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Technical Paper

Comparison of Occupant Restraints Based on Injury-Producing Contact Rates

1994-11-01
942219
The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of restraints in preventing injury-producing contacts of specific body regions, such as the head or chest, with specific interior components. In order to make comparisons by restraint use, an injury rate is calculated as the number of injury-producing contacts per hundred involved occupants. Data, including the Occupant Injury Classification (OIC), are from the 1988-92 National Accident Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). The analysis presented is limited to passenger vehicle drivers in towaway, frontal impacts. Injury-producing contact rates are compared for four restraint configurations: unrestrained, three-point belted, driver airbag alone, and driver airbag plus three-point belt. For each restraint configuration, contact rates are compared by three categories of injury severity, AIS 1, AIS 2, and AIS 3-6, body region injured, and contact area producing the injury.
Technical Paper

Side Impacts to the Passenger Compartment — Clinical Studies from Field Accident Investigations

1989-02-01
890379
The side impact, recently and currently the subject to of much debate, controversy and proposed NHTSA rule making, is a difficult type of crash to significantly reduce serious injuries and fatalites. Results from real-world crash investigations presents a confusing picture for the near-side passenger compartment crash. A direct relationship between the amount of crush and injury severity levels (MAIS) is not apparent. Exemplar cases of tow-a-way/injury crashes are presented at all AIS injury level of drivers in crashes with direct driver door crush damage.
Technical Paper

A Method for Documenting Locations of Rib Fractures for Occupants in Real-World Crashes Using Medical Computed Tomography (CT) Scans

2006-04-03
2006-01-0250
A method has been developed to identify and document the locations of rib fractures from two-dimensional CT images obtained from occupants of crashes investigated in the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN). The location of each rib fracture includes the vertical location by rib number (1 through 12), the lateral location by side of the thorax (inboard and outboard), and the circumferential location by five 36-degree segments relative to the sternum and spine. The latter include anterior, anterior-lateral, lateral, posterior-lateral, and posterior regions. 3D reconstructed images of the whole ribcage created from the 2D CT images using Voxar software are used to help identify fractures and their rib number. A geometric method for consistently locating each fracture circumferentially is described.
Technical Paper

Lower Extremity Injuries in Frontal Crashes: Injuries, Locations, AIS and Contacts

1991-02-01
910811
Frontal crashes (11-1 o'clock) were reviewed from the National Accident Severity Study file (NASS) for years 1980-87. Adult drivers and front right passengers, with lower extremity injuries of the pelvis, thigh, knee, leg or ankle/foot were reviewed. Analysis of age differences, injury contacts, and effectiveness of the 3-point restraint system were studied. Unrestrained drivers have a higher frequency of knee injuries than passengers, fewer leg injuries than passengers and both have the same frequency of ankle/foot injuries. Older unbelted drivers have more injuries to the pelvis, leg, and ankle/foot region than do young drivers. Passengers have more leg injuries. The instrument panel is the major contact for most of the lower extremity injuries. Lap/shoulder belts significantly reduce lower extremity injury frequency.
Technical Paper

Rearward Vision, Driver Confidence, and Discomfort Glare Using an Electrochromic Rearview Mirror

1991-02-01
910822
Electrochromic rearview mirrors can provide continuous levels of reflectivity and unobtrusive, automatic control. The availability of this technology has increased the importance of understanding how to select the best level of reflectivity for a given set of lighting conditions. For night driving with glare from following headlights, the best reflectivity level will always depend on a tradeoff among several variables. This study was designed to help clarify what variables are important and how they should be quantified. Twenty subjects, 10 younger and 10 older, performed a number of visual tasks while viewing stimuli through an electrochromic rearview mirror. Subjects were seated in an automobile mockup in a laboratory, and the reflectivity level of the mirror was changed before each of a series of discrete trials. On each trial, subjects saw reflected in the mirror a visual-acuity stimulus and a glare source of varying intensity.
Technical Paper

Modeling Vehicle Ingress and Egress Using the Human Motion Simulation Framework

2008-06-17
2008-01-1896
The ease of getting into and out of passenger cars and light trucks is a critical component of customer acceptance and product differentiation. In commercial vehicles, the health and safety of drivers is affected by the design of the steps and handholds they use to get into and out of the cab. Ingress/egress assessment appears to represent a substantial application opportunity for digital human models. The complexity of the design space and the range of possible biomechanical and subjective measures of interest mean that developing useful empirical models is difficult, requiring large-scale subject testing with physical mockups. Yet, ingress and egress motions are complex and strongly affected by the geometric constraints and driver attributes, posing substantial challenges in creating meaningful simulations using figure models.
Technical Paper

Development of Surrogate Child Restraints for Testing Occupant Sensing and Classification Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-0843
This paper describes the design and development of a family of surrogate child restraints that are intended for use in developing and testing occupant sensing and classification systems. Detailed measurements were made of the geometry and mass distribution characteristics of 34 commercial child restraints, including infant restraints, convertibles, combination restraints, and boosters. The restraints were installed in three test seats with appropriately sized crash dummies to obtain data on seat-surface pressure patterns and the position and orientation of the restraint with belt loading. The data were used to construct two surrogates with removable components. The convertible surrogate can be used to represent a rear-facing infant restraint with or without a base, a rear-facing convertible, or a forward-facing convertible. The booster surrogate can represent a high-back belt-positioning booster, a backless booster, or a forward-facing-only restraint with a five-point harness.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Frontal Crash Protection of Pregnant Drivers Based on Anthropometric Considerations

1999-03-01
1999-01-0711
Pregnant occupants pose a particular challenge to safety engineers because of their different anthropometry and the additional “occupant within the occupant.” A detailed study of the anthropometry and seated posture of twentytwo pregnant drivers over the course of their pregnancies was conducted. Subjects were tested in an adjustable seating buck that could be configured to different vehicle package geometries with varying belt anchorage locations. Each subject was tested four times over the course of her pregnancy to examine changes in seat positioning, seated anthropometry, and positioning of the lap and shoulder belts with gestational age. Data collected include preferred seating positions of pregnant drivers, proximity of the pregnant occupant to the steering wheel and airbag module, contours of the subjects’ torsos and abdomens relative to seat-belt centerline contours, and subject perceptions of their seated posture and proximity to vehicle components.
Technical Paper

Methods for Measuring and Representing Automobile Occupant Posture

1999-03-01
1999-01-0959
Many vehicle design and safety assessment applications use physical and virtual representations of vehicle occupants within the vehicle interior. Proper use of these human models requires accurate data concerning vehicle occupant posture and position. This paper presents techniques for characterizing vehicle occupant posture by measuring accessible body landmarks. The landmark locations are used to estimate joint locations that define a kinematic linkage representation of the human body. The resulting posture analysis techniques provide a unified method of measuring and reporting vehicle occupant postures that is suitable for use with both physical and virtual human models.
Technical Paper

Computer Synthesis of Light Truck Ride Using a PC Based Simulation Program

1999-05-17
1999-01-1796
An easy-to-use computer program for ride analysis was recently developed. The result of this effort-RideSim- predicts time history responses, power spectral density (PSD) functions, and a driver oriented measure of ride comfort. RideSim employs a graphical user interface (called SGUI, for simulation graphical user interface) to control data preparation, simulation execution, animation, and data analysis. The SGUI allows the user to operate the program by pointing and clicking with a mouse, rather than by using cumbersome text commands. It also manages the vehicle dynamics parameters, the resulting simulation output, and results of post-processing analyses (i.e., PSD analysis). The vehicle dynamics model was generated with the AUTOSIM multibody dynamics program. This program uses Kane’s Method and computer algebra to create a parametric dynamics simulation that can be easily linked to the SGUI.
Technical Paper

Emulating the Behavior of Truck Drivers in the Longitudinal Control of Headway

1999-11-15
1999-01-3706
This paper describes control system and psychological concepts enabling the development of a simulation model suitable for use in emulating driver performance in situations involving the longitudinal control of the distance and headway-time to a preceding vehicle. The developed model has mathematical expressions and relationships pertaining to the driver's skill in operating the brake and accelerator (“inverse dynamics”) and the driver's perceptual and decision-making capabilities (“desired dynamics”). Simulation results for driving situations involving braking and accelerating are presented to aid in understanding the research work.
Technical Paper

New Concepts in Vehicle Interior Design Using ASPECT

1999-03-01
1999-01-0967
The ASPECT (Automotive Seat and Package Evaluation and Comparison Tools) program developed a new physical manikin for seat measurement and new techniques for integrating the seat measurements into the vehicle design process. This paper presents an overview of new concepts in vehicle interior design that have resulted from the ASPECT program and other studies of vehicle occupant posture and position conducted at UMTRI. The new methods result from an integration of revised versions of the SAE seat position and eyellipse models with the new tools developed in ASPECT. Measures of seat and vehicle interior geometry are input to statistical posture and position prediction tools that can be applied to any specified user population or individual occupant anthropometry.
Technical Paper

Automobile Occupant Posture Prediction for Use with Human Models

1999-03-01
1999-01-0966
A new method of predicting automobile occupant posture is presented. The Cascade Prediction Model approach combines multiple independent predictions of key postural degrees of freedom with inverse kinematics guided by data-based heuristics. The new model, based on posture data collected in laboratory mockups and validated using data from actual vehicles, produces accurate posture predictions for a wide range of passenger car interior geometries. Inputs to the model include vehicle package dimensions, seat characteristics, and occupant anthropometry. The Cascade Prediction Model was developed to provide accurate posture prediction for use with any human CAD model, and is applicable to many vehicle design and safety assessment applications.
Technical Paper

ASPECT: The Next-Generation H-Point Machine and Related Vehicle and Seat Design and Measurement Tools

1999-03-01
1999-01-0962
The ASPECT program was conducted to develop new Automotive Seat and Package Evaluation and Comparison Tools. This paper presents a summary of the objectives, methods, and results of the program. The primary goal of ASPECT was to create a new generation of the SAE J826 H-point machine. The new ASPECT manikin has an articulated torso linkage, revised seat contact contours, a new weighting scheme, and a simpler, more user-friendly installation procedure. The ASPECT manikin simultaneously measures the H-point location, seat cushion angle, seatback angle, and lumbar support prominence of a seat, and can be used to make measures of seat stiffness. In addition to the physical manikin, the ASPECT program developed new tools for computer-aided design (CAD) of vehicle interiors. The postures and positions of hundreds of vehicle occupants with a wide range of body size were measured in many different vehicle conditions.
Technical Paper

Improved ATD Positioning Procedures

2001-03-05
2001-01-0117
Current anthropomorphic test device (ATD) positioning procedures for drivers and front-seat passengers place the crash dummy within the vehicle by reference to the seat track. Midsize-male ATDs are placed at the center of the fore-aft seat track adjustment range, while small-female and large-male ATDs are placed at the front and rear of the seat track, respectively. Research on occupant positioning at UMTRI led to the development of a new ATD positioning procedure that places the ATDs at positions more representative of the driving positions of people who match the ATD's body dimensions. This paper presents a revised version of the UMTRI ATD positioning procedure. The changes to the procedure improve the ease and repeatability of ATD positioning while preserving the accuracy of the resulting ATD positions with respect to the driving positions of people matching the ATD anthropometry.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Driver Seatbelt Donning Behavior

2002-03-04
2002-01-0783
Improvements in the accessibility and ease of use of seatbelts require an understanding of driver belt donning behavior. Participants in a study of driving posture were videotaped as they put on their belts in their own vehicles, either an SUV or a midsize sedan. The participants were unaware that the purpose of the videotaping was related to the seatbelt. Videos from 95 men and women were analyzed to identify several categories of belt-donning behavior and to analyze the influence of body dimensions. The results have applicability to seatbelt system design, including the use of human figure models to assess seatbelt accessibility.
Technical Paper

Human Subject Testing in Support of ASPECT

1999-03-01
1999-01-0960
The ASPECT program, conducted to develop new Automotive Seat and Package Evaluation and Comparison Tools, used posture and position data from hundreds of vehicle occupants to develop a new physical manikin and related tools. Analysis of the relationships between anthropometric measures established the criteria for subject selection. The study goals and the characteristics of the data collected determined the sampling approach and number of subjects tested in each study. Testing was conducted in both vehicle and laboratory vehicle mockups. This paper describes the subject sampling strategies, anthropometric issues, and general data collection methods used for the program's eight posture studies.
Technical Paper

Investigating Driver Headroom Perception: Methods and Models

1999-03-01
1999-01-0893
Recent changes in impact protection requirements have led to increased padding on vehicle interior surfaces. In the areas near the driver's head, thicker padding can reduce the available headspace and may degrade the driver's perception of headroom. A laboratory study of driver headroom perception was conducted to investigate the effects of physical headroom on the subjective evaluation of headroom. Ninety-nine men and women rated a range of headroom conditions in a reconfigurable vehicle mockup. Unexpectedly, driver stature was not closely related to the perception of headroom. Short-statured drivers were as likely as tall drivers to rate a low roof condition as unacceptable. Statistical models were developed from the data to predict the effects of changes in headroom on the percentage of drivers rating the head-room at a specified criterion level.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Driver Eye Position Model

1998-02-23
980012
SAE Recommended Practice J941 describes the eyellipse, a statistical representation of driver eye locations, that is used to facilitate design decisions regarding vehicle interiors, including the display locations, mirror placement, and headspace requirements. Eye-position data collected recently at University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) suggest that the SAE J941 practice could be improved. SAE J941 currently uses the SgRP location, seat-track travel (L23), and design seatback angle (L40) as inputs to the eyellipse model. However, UMTRI data show that the characteristics of empirical eyellipses can be predicted more accurately using seat height, steering-wheel position, and seat-track rise. A series of UMTRI studies collected eye-location data from groups of 50 to 120 drivers with statures spanning over 97 percent of the U.S. population. Data were collected in thirty-three vehicles that represent a wide range of vehicle geometry.
Technical Paper

Factors Associated With Abdominal Injury in Frontal, Farside, and Nearside Crashes

2010-11-03
2010-22-0005
The NASS-CDS (1998-2008) and CIREN datasets were analyzed to identify factors contributing to abdominal injury in crash environments where belt use and airbag deployment are common. In frontal impacts, the percentage of occupants sustaining abdominal injury is three times higher for unbelted compared to belted front-row adult occupants (p≺0.0001) at both AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury levels. Airbag deployment does not substantially affect the percentage of occupants who sustain abdominal injuries in frontal impacts (p=0.6171), while belt use reduces the percentage of occupants sustaining abdominal injury in both nearside and farside crashes (p≺0.0001). Right-front passengers in right-side impacts have the highest risk (1.91%) of AIS 3+ abdominal injury (p=0.03). The percentage of occupants with AIS 3+ abdominal injuries does not vary with age for frontal, nearside, or farside impacts.
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