooling System for a Heavy Duty Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2008-10-06
2008-01-2421
The cooling system of Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles (SHEVs) is more complicated than that of conventional vehicles due to additional components and various cooling requirements of different components. In this study, a numerical model of the cooling system for a SHEV is developed to investigate the thermal responses and power consumptions of the cooling system. The model is created for a virtual heavy duty tracked SHEV. The powertrain system of the vehicle is also modeled with Vehicle-Engine SIMulation (VESIM) previously developed by the Automotive Research Center at the University of Michigan. VESIM is used for the simulation of powertrain system behaviors under three severe driving conditions and during a realistic driving cycle. The output data from VESIM are fed into the cooling system simulation to provide the operating conditions of powertrain components.
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